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  1. 1. CONCEPT:INDUSTRIAL RELATIONIndustrial relations has become one of the mostdelicate and complex problems of modernindustrial society. Industrial progress isimpossible without cooperation of labors andharmonious relationships. Therefore, it is in theinterest of all to create and maintain goodrelations between employees (labor) andemployers (management).Concept of Industrial Relations:The term „Industrial Relations‟ comprises of twoterms: „Industry‟ and „Relations‟. “Industry”refers to “any productive activity in which anindividual (or a group of individuals) is (are)engaged”. By “relations” we mean “therelationships that exist within the industrybetween the employer and his workmen.”The term industrial relations explains therelationship between employees andmanagement which stem directly or indirectlyfrom union-employer relationship.Industrial relations are the relationshipsbetween employees and employers within theorganizational settings. The field of industrialrelations looks at the relationship betweenmanagement and workers, particularly groups ofworkers represented by a union. Industrialrelations are basically the interactions betweenemployers, employees and the government, andthe institutions and associations through which
  2. 2. such interactions are mediated.The term industrial relations has a broad as wellas a narrow outlook. Originally, industrialrelations was broadly defined to include therelationships and interactions betweenemployers and employees. From this perspective,industrial relations covers all aspects of theemployment relationship, including humanresource management, employee relations, andunion-management (or labor) relations. Now itsmeaning has become more specific andrestricted. Accordingly, industrial relationspertains to the study and practice of collectivebargaining, trade unionism, and labor-management relations, while human resourcemanagement is a separate, largely distinct fieldthat deals with nonunion employmentrelationships and the personnel practices andpolicies of employers.The relationships which arise at and out of theworkplace generally include the relationshipsbetween individual workers, the relationshipsbetween workers and their employer, therelationships between employers, therelationships employers and workers have withthe organizations formed to promote theirrespective interests, and the relations betweenthose organizations, at all levels. industrialrelations also includes the processes throughwhich these relationships are expressed (suchas, collective bargaining, workers‟ participation
  3. 3. in decision-making, and grievance and dispute settlement), and the management of conflict between employers, workers and trade unions, when it arises.Industrial Relations TodayBy many accounts, industrial relations today isin crisis.[8] In academia, its traditionalpositions are threatened on one side by thedominance of mainstream economics andorganizational behavior, and on the other bypostmodernism. In policy-making circles, theindustrial relations emphasis on institutionalintervention is trumped by a neoliberalemphasis on the laissez faire promotion of freemarkets. In practice, labor unions are decliningand fewer companies have industrial relationsfunctions. The number of academic programsin industrial relations is therefore shrinking,and scholars are leaving the field for otherareas, especially human resource managementand organizational behavior. The importance ofwork, however, is stronger than ever, and thelessons of industrial relations remain vital. Thechallenge for industrial relations is to re-
  4. 4. establish these connections with the broaderacademic, policy, and business world