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Fungi Project[1]


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Fungi Project[1]

  1. 1. By Samuel Ogbe And Laurin Hunter Ch. 18 FUNGUS
  2. 2. What is a Fungus?
  3. 3. What is a Fungus? <ul><li>Fungi are heterotrophic and eukaryotic. </li></ul><ul><li>They are part of The Kingdom Fungi. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saprophyte = Decomposer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orange Peel </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fungus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  4. 4. Luminous fungi: bioluminescent mushroom <ul><li> </li></ul>
  5. 5. What's the structure of a fungus?
  6. 6. Fungus structure p.402-04 <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Hyphae: tiny threads of cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane and covered by a cell wall. </li></ul><ul><li>Most fungi build their cell wall out of Chitin, a strong flexible polysaccharide that is found in external skeletons of insects. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Fungus structure <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Mycelium: an interwoven mat of hyphae under the ground. </li></ul><ul><li>Spore: haploid single cells with thick cell walls that are dispersed as a mean of reproduction. Usually spread by wind, water, or animal contact. </li></ul><ul><li>Septa: crosswalls that divide hyphae </li></ul>
  8. 8. What's the Difference Between Fungi and Plants?
  9. 9. Difference Between Fungi and Plants Fungi Plants <ul><li>Cell walls made out of Chitin </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi have septa </li></ul><ul><li>Does not have chlorophyll which makes it a heterotroph. </li></ul><ul><li>Cell walls made out of Cellulose </li></ul><ul><li>Plants have cell wall and cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Has chlorophyll which make it an autotroph. </li></ul>
  10. 10. What are the Three Main Groups in Fungi?
  11. 11. Three Main Groups 1.Basidiomycetes 2. Ascomycetes 3. Zygomycota
  12. 12. Zygomycota(Zygote Fungi) p.405 <ul><li>Mostly terrestrial and live in soil or on decaying plant and animal material. </li></ul><ul><li>When food is available it reproduces asexually through sporangia. </li></ul><ul><li>When there is no food supply it reproduces sexually. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Zygomycota(Zygote Fungi) <ul><li>“ Parents” are identical looking but genetically different mycelia. </li></ul><ul><li>The mycelia come together and form a zygosporangium. </li></ul><ul><li>The zygosporangium than goes through meiosis to produce spores that will grow into new hyphae. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Zygomycota:Common mold Rhizopus <ul><li> </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ascomycetes(Sac Fungi)p.406 <ul><li>Mostly live in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats. </li></ul><ul><li>This fungus gets name from a specialized reproductive structure called an ascus which have spore cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Just like Zygomycota fungus, it reproduces in the same conditions. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ascomycetes(Sac Fungi) <ul><li>When the two genetically different mycelia come together, they produce dikaryotic hyphae. </li></ul><ul><li>The dikaryotic hyphae grow into an aboveground reproductive structure called a fruiting body. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Ascomycetes: A moral <ul><li> </li></ul>
  18. 18. Basidiomycetes(Club Fungi)p.407 <ul><li>Most familiar fungi to us in the form of mushrooms, puffballs, and rust. </li></ul><ul><li>Named for club-shaped, spore-producing structure called a basidium. </li></ul><ul><li>Many basidiomycetes play a key role in the environment by decomposing . </li></ul>
  19. 19. Basidiomycetes(Club Fungi) <ul><li>Spores are formed by sexual reproduction since asexual reproduction is less common </li></ul><ul><li>Spores are dropped from the of a mushroom called the “gills” </li></ul><ul><li>Spores travel by wind or contact with animals then drop and germinate when conditions are favorable. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Basidiomycetes <ul><li> </li></ul>
  21. 21. What types of Fungi are useful to us?
  22. 22. Yeast p.408 <ul><li>Single-celled fungi. </li></ul><ul><li>Live in liquid or moist habitats. </li></ul><ul><li>Some yeast can reproduce sexually and some asexually. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Yeast <ul><li>Yeast and other fungi with no known sexual stage of reproduction are put in an informal category called the imperfect fungi. </li></ul><ul><li>Yeast is used by baker to raise dough and it is also used to ferment alcoholic drinks for thousands of years. </li></ul><ul><li>Bread dough rises when yeast cells release carbon dioxide. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Yeast: Yeast buds <ul><li> </li></ul>
  25. 25. Molds p.408 <ul><li>A fungus that grows rapidly on a surface is considered a mold. </li></ul><ul><li>This usually involves asexual reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Some molds are placed as an imperfect fungi but many molds are placed as a basidiomycete, ascomycete, and a zygomycota fungi. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Molds <ul><li>Penicillium is a common mold that grows on fruit. </li></ul><ul><li>Penicilluim is the source of the antibiotic penicillin. </li></ul><ul><li>This fungus prevents bacteria from growing near it which benefits us when used for medical purposes. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Molds: Penicillium <ul><li> </li></ul>
  28. 28. Bibliography <ul><li>&quot;WordNet Search - 3.0.&quot; 13 May 2009 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Lillard, Susan. &quot; Differences Between Fungi And PlantsThe BEST.&quot; The BEST toxic mold site on the web...the truth; . 08 May 2009 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Kleijn, H. Mushrooms and other fungi; their form and colour . 1st american ed. Garden City: Doubleday, 1962. p#5-12 </li></ul><ul><li>Ammirati, Joe F. &quot;Fungi.&quot; World Book . 2006th ed. 2006. 559-60. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Fungi.&quot; Hand specialist Hand Surgery David Nelson San Francisco Marin . 18 June 2004. 14 May 2009 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Biology Exploring Life . Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006.p#402-408. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  29. 29. The End <ul><li>Remember to…………………. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>