Leadership sameh mousa


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  • Moral authority : Nelson Mandela, for example, has dignity, integrity , charm
  • Beliefs عقيدة – مذهب / attributes صفة
  • Peter Drucker :" رائد علم الإدارة ، أبو الإدارة الحديثة ، مؤسس علم الإدارة ” القيادة يجب أن تتعلمها وباستطاعتك ذلك ". warren Bennis " لا تستطيع تعلم القيادة، القيادة شخصية وحكمة وهما شيئان لا يمكنك تعليمهما "
  • exemplify يمثل
  • Promotes
  • Rational Visionary Passionate Consulting Persistent
  • MANAGERS : Focus on tactical activities and often times have a more directive and controlling approach. Essence فى الحقيقة
  • exhibit يبدى – يعرض / tirelessly متواصل لايتعب / persistent / Drive يقود – يدفع شخص للأمام / initiative مبادر
  • deed
  • أقنع convince
  • Synthesize يؤلف – يركب / interpret يفسر – يترجم
  • implications
  • Assertive جازم
  • Stamina مقدرة على التحمل و المقاومة / Mobility متنقل / Conscientiousness ذو ضمير حى / pursuit مطاردة
  • Coercive
  • Knit يربط يعقد
  • Knit يربط يعقد / alienation يبعد – ينفر
  • mutual متبادل
  • mutual متبادل
  • mutual متبادل
  • mutual متبادل
  • Picks يلتقط
  • Argues يناقش / contingent مرتبط ب / relinquish يتخلى - يقلع عن
  • Argues يناقش / contingent مرتبط ب / relinquish يتخلى - يقلع عن
  • Collaborating تعاون
  • Determine the individual’s developmental level
  • High Task Orientation + Low People Orientation For those who are learning a new skills , be directive . Low skills highly motivated
  • High Task Orientation + Low People Orientation For those who are learning a new skills, be directive . Low skills & highly motivated
  • High Task Orientation + High People Orientation For those who are learning skills, but are still gaining Low Skills & Low Motivation experience, provide coaching .
  • High Task Orientation + High People Orientation For those who are learning skills, but are still gaining Low Skills & Low Motivation experience, provide coaching .
  • Low Task Orientation + High People Orientation For those who may be highly competent, but who may lack High Skills & Low Motivation self-confidence, offer support and encouragement.
  • Low Task Orientation + High People Orientation For those who may be highly competent, but who may lack High Skills & Low Motivation self-confidence, offer support and encouragement.
  • Low Task Orientation + Low People Orientation With highly motivated and experienced employees, you delegate tasks. High Skills & High Motivation
  • Low Task Orientation + Low People Orientation High Skills & High Motivation
  • Low Task Orientation + Low People Orientation High Skills & High Motivation
  • paternalistic أبوى / kindness لطيف / generosity كرم - سخاء / humble متواضع - ذليل / embarrass / compassion عطف رحمة / autonomy
  • ‘ Motivation’ comes from the Latin verb for ‘to move’. Ability + motivation = performance
  • Laziness
  • Trends نزعة – إتجاة / invest يستثمر / extract يستخلص / hazards مجازفة
  • Exhibit 11.14 (page 400 of the text) has been animated to permit focused discussion of the points raised in this section. The first mouse click will begin discussion of the assessment phase. Additional clicks permit analysis of self, followers, and situation. Finally the “act” phase is illuminated and then the reassessment and change (follow-up) is highlighted. This is an excellent place for students to actually create a self-improvement plan and animated discussion should be encouraged.
  • Leadership sameh mousa

    1. 2. : Prepared by Dr.Sameh Mousa Supervisor for Port said area Dr.Ashraf M.Ali area manager
    2. 7. Management Major Functions
    3. 8. What is Leadership
    4. 9. Leadership <ul><li>The Way to Influence Others </li></ul><ul><li>one's ability to get others to willingly follow </li></ul><ul><li>Does not mean yelling at your followers to accomplish certain task . </li></ul><ul><li>Power versus influences : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power : is using your authority to make what you even if your subordinates do not want to do it . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence : is using your persuasion to get what you want because your subordinates want to do it . </li></ul></ul>
    5. 10. Leadership <ul><li>You cannot be a leader without a group of people following your direction and putting their trust in you. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership attributes, such as beliefs, values, ethics, character, knowledge and skills. </li></ul>
    6. 11. <ul><li>Nobody Can Teach You Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>You Learn Principally From Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Effective leadership is based on results, not effort. </li></ul><ul><li>The title &quot;Boss&quot; or &quot;Manager&quot; does not automatically make you a leader </li></ul><ul><li>Authority alone may not produce the best results. </li></ul>
    7. 12. “ Are Leaders Born ? or Are They Made?” “ Leaders can be made”
    8. 13. <ul><li>There are some qualities </li></ul><ul><li>that you have to have. </li></ul><ul><li>you should possess, exemplify and perhaps even personify the qualities expected or required in your working group. </li></ul>
    9. 14. <ul><li>The first differences between leaders and managers: the latter can be appointed over others in a hierarchy regardless of whether or not they have the required qualities. </li></ul>
    10. 15. Leaders Vs. Managers <ul><li>“ Producing change is about 80 percent leadership...and about 20 percent management....” </li></ul>“ John Paul Kotter professor at Harvard business School ”
    11. 16. Leadership versus Management Management Promotes stability, order and problem solving within existing organizational structure and systems Leadership Promotes vision, creativity, and change 0
    12. 17. Leader versus Manager Qualities Manager Qualities Leader Qualities Source: Genevieve Capowski, “Anatomy of a Leader: Where Are the Leaders of Tomorrow?” Management Review, March 1994, 12 Visionary Creative Inspiring Innovative Courageous Imaginative Experimental Initiates change Personal power Rational Persistent Tough-minded Analytical Structured Deliberate Authoritative Stabilizing Position power 0
    13. 18. Leadership versus Management <ul><li>An important concept to understand is the difference between: </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership–the art of influencing and directing people to accomplish the mission. </li></ul><ul><li>Management–supervising the use of resources to achieve team objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>In essence, you lead people, and manage things. </li></ul>
    14. 19. <ul><li>Trait Theories (1920s-30s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research focused on identifying personal characteristics that differentiated leaders from nonleaders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later research on the leadership process identified seven traits associated with successful leadership: </li></ul></ul>
    15. 20. Seven Traits Associated with Leadership <ul><li>Drive </li></ul><ul><li>Desire to lead </li></ul><ul><li>Honesty and integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Self confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Job- relevant Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Extraversion </li></ul>
    16. 21. Seven Traits Associated with Leadership <ul><li>Drive : </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders exhibit high effort level , </li></ul><ul><li>they have relatively high desire for </li></ul><ul><li>achievement </li></ul><ul><li>they have a lot of energy , </li></ul><ul><li>they are tirelessly persistent in their </li></ul><ul><li>activities , they show initiative . </li></ul>
    17. 22. Seven Traits Associated with Leadership <ul><li>2) Desire to lead : leaders have a strong desire to influence & lead others they demonstrate the willingness to take the responsibility </li></ul>
    18. 23. Seven Traits Associated with Leadership <ul><li>3) Honesty and integrity : Leaders build trusting relationships Between themselves and followers by being truthful or non deceitful and by showing a high consistency between word and deed </li></ul>
    19. 24. Seven Traits Associated with Leadership <ul><li>4) Self confidence : followers look to leaders for an absence of self doubt , leaders therefore need to show self confidence in order to convince followers of the rightness of their goals and decisions </li></ul>
    20. 25. Seven Traits Associated with Leadership <ul><li>5) Intelligence : Leaders need to be intelligent enough to gather , synthesize and interpret large amount of information and they need to create vision , solve problems and make correct decisions </li></ul>
    21. 26. Seven Traits Associated with Leadership <ul><li>6) Job- relevant Knowledge : </li></ul><ul><li>in-depth knowledge allows leaders to make well informed decisions and understand the implications of those decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge creates confidence in others. </li></ul>Source: S. A. Kirkpatrick and E. A. Locke, “ Leadership: Do Traits Really Matter? ” Academy of Management Executive, May 1991, pp. 48 – 60; T. A. Judge, J. E. Bono, R. llies, and M. W. Gerhardt, “ Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review, ” Journal of Applied Psychology, August 2002, pp. 765 – 780.
    22. 27. Seven Traits Associated with Leadership <ul><li>7 ) Extraversion : Leaders are energetic , lively people ,they are sociable, assertive and rarely silent or withdrawn </li></ul>Source: S. A. Kirkpatrick and E. A. Locke, “ Leadership: Do Traits Really Matter? ” Academy of Management Executive, May 1991, pp. 48 – 60; T. A. Judge, J. E. Bono, R. llies, and M. W. Gerhardt, “ Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review, ” Journal of Applied Psychology, August 2002, pp. 765 – 780.
    23. 28. Personal Characteristics of Leaders Physical Characteristics Energy Physical stamina Social Background Education Intelligence and Ability Judgment, decisiveness Knowledge Intelligence , ability Personality Self-confidence Honesty & integrity Enthusiasm Desire to lead Independence Work-related Characteristics Achievement drive Conscientiousness in pursuit of goals Persistence against obstacles, tenacity Social Characteristics Sociability, interpersonal skills Cooperativeness Tact, diplomacy Source: Adapted from Bernard M. Bass, Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership, rev. Ed. (New York: Free Press, 1981), 75-76. This adaptation appeared in R. Albanese and D. D. Van Fleet, Organizational Behavior: A managerial Viewpoint (Hinsdale, III.: The Dryden Press, 1983). 0
    24. 29. <ul><ul><li>Autocratic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laissez- Faire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which style of leadership is better? </li></ul><ul><li>Each one has a purpose, </li></ul><ul><li>it is necessary to use the one </li></ul><ul><li>that will suit the situation. </li></ul>Behavioral Theories of Leadership
    25. 30. Adapting Your Leadership Style <ul><li>“ Do what I say” Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone else </li></ul><ul><li>The leader has the primary responsibility to make decisions, to determine policies and to develop procedures. </li></ul>1- Coercive or Authoritarian or Autocratic
    26. 31. Adapting Your Leadership Style <ul><li>High degree of dependency on the leader </li></ul><ul><li>The leader uses position as the leadership basis. </li></ul>1- Coercive or Authoritarian or Autocratic
    27. 32. 1- Coercive or Authoritarian or Autocratic <ul><li>May be valuable where decisions need to be made quickly and decisively in a crisis, and with problem employees. </li></ul><ul><li>It is useful when subordinates are new on job and have no prior experience in decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>Gets the job done quickly </li></ul>
    28. 33. 1- Coercive or Authoritarian or Autocratic <ul><li>Can create de-motivation and alienation of the staff </li></ul><ul><li>Unconcerned about relationships with subordinates, </li></ul><ul><li>This won’t build a close-knit group. </li></ul><ul><li>Followers can’t act independently </li></ul><ul><li>without leader </li></ul>
    29. 34. <ul><ul><li>Encourage participation ( decision making) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be seen as unsure of himself . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developing trust and mutual respect are part of this concept. </li></ul>2- Participative or Democratic
    30. 35. <ul><li>Active participation by employees raises morale and satisfaction help motivation and involvement . </li></ul><ul><li>Group is more willing to work together to get the job done . </li></ul><ul><li>Improves the sharing of ideas and experiences within the business </li></ul>2- Participative or Democratic
    31. 36. <ul><li>Employees develop a greater sense of self esteem due to importance given to their opinions. </li></ul><ul><li>Leader trains group in decision-making. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep producing when the leader is not present </li></ul>2- Participative or Democratic
    32. 37. <ul><li>Can delay decision making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not suitable in crisis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some employees may feel dis-satisfied if their ideas are not taken. </li></ul>2- Participative or Democratic
    33. 38. 3- Delegative or Free Reign or Laissez- Faire <ul><li>With this style the leader: </li></ul><ul><li>The leadership for decisions comes from within the group. </li></ul><ul><li>The leader provides guidance, information and assistance when needed . </li></ul><ul><li>The leader may be the person who assumes control of the group. </li></ul>
    34. 39. <ul><ul><li>Good for highly motivated skilled team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be very useful in businesses where creative ideas are important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be highly motivational, as people have control over their working life . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relies on good team work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relies on good interpersonal relations </li></ul></ul>3- Delegative or Free Reign or Laissez- Faire
    35. 40. Factors Affecting Style <ul><li>Leadership style may be dependent on various factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk - decision making and change initiatives based on degree of risk involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of business – creative business or supply driven? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of the task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Needing cooperation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Direction? </li></ul></ul>
    36. 41. Range Of Leadership Styles Amount of Leader Authority Amount of group Freedom Autocratic Democratic Telling Selling Testing Consulting Joining
    37. 42. The leader keeps all authority and gives the group little freedom. The leader decides, and the group follows.
    38. 43. The leader makes the decision, then persuades the group that this decision is the “best” for the group.
    39. 44. The leader states the problem, picks a possible solution, and lets the group react to this solution. Possibly accepting suggestions, the leader makes a final decision and informs the group.
    40. 45. The leader presents the problem and asks for ideas from the group members. The group recommends solutions; the leader selects one, and informs the group.
    41. 46. The group decides and the leader follows. Here the leader is just another member of the group and agrees to carry out the group’s decision.
    42. 47. <ul><li>Hersey and Blanchard ’ s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Argues that successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style which is contingent on the level of the followers ’ readiness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Readiness: the extent to which followers have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. </li></ul></ul></ul>Situational Theories of Leadership
    43. 48. <ul><li>Hersey and Blanchard ’ s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders must relinquish control over and contact with followers as they become more competent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation Toward Task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation Toward people </li></ul></ul>Situational Theories of Leadership
    44. 49. Orientation Toward Task <ul><li>Task behavior focuses on the practical aspects of the job or mission. These behaviors include directing team members on: </li></ul><ul><li>What to do </li></ul><ul><li>How to do it </li></ul><ul><li>When to do it </li></ul><ul><li>The leader’s involvement in defining the duties and responsibilities of an individual or a group Task </li></ul>
    45. 50. <ul><li>Leader focuses on interaction with his people and uses this to complete the task.. </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation toward people is relationship behavior. This includes, listening, praising, collaborating, and counseling. </li></ul>Orientation Toward people
    46. 51. Hersey and Blanchard ’ s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) Task Orientation People Orientation Skills Motivation Low High Low High
    47. 55. s
    48. 61. <ul><li>Successful leaders adapt their leadership style to meet the mission demands and to reflect the abilities and experience of their people, </li></ul><ul><li>Your leadership style must correspond to your team members’ knowledge, abilities, and skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Good leaders also take into account their own individual strengths and weaknesses. </li></ul>
    49. 62. Selected Cross-Cultural Leadership Findings <ul><li>Korean leaders are expected to be paternalistic toward employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Arab leaders who show kindness or generosity without being asked to do so are seen by other Arabs as weak. </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese leaders are expected to be humble and speak frequently. </li></ul><ul><li>Scandinavian and Dutch leaders who single out individuals with public praise are likely to embarrass, not energize, those individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective leaders in Malaysia are expected to show compassion while using more of an autocratic than a participative style. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective German leaders are characterized by high performance orientation, low compassion, low team orientation, high autonomy, and high participation. </li></ul>Source: Based on J. C. Kennedy, “ Leadership in Malaysia: Traditional Values, International Outlook, ” Academy of Management Executive, August 2002, pp. 15 – 17; F.C. Brodbeck, M. Frese, and M. Javidan, “ Leadership Made in Germany: Low on Compassion, High on Performance, ” Academy of Management Executive, February 2002, pp. 16 – 29; M. F. Peterson and J. G. Hunt, “ International Perspectives on International Leadership, ” Leadership Quarterly, Fall 1997, pp. 203 – 31; R. J. House and R. N. Aditya, “ The Social Scientific Study of Leadership: Quo Vadis? ” Journal of Management, vol. 23, no. 3, (1997), p. 463; and R. J. House, “ Leadership in the Twenty-First Century, ” in A. Howard (ed.), The Changing Nature of Work (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995), p. 442.
    50. 63. Leadership depends on three elements
    51. 64. Three needs <ul><li>These three needs are the watchwords of leadership and people expect their leaders to </li></ul><ul><li>Help them achieve the common task </li></ul><ul><li>Build the synergy of the teamwork </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to individuals and meet their needs . </li></ul>
    52. 65. leadership functions Defining the task Planning Briefing Controlling Evaluating Motivating Organizing Providing an example The Role
    53. 66. Defining The Task <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>clear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>concrete </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>time-limited </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>realistic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>challenging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>capable of evaluation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>By the last point I mean that there is a simple ‘success criterion’ that will enable you – and the team – to know that the objective has been achieved. </li></ul>
    54. 67. Planning <ul><li>Planning requires that the </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What…. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why….. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>when…. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How…… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where…. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who…… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>questions are answered.. </li></ul><ul><li>The Basic Features Of </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity </li></ul><ul><li>Rationality </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul>
    55. 68. Briefing <ul><li>Briefing is the function of communicating objectives and plans to the team. </li></ul><ul><li>Briefing, in fact, is part of a much larger communication skill: effective speaking. </li></ul><ul><li>Here are some guidelines: </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared. </li></ul><ul><li>Be clear </li></ul><ul><li>Be simple. </li></ul><ul><li>Be vivid. </li></ul><ul><li>Be natural. </li></ul>
    56. 69. Controlling <ul><li>Regulating organizational activities so that actual performance conforms to organizational standards and goals </li></ul><ul><li>Success at directing, regulating, restraining or encouraging individual and team efforts on the task (and in meetings) is the criterion for testing a leader’s effectiveness as a ‘controller’. </li></ul>
    57. 70. Evaluating <ul><li>people need to know where they are in relation to the end result they are aiming at. </li></ul><ul><li>Here are some of the criteria or hallmarks of an excellent, high-performance team: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear realistic objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmosphere of openness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best use of resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handles failure </li></ul></ul>
    58. 71. Motivating <ul><li>More recent thought suggests that we motivate ourselves by responding to inner needs. As a leader you must understand these needs in individuals and how they operate, so that you can work with the grain of human nature and not against it. </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow’s concept of </li></ul><ul><li>a hierarchy of needs </li></ul>
    59. 72. Providing an example <ul><li>‘ A manager will take six months to get to know his staff,’, ‘but they will take only six days to get to know him. </li></ul>Organizing <ul><li>Allocating and arranging resources </li></ul><ul><li>It can mean systematic planning </li></ul>
    60. 74. Types of Injustice <ul><li>Laziness </li></ul><ul><li>Inaccuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Personal benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Determination </li></ul>
    61. 75. Requirements of Justice <ul><li>Competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Equality </li></ul><ul><li>Proper selection of subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Courage </li></ul><ul><li>Massive effort </li></ul>
    62. 77. Above all, Leadership is about :
    63. 78. VISION <ul><li>One definition of Leading is </li></ul><ul><li>“ influencing a group of people to move towards the organizational objectives.” </li></ul><ul><li>In order to do this, the leader should possess the ability to identify the best road , detect the obstacles and finally recognize the capabilities of his followers. </li></ul><ul><li>By achieving this; the leader acquires the vision. </li></ul>
    64. 79. Components of vision <ul><li>Acquiring the vision </li></ul><ul><li>Transferring the vision </li></ul><ul><li>Supply by proofs </li></ul>
    65. 80. Acquiring the vision <ul><li>The leader must continuously analyze the past and current situations and monitor the changes occurring trying to extract the trends. </li></ul><ul><li>During this analysis, the leader can define the areas of strengths and weaknesses and how far it will affect his team. </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of this step, the leader will predict the future results including to invest in strong points and avoid the hazards of the weaknesses. </li></ul>
    66. 81. Acquiring the vision by : <ul><li>Detect areas of development </li></ul><ul><li>Discover opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the required effort </li></ul>
    67. 82. Transferring the vision <ul><li>This acquired vision should be communicated for the subordinates. </li></ul><ul><li>This transfer helps the subordinates anticipate the future challenges and the amount of effort required to reach this end results. </li></ul>
    68. 83. Transfer of vision will have the following benefits: <ul><li>Direct the efforts of the subordinate towards a unified goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish the importance of each task performed by each task performed by each subordinate. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing the responsibility with the subordinates. </li></ul><ul><li>Build the ownership attitude towards the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy the success. </li></ul><ul><li>Guarantee continuity even in absence of the </li></ul><ul><li>leader. </li></ul>
    69. 84. Supply with proofs <ul><li>During the journey, the leader should supply the subordinates by proofs which documents that his vision is true. </li></ul><ul><li>He should take every chance to remind the subordinates by his original vision and what is achieved so far matching with this vision. </li></ul>
    70. 85. Supply with proofs <ul><li>Performing this step will achieve the following advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep the subordinates on track and protect against deviations. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Build up the trust relationship. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance confidence and enthusiasm. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Achieve a total cooperation with the subordinates in any future projects. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    71. 86. Improving Your Own Leadership Capabilities Set direction Set performance expectations Set an example Clarify and build paths Cheer on/ appreciate Reassess and Change ACT ASSESS Strengths Weaknesses Skills Expectations Motivations Constraints Opportunities Adapted from Exhibit 11.14: Improving Your Leadership Capabilities Self Followers Situation