Animals Basic Taxonomy


Published on

To introduce animal groups to high school and middle school students.

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Animals Basic Taxonomy

  1. 1. The Animal KingdomKingdom AnimaliaKingdom Animalia
  2. 2. Characteristics of AnimalsHeterotrophyHeterotrophy– Animals cannot produce their own foodAnimals cannot produce their own foodMobilityMobility– They move: swim, crawl, walk, run,They move: swim, crawl, walk, run,even flyeven flyMulticellularityMulticellularity– Some are microscopic…but they allSome are microscopic…but they allhave more than one cellhave more than one cellDiploidyDiploidy– They have two sets ofThey have two sets of– chromosomes (there are a fewchromosomes (there are a fewexceptions)exceptions)
  3. 3. More Characteristics ofAnimalsSexual ReproductionSexual Reproduction– Although some can reproduce asexually…mostAlthough some can reproduce asexually…mostreproduce sexuallyreproduce sexuallyAbsence of a Cell WallAbsence of a Cell Wall– The only multicellular organism with no cell wallThe only multicellular organism with no cell wallBlastula FormationBlastula Formation– Form a hollow ball of cells called a blastula duringForm a hollow ball of cells called a blastula duringembryotic developmentembryotic developmentTissuesTissues– All animals except sponges have cells that areAll animals except sponges have cells that areorganized into tissuesorganized into tissues
  4. 4. Body SymmetryRadial SymmetryRadial Symmetry– Arranged around a central axisArranged around a central axisBilateral SymmetryBilateral Symmetry– Mirror imagesMirror images
  5. 5. Advances in AnimalBody DesignCoelom - an internal bodyCoelom - an internal bodycavitycavity– A place to put “stuff” like theA place to put “stuff” like theinternal organsinternal organsSegmentationSegmentation– Repeating similar unitsRepeating similar units• Segments of an earthwormSegments of an earthworm• A “six pack” abdomenA “six pack” abdomen
  6. 6. Invertebrates vs. VertebratesInvertebrates lack a spine orInvertebrates lack a spine orbackbonebackbone– Examples: sponges, worms, insects,Examples: sponges, worms, insects,starfish, and crabsstarfish, and crabsVertebrates have a spine orVertebrates have a spine orbackbone that protect a spinal cordbackbone that protect a spinal cord– Examples: fish, amphibians, reptiles,Examples: fish, amphibians, reptiles,birds and mammalsbirds and mammals
  7. 7. Simple AnimalsSponges, Cnidarians,Sponges, Cnidarians,Flatworms, and RoundwormsFlatworms, and Roundworms
  8. 8. SpongesPhylum PoriferaThe simplest animalsThe simplest animalsContains a “skeleton” of spicules madeContains a “skeleton” of spicules madeof silica or calcium carbonateof silica or calcium carbonateCan reproduce asexually or sexuallyCan reproduce asexually or sexuallyBeware of your wandering eye,you little poriferan.-Gary, SpongeBob Squarepants
  9. 9. Elephant Ear SpongeBasket, Tub, or Barrel SpongeYellow Tube SpongesPorifera
  10. 10. CnidariansHave two formsHave two forms– Medusa (mobile) and a polyp (attached)Medusa (mobile) and a polyp (attached)Form tissuesForm tissuesExamples:Examples:– Hydrozoans (hydra)Hydrozoans (hydra)– Scyphozoans (jellyfish and boxjellies)Scyphozoans (jellyfish and boxjellies)– Anthozoans (sea anemones and corals)Anthozoans (sea anemones and corals)polypmedusa
  11. 11. Hydra-HydrozoanJellyfish-ScyphozoanSea anemone-Anthozoan
  12. 12. Hydra-HydrozoanBoxjelly-ScyphozoanCoral-Anthozoan
  13. 13. Platyhelminthes and NematodesOR Flatworms and RoundwormsAdvance: bilateral symmetry allows forAdvance: bilateral symmetry allows forcephalization (has a “head”)cephalization (has a “head”)Flatworms can be parasitic or free-livingFlatworms can be parasitic or free-living– Many free-living are marine…a few freshwaterMany free-living are marine…a few freshwater– Parasitic include tapeworms and trematoadsParasitic include tapeworms and trematoadsRoundworms have a pseudocoelom (a partialRoundworms have a pseudocoelom (a partialbody cavity)body cavity)– Parasitize plants and animalsParasitize plants and animals– Common “worm” infection in dogs (and humansCommon “worm” infection in dogs (and humanstoo!)too!)
  14. 14. Freshwater flatwormMarine flatwormsroundworms
  15. 15. Mollusks and AnnelidsSnails, Squid, Clams, MarineSnails, Squid, Clams, Marineworms and Earthwormsworms and Earthworms
  16. 16. MollusksHave a true coelomHave a true coelomMost exhibit bilateral symmetryMost exhibit bilateral symmetryHave organ systemsHave organ systemsMany have a shellMany have a shellTypes (Classes):Types (Classes):– GastropodsGastropods– BivalvesBivalves– CephalopodsCephalopods
  17. 17. Gastropods (stomach foot)Snails and slugsSnails and slugs– Marine, freshwater, and terrestrialMarine, freshwater, and terrestrial
  18. 18. Bivalves (Two shells)Oysters, clams, scallops and musclesOysters, clams, scallops and musclesHave two shells held closed with twoHave two shells held closed with twothick muscles (adductor muscles)thick muscles (adductor muscles)
  19. 19. Zebra mussels OysterClam Scallop
  20. 20. Cephalopods(Head foot)Most of their body is a largeMost of their body is a large“head” attached to tentacles“head” attached to tentaclesThe most intelligent of allThe most intelligent of allinvertebrates (they have ainvertebrates (they have a“brain”)“brain”)Examples: squid, octopus,Examples: squid, octopus,cuttlefish, and nautiluscuttlefish, and nautilus
  21. 21. AnnelidsThe first segmented animalsThe first segmented animalsHave a true coelomHave a true coelomPrimitive brainPrimitive brainExamples: Marine worms, earthworms,Examples: Marine worms, earthworms,and leechesand leeches
  22. 22. Marine wormEarthwormsLeechChristmas tree wormsBristle worms
  23. 23. External Earthworm
  24. 24. Internal Earthworm
  25. 25. Arthropods andEchinoderms““Bugs”, Starfish, and SeaBugs”, Starfish, and Seaurchinsurchins
  26. 26. Features of ArthropodsCoelomCoelomJointed appendages (arms and legs)Jointed appendages (arms and legs)Segmented bodySegmented bodyExoskeleton (hard outer skeleton)Exoskeleton (hard outer skeleton)– Molting (shed their skeleton as they growMolting (shed their skeleton as they growlarger)larger)Examples of arthropods: insects, spiders,Examples of arthropods: insects, spiders,scorpions, crustaceans (shrimp, lobsters,scorpions, crustaceans (shrimp, lobsters,some zooplankton {yes, like plankton onsome zooplankton {yes, like plankton onSponge Bob})Sponge Bob})
  27. 27. Insects
  28. 28. Spiders and scorpions
  29. 29. Crustaceans
  30. 30. Echinoderms and InvertebrateChordatesEchinoderms have a true coelom.Echinoderms have a true coelom.Invertebrate chordates have a coelomInvertebrate chordates have a coelomAND a nerve chord (precursor to aAND a nerve chord (precursor to aspinal chord)…they have an internalspinal chord)…they have an internal“skeleton” to protect their “central“skeleton” to protect their “centralnervous system”.nervous system”.
  31. 31. EchinodermsHave a true coelomHave a true coelomHave: an endoskeleton (internalHave: an endoskeleton (internalskeleton), five-part radial symmetry,skeleton), five-part radial symmetry,and a water vascular systemand a water vascular systemExamples: sea stars, sun stars, featherExamples: sea stars, sun stars, featherstars, brittle stars, sea urchins, sandstars, brittle stars, sea urchins, sanddollars, and sea cucumbersdollars, and sea cucumbers
  32. 32. Invertebrate ChordatesTrue coelomTrue coelomNerve chord protected by a stiff internalNerve chord protected by a stiff internalrod called a notochordrod called a notochordExamples: Tunicates and lanceletsExamples: Tunicates and lancelets
  33. 33. VertebratesAnimals that have a backboneAnimals that have a backboneor spineor spine
  34. 34. Importance ofVertebraeVertebrae…Vertebrae…– provide supportprovide support– protect the dorsal nerve (or spinal cord)protect the dorsal nerve (or spinal cord)– provide a site for muscle attachmentprovide a site for muscle attachmentVertebrates also have a protective skullVertebrates also have a protective skullthat incases and protects the brainthat incases and protects the brainExample: fish, amphibians, reptiles,Example: fish, amphibians, reptiles,birds, and mammalsbirds, and mammals
  35. 35. FishFish all have gills that they use toFish all have gills that they use tobreathe underwaterbreathe underwaterThey use fins to move/swimThey use fins to move/swimThey have a single loopingThey have a single loopingcirculatory system with 2circulatory system with 2chambered heartchambered heartThey are cold-bloodedThey are cold-blooded(ectothermic)(ectothermic)
  36. 36. Types of FishJawless fishJawless fish– Hagfish and lampreysHagfish and lampreysCartilaginous fishCartilaginous fish– Sharks, rays, and skatesSharks, rays, and skatesBony fishBony fish– Gar, perch, sunfish, bass, minnows, angelGar, perch, sunfish, bass, minnows, angelfish,, etc.
  37. 37. Jawless Fishhagfishlampreys
  38. 38. Cartilaginous fish Bamboo sharkBasking Shark
  39. 39. Rays
  40. 40. Skates
  41. 41. Bony fishcoelacanth
  42. 42. AmphibiansSpend at least part of their life in the waterSpend at least part of their life in the water(lay their eggs in water)(lay their eggs in water)They have legs, lungs (most), and a 3They have legs, lungs (most), and a 3chambered heart with a double loopingchambered heart with a double loopingcirculatory systemcirculatory systemThey are cold-blooded (ectothermic)They are cold-blooded (ectothermic)Many undergo metamorphosis (tadpoles toMany undergo metamorphosis (tadpoles tofrogs for example)frogs for example)Examples: frogs, toads, salamanders, andExamples: frogs, toads, salamanders, andnewtsnewts
  43. 43. Reptiles and BirdsDinosaurs, lizards, snakes,Dinosaurs, lizards, snakes,turtles, ducks, penguins, andturtles, ducks, penguins, andmore!!!more!!!
  44. 44. DinosaursDinosaurs were reptiles!Dinosaurs were reptiles!– BUT some may have been warm blooded!BUT some may have been warm blooded!Early birds were most likely very muchEarly birds were most likely very muchlike reptiles with feathers!like reptiles with feathers!– Archaeopterx is the earliest bird fossil everArchaeopterx is the earliest bird fossil everfound…it had a long reptilian tail and nofound…it had a long reptilian tail and nokeeled sternum to anchor its flight muscleskeeled sternum to anchor its flight muscles(so it didn’t fly)(so it didn’t fly)
  45. 45. ArchaeopterxArchaeopterx
  46. 46. Modern ReptilesCold-blooded (ectothermic)Cold-blooded (ectothermic)Water tight skin and eggs adapted to landWater tight skin and eggs adapted to landSome have a 4 chambered heart or a 3Some have a 4 chambered heart or a 3chambered heart with a partial division of thechambered heart with a partial division of theventricle…and a double looping circulatoryventricle…and a double looping circulatorysystemsystemThey have lungsThey have lungsExamples: lizards, snakes, turtles, tortoises,Examples: lizards, snakes, turtles, tortoises,crocodiles, alligators, and tuatarascrocodiles, alligators, and tuataras
  47. 47. Lizards
  48. 48. Snakes
  49. 49. Turtles
  50. 50. Tortoises
  51. 51. Crocodiles and Alligators
  52. 52. TuatarasThe tuatara is very ancient – itis the only survivor of a largegroup of reptiles that roamedthe earth at the same time asdinosaurs (even before mostlarge dinosaurs). It hasntchanged its form much in over225 million years!
  53. 53. BirdsFeathersFeathersKeeled sternumKeeled sternumStrong, light weight skeletonStrong, light weight skeletonWarm-blooded (endothermic)Warm-blooded (endothermic)4 chambered heart, double circulatory4 chambered heart, double circulatorysystem, and highly efficient lungssystem, and highly efficient lungsExamples: songbirds, hummingbirds,Examples: songbirds, hummingbirds,woodpeckers, parrots, eagles, ducks,woodpeckers, parrots, eagles, ducks,and penguinsand penguins
  54. 54. Birds
  55. 55. More birds
  56. 56. MammalsWe are family…We are family…
  57. 57. Characteristics of MammalsHairHairWarm-blooded (endothermic)Warm-blooded (endothermic)Mammary glands (milk)Mammary glands (milk)Live young (except two species-theLive young (except two species-themonotremes)monotremes)4 chambered heart with a double circulatory4 chambered heart with a double circulatorysystemsystemExamples: polar bears, whales, wolves, bats,Examples: polar bears, whales, wolves, bats,platypus, kangaroos, humansplatypus, kangaroos, humans
  58. 58. MonotremesPlatypus-monotremeEgg laying mammalEchidnaEgg laying mammalHatching echidna
  59. 59. MarsupialsMarsupialsHave a pouchwithunderdevelopedyoungKangarooopossum
  60. 60. opossumkangaroo
  61. 61. Placental MammalsOrder RodentiaOrder Chiroptera
  62. 62. Order InsectivoraOrder Carnivora
  63. 63. Order PinnipediaOrder PerissodactylaOrder Artiodactyla
  64. 64. Order LagomorphaOrder Cetacea
  65. 65. Order SireniaOrder Proboscidea
  66. 66. Order PrimatesEYES FACE FORWARD
  67. 67. Other Placental MammalsThere are seven more orders includingThere are seven more orders includingvarious anteaters and “shrews”various anteaters and “shrews”EdentataMacroscelidea(Elephant Shrew)
  68. 68. Scandentia(Tree Shrew)Pholidota(Pangolin)Hyracoidea(Hyraxe) Dermoptera(Flying lemur)Tubulidentata(Aardvark)
  69. 69. So what have we learned?Animals are diverse!Animals are diverse!They range from microscopicThey range from microscopicrotifers to gigantic blue whales!!!rotifers to gigantic blue whales!!!But they are all multicellular…But they are all multicellular…They all have to eat somethingThey all have to eat something(plants, animals, or both)(plants, animals, or both)They can have bilateral or radialThey can have bilateral or radialsymmetry.symmetry.They can be warm or coldThey can be warm or coldblooded or have no blood at all!!!blooded or have no blood at all!!!ANIMALS ARE COOL!!!ANIMALS ARE COOL!!!
  70. 70. Cute/Interesting AnimalsKinkajou
  71. 71. Cute/Interesting Animals Parte Dos
  72. 72. Cute/Interesting Animals(Trois)
  73. 73. Cute/Interesting Animals(Vier)
  74. 74. Okay…one more ‘cause I like pictures!