Literature Review Handouts


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Handouts for an activity for organizing research materials (In particular for an APA literature review) for middle schoolers.

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Literature Review Handouts

  1. 1. Do uniforms make schools better?www.greatschools.orgBy Marian WildeTeacher’s SummaryPopular opinion on the value of school uniforms is very divided. Researchsimilarly finds different results about the effects of school uniforms.For the past decade, schools, parents and students have clashed over the issue of regulating studentattire. In 2007, cases involving an anti-Bush T-shirt in Vermont, an anti-gay T-shirt in San Diego andTigger socks in Napa, California, made their way through the courts, causing many to wonder whetherthis debate will ever be resolved.Meanwhile, researchers are divided over how much of an impact - if any - dress policies have uponstudent learning. A 2004 book makes the case that uniforms do not improve school safety oracademic discipline. A 2005 study, on the other hand, indicates that in some Ohio high schoolsuniforms may have improved graduation and attendance rates, although no improvements wereobserved in academic performance.What research says about school uniformsVirginia Draa, assistant professor at Youngstown State University, reviewed attendance, graduationand proficiency pass rates at 64 public high schools in Ohio. Her final analysis surprised her: "I reallywent into this thinking uniforms dont make a difference, but I came away seeing that they do. Atleast at these schools, they do. I was absolutely floored."Draas study concluded that those schools with uniform policies improved in attendance, graduationand suspension rates. She was unable to connect uniforms with academic improvement because ofsuch complicating factors as changing instructional methods and curriculum.University of Missouri assistant professor, David Brunsma reached a different conclusion. In his 2004book, The School Uniform Movement and What It Tells Us About American Education: A SymbolicCrusade, Brunsma reviewed past studies on the effect of uniforms on academic performance. He alsoconducted his own analysis of two enormous databases, the 1988 National Educational LongitudinalStudy and the 1998 Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. Brunsma concluded that there is no positivecorrelation between uniforms and school safety or academic achievement.Meanwhile, the movement toward uniforms in public schools has spread to about a quarter of allelementary schools. Experts say that the number of middle and high schools with uniforms is abouthalf the number of elementary schools. If uniforms are intended to curb school violence and improveacademics, why are they not more prevalent in middle and high schools, where these goals are just asimportant as in elementary schools? Because, says Brunsma, "Its desperately much more difficult toimplement uniforms in high schools, and even middle schools, for student resistance is much, muchhigher. In fact, most of the litigation resulting from uniforms has been located at levels of K-12 thatare higher than elementary schools. Of course, this uniform debate is also one regarding whetherchildren have rights, too!"1
  2. 2. Uniform and Dress Codecentralhigh.centralcss.orgTeacher’s SummaryThis is a very specific dress code that seems very controlling and kind ofmean.Central Community School District Uniform and Dress Code for Central High SchoolThe standard uniform includes the following:Shirts1. Shirts will be maroon in color. Shirts will have a collar and short sleeves. Shirts will be plain, withno pockets, writing, emblems, or designs of any kind except a standard CHS logo. The standard CHSlogo ,as displayed, is optional. The logo will consist of white, three-quarter inch block letters, CHSmonogrammed on the left side. The Power Cat logo is also an exceptable logo. No other logos will beused. Only plain white T-shirts will be worn underneath these shirts and will not extend past sleevelength.2. In addition to maroon shirt, seniors may wear a white shirt and may free-dress every Friday.3. Shirts will be tucked in and must be long enough to stay tucked when the arms are raised above thehead. The style will be pullover with two, three, or four buttons at the top. Shirts will not beexcessively worn, faded, or frayed and will not have holes or cuts.Slacks/Skirts1. Slacks and skirts will be khaki in color and of the specified shade. The shade is khaki. They will notbe rolled at either the waist or the cuff.2. Slacks are uniform. There should be no designer labels on slacks. Slacks will have belt loops andwill be worn with a belt. The belt will be brown, black, khaki or white and will be no wider than oneinch. Slacks will have two pockets in front and two in back. “Cargo” style pants are not acceptable.Slacks will have finished bottoms. Cuffs are acceptable. There will be no flared or bell-bottoms. Theywill not have holes, cuts, or be frayed. Slacks must be worn at the waist as designed. No jeans, bikeshorts, stretch pants, or sweatpants will be worn. NO CAPRI PANTS WILL BE WORN.3. Skirts are acceptable if loose fitting and worn no higher than the top of the knee.4. Knee length shorts (that meet the criteria of "Slacks" above) are acceptable.2
  3. 3. Exceptions: JROTC uniforms, when directed to be worn by the Senior Army Instructor, are allowedduring regular school hours.Also, approved school organization will be allowed to wear school approved non-uniform shirts onspecial occasions. (The occasions will be approved by the Principal or his designee.) The rest of theuniform policy and dress code would remain in effect of these days. For example, shirts wouldcontinue to be tucked in and ID cards, where applicable, worn even though the shirt would be non-uniform.Dress Code1. Caps, hats or head coverings are NOT to be worn during the school day, or inside the school day, orinside the school building. DO NOT BRING CAPS OR HATS ON CAMPUS DURING SCHOOL TIME.2. Male students are not to wear earrings (or straws to preserve the pierced hole). Girls are allowedto wear two pairs of earrings. Body piercing is NOT allowed. Only simple jewelry may be worn.3. Ribbons or bowsmust be marron, white, or grey.4. Rollers, curlers, picks, rakes, forks, or combs in hair are prohibited.5. Unnatural coloring of hair or cutting of symbols or designs in hair is not permitted.6. Beards and goatees are NOT allowed. Sideburns (no longer than the bottom of the ear) andmustaches are allowed and must be neat and well trimmed.7. Sunglasses are not to be worn on school grounds unless prescribed for medical purposes andverified with a doctor’s note, which must be presented to an administrator for approval.8. Pictures or writing on book sacks, gym bags, jackets, etc. of and offensive, derogatory or obscenenature is prohibited at school (e.g. alcohol, tobacco, drugs, weapons, blood, skulls, etc.).STUDENTS WHOSE CLOTHING OR GROOMING IS INAPPROPRIATE IN THE OPINION OF THEADMINISTRATION WILL BE SENT HOME TO MAKE THE PROPER ADJUSTMENT. UNEXCUSEDABSENCES WILL BE GIVEN WHEN STUDENTS ARE SENT HOME TO TAKE CARE OF ANY OF THE ABOVEPOLICES. STUDENTS WHO VIOLATE SET DRESS AND GROOMING POLICIES SHALL ALSO BE SUBJECTTO DISCIPLINARY ACTION. (TOR OR SUSPENSION)
  4. 4. School UniformsBy studymode, February 2002Teacher’s SummaryA justification for school uniforms that makes dubious assertions.A safe and structured learning environment is the first requirement of a good school. Children who feelsafe and secure will better learn basic American values. In return they will learn the basis of goodcitizenship and become better students. In response to growing levels of violence in our schools, manyparents, teachers, and school officials have been forced to look toward school uniforms as onepotentially positive way to reduce discipline problems and increase school safety.It has been observed that the adoption of school uniform policies can promote school safety, improvediscipline, and enhance the learning environment. The potential benefits of school uniforms includedecreasing violence and theft. Some instances involving designer clothing and expensive sneakers haveeven led to life-threatening situations among students. Uniforms would also prevent gang membersfrom wearing gang colors and insignia at school. Uniforms would also teach students discipline and helpthem resist peer pressure. Uniforms would also help students concentrate on their schoolwork andwould help school officials detect intruders who come unwelcome into the school. As a result, manylocal communities are deciding to adopt school uniform policies as part of an overall program toimprove school safety and discipline.3
  5. 5. The Benefits Of School Posted by Rachel Roberts on 8 Aug 2012Teacher’s SummarySome common sense arguments in favor of school uniformsFor families with children in school environments, the issue of whether or not school uniformsare appropriate or beneficial is always a prevalent one. Just about everyone you ask has arelatively strong opinion regarding whether or not children should wear uniforms, and there arecertainly some strong arguments for either side of the debate. Typically, the main argumentagainst school uniforms tends to be that they make it more difficult for students to express theirindividuality, which could conceivably be a bit harmful to personal development. However, thisis based more in speculation than fact, and when you consider several other points, it is clear thatthere are actually several potential benefits to school uniforms. Here are a few specific benefitsto keep in mind.Purchasing school uniforms can save a great deal of time and effort shopping. If you aretrying to fill out your childs wardrobe with individually picked pieces of clothing, youmay find yourself shopping for a whole week before school starts. However, if yousimply have to pick up uniforms you may just need to drop by the school or a designatedstore like Marks & Spencer to pick them up.Similarly, buying school uniforms can be a great deal cheaper for parents thanassembling individual wardrobes. One argument against uniforms tends to be that theymake it more difficult for families to rely on hand-me-downs from older siblings, butwhen you think about it some of this difference is made up in the simplicity of uniforms.Kids with the freedom to wear whatever they want often want expensive new styles, butwith uniforms you can buy a cheaper wardrobe without worrying about fashion.Style is actually one of the biggest arguments in favour of school uniforms. Nobody isunder the impression that school uniforms always represent the height of fashion, but inmany cases thats exactly the point. If kids at school dress however they wish, then thosewithout the financial means to keep up with the latest styles, or those who simply donthave strong senses of fashion, can often stand out in a negative way. School uniformshelp schools to avoid these issues entirely, and eliminate fashion-based judgments.Finally, there is your childs focus to consider. There comes a point in life at whichfashion is, to some extent, important those who dress well tend to make betterimpressions, etc. However, when your children are young and in school, you likely wantto do your best to discourage vanity and encourage focus on academics and socialdevelopment. School uniforms take style and fashion considerations completely out ofthe picture and allow your kids to focus completely on what they should be learning inschool, but educationally and socially.4
  6. 6. Why Do We Make Our Kids Wear Uniforms?’s SummaryA very opinionated, anti-establishment argument against school uniforms. Theauthor seems to believe that uniforms are an evil imposition from a overly-controlling higher authority.Training?The training argument says that when you are employed, you are likely to have to wear a uniform. Isthis true? What are the odds that children will wear a uniform later in life? Typically, the occupationswhere people have to wear uniforms are the lower paid jobs, nothing to look forward to, really.Generally, the more educated people are, the less they wear uniforms later in life. Look at teachers, theydont wear uniforms! Well-paid work tends to reject uniformity, and for good reason, the demands ofthe future include qualities such as assertiveness, creativity, individuality, originality, a spontaneouspersonality, being a self-starter, taking initiatives, being able to cope with change, etc. And even thepeople who do wear a uniform later in life are unlikely to accept such a silly costume as a schooluniform. What is the logic behind forcing children in uniforms? That children have to get used towearing a uniform, just in the unfortunate case that they will end up in such a job later in life? If we turnaround the same logic, students who are used to wearing uniforms would be insufficiently prepared forplain-clothed work, if they did not wear plain clothes at school all the time. Similarly, students would notbe able to deal with people who didnt wear uniforms. It just doesnt make sense.There is one deeper argument. It goes like this: students wearing uniforms will be accustomed to takinga servile attitude which will help them find work later in life. Of course, the very opposite could beargued with more reason. Does success in future demand a servile attitude? Or is it more helpful to becreative, have a spontaneous and open personality, an inquisitive mind, be a self-starter who talksthings over, who has an independent mind searching for new ideas to make things work?Equity?The equity argument goes like this: If children wear uniforms, they do not notice differences betweenchildren from rich and from poor families. This equity argument is often put forward by State Schools.The reason for this may be that it is a purely socialist argument and it may be rejected for this reasonalone. In a democratic country, school should not indoctrinate children with a specific political ideology,especially not a government-funded school. Interestingly, private schools typically are even morefanatical about uniforms, but they are less inclined to use the equity argument.Anyway, even as a socialist argument, it does not make much sense. School uniforms may make allstudents look alike. But why do the teachers not wear the same uniforms? Clearly, school does not likeany confusion as to who is the teacher and who is the student. The master-slave relationship that is soobviously present at school is deliberately magnified by uniforms that emphasize this difference. Theteacher is allowed to dress casually, while the student has to wear silly clothes intended to make the5
  7. 7. student look stupid.Furthermore, there are often different uniforms for those in higher grades than for those in lowergrades, just like in the military a superior officer wears a less silly hat. This creates class differences.Some will argue that this merely reflects existing differences. But the point is that if this were accurate,it constituted an argument against uniformity. Moreover, school itself creates class differences. Class is atrademark, if not an invention of school. Children are grouped together in classes according to age andoften according to gender and to perceived academic performance. Because parents want their childrento mix with children of their own class, they carefully select the neighborhood where they are going tolive. Houses close to private schools are often substantially more expensive than similar houses close tostate schools. On the street, children are identified by their uniform. Oh, you come from that poorschool, you dummy! is an example of what children say to each other when they look at each othersuniform. And even in the classroom, uniforms only accentuate differences in length, hair color and otherphysical characteristics. Children consequently judge each other by their physical appearances. One canargue whether it were better if children judged each other by their clothes instead.Ease and Cost?From a financial point of view, the socialist argument does not make sense either. School uniforms areexpensive, by their nature they are produced in limited numbers, they have to be special. Furthermore,school uniforms are typically made of polycotton, because if they were made of pure cotton, they wouldfade after a few washings and there would be color differences between the uniforms of various pupils,which goes against the very idea of uniformity. Therefore, school uniforms are far more expensive thanthe cheap cotton clothing people normally like to wear. The situation is also prone to exploitation byunfair trade practices, unhealthy schemes, favoritism and cronyism, e.g. deals in which secret bribes arepaid for the privilege of exclusively and locally producing and selling such school uniforms. One paysthe price for not being able to choose the often cheap imports from countries such as China and India.Some parents argue that because of school uniforms, they do not have to buy many clothes for theirchildren, which saves them time and money. But most children will have plain clothes next to theirschool uniform. The idea of a school uniform is that students wear the uniform at school, but do notwear the uniform, say, at a disco or other events outside school. This effectively means that children willneed a double set of clothing.The ease argument says that school uniforms make it easier for students to choose what they are towear at school. But is it really a virtue of the school uniform that the choice is made so easy? It wouldbe just as easy for children to decide what to wear, if they only had, say, jeans and T-shirts in theircupboards. This kind of choice has nothing to do with wearing uniforms. If there are only jeans and T-shirts in the cupboard, the child will have to wear jeans and T-shirts. The choice is easy, because there isno alternative. If there were only a ski-outfit in the cupboard, the child had to wear the ski-outfit andchoices were equally easy. The point is that the choice is not so much made easy by virtue ofuniformity, no, the choice is easy because there is no choice. If the kid-next-door happens to wear thesame clothes, say jeans, that didnt make the choice any easier for either of the children. One only haschoice if there is something to choose from. The real question is if choice is good for children. Takingaway childrens right to choose what to wear does not make live any easier, it just makes childrenaccustomed to conformity, to following orders and walking in line without thinking, without making achoice. This creates a huge amount of psychological problems later in life, it reduces the opportunity to
  8. 8. get good work, it reduces the overall quality of life, in some respects it is a form of child abuse tosystematically deny children choice.As mentioned before, school uniforms are typically made of polycotton, as this keeps its color better.Apart from being more expensive, polycotton is also very hot, which is a problem in hot climates. Specialsun-protective clothing is often too expensive, or cannot stand the frequent washing necessary as thekids have to wear the same clothing every day. Uniforms tend to be uncomfortable - by nature auniform is a straightjacket that has been compromised in many ways in order to fit everybody. Uniformsare far from easy in many respects.The cost argument is obviously a false argument. School uniforms do not keep the cost of clothingdown, because quite obviously all students also need plain clothes next to their uniform. Whencompared to T-shirts and jeans, the school uniform is unlikely to be the cheap, comfortable, easy to use.Private schools are even less likely to push the cost argument, they deliberately choose for a ratherexpensive outfit as a way to distinguish the students from poorer schools. Obviously, the costargument is inconsistent with the pride argument that wants students to look well presented even ifthis comes at an extra cost. The very point of uniforms is that it is something that not everyone wears,and this exclusivity obviously comes at a cost.Pride?The pride argument goes like this: if students dress lousy, the school as a whole gets a bad name, whichdiminishes the opportunity for all students to get a good job. Of course, this is just an argument againstdirty or otherwise less attractive clothes. Teachers may argue that school uniforms set a clear standardof what the students are to wear, but school uniforms may just as well get dirty as any other clothes andschool uniforms may just as well tear apart after a fight or a fall. Having school uniforms does nonecessarily make it easier to see whether the clothes are dirty or ragged. Uniformity in itself is nothingto be proud about. Note that students are not supposed to wear the uniforms at discos or other out-of-school events. If the students were really supposed to be proud about their school, why are they onlysupposed to wear the uniform at school? Note also that universities rarely demand students to wearuniforms, yet few seem to be worried that this will make the students unemployable.Safety?The safety argument is that school uniforms make it more difficult for unwelcome outsiders to infiltratethe school grounds. But is safety the real reason behind compulsory school uniforms? State schools aretypically huge with large numbers of teachers and other staff. Teachers are frequently ill or otherwiseabsent, requiring relief-teachers to step in. The larger the school, the more difficult it is to know allindividual teachers and maintenance staff who might wander through the buildings. Students will not besurprised to see an unfamiliar plain-clothed grown-up person on the school-grounds. They will not evenbe surprised if such a person seems lost. If safety really was an important issue, then why are teachers,maintenance staff and visiting parents not required to similarly wear the school uniform? Many peoplecome and leave the school grounds by car every day. Cars can often be driven right into the middle ofthe school grounds, while it is virtually impossible to spot whether the occupants are wearing uniformsor not. School uniforms in fact make it very easy for someone with bad intentions to sneak in, disguisedas a legitimate school student. Typically, anyone can buy second-hand uniforms at the school or atnearby shops.
  9. 9. “Should Students Wear Uniforms?52% Say Yes 48% Say NoYes, it can help with the bullying problem. It canhelp the bullying problem because kids get pickedon for their clothes all the time, so if all the kidshad on the same clothes that problem would beimproved dramatically. Also, if kids wear regularclothes, they basically have no restriction in howthey dress which leads to promiscuity. Promiscuitycan distract other students from paying attentionin school and maybe make them get lower grades.Thats why uniforms should be worn at all times.Posted by: bengjsuBullying and gangs. With having uniforms you donot have the discrimination of the different groupsand how the dress effects the people and howthey act. Without the uniforms kids can start gangsand can start groups with the same sort of dressthey wear and while the uniform is restricting kidsfrom bullying it is also stooping the gangsPosted by: cbrownYes, for practicality and unity I find it so mucheasier in the mornings when I have somethingspecific to put on. It saves time and also money, asI buy far fewer clothes than I would otherwise.Having a uniform also closes the gap between thedifferent types of people, and I believe this is agood thing.Posted by: Duke SmithEveryone should have the same right toindividuality. Kids shouldnt have to wearuniforms. All it does is make school a dull andlifeless place that no one wants to be in. Studentsshould be able to express their feelings andemotions by wearing regular clothes. Im a kidmyself, and actually, I couldnt care less aboutthem.Posted by: anoymouseUniforms are wrong. You cant really be you whenyou wear uniforms. It takes your individualityaway. We need freedom- its America isnt it? Wehave to stick up for who we are, and how we dothat is through our clothes. Whether we arehappy, dark, or crazy, we show it, without evenhaving to say it, through clothes.Posted by: AnonymousNo nono. I do not think students should wearschool uniforms because kids express themselvesby what they wear and the colors they do, becausein other words its freedom of speech. This is a freecountry. Also some parents may not be able to paythe amount needed for the uniforms.Posted by: AnonymousNo, everyone has the right to freedom ofexpression. Kids shouldnt have to wear uniforms.All it does is make school a dull and lifeless placethat no one wants to be in. Students should beable to express their feelings and emotions bywearing regular clothes. Im a kid myself, andactually, I couldnt care less about them.Posted by: Anonymous6
  10. 10. SCHOOL UNIFORMS REDUCE STUDENT ABSENCES, DISCIPLINARYPROBLEMSApril 5, 2010-Houston- Mike EmeryTeacher’s SummaryA study that finds improvements in student absences and disciplinary problems afterintroducing uniforms, especially amongst female students.Fewer schools are including "Best Dressed" as a category in their end-of-the- year student polls. As public schoolscontinue to adopt dress code policies, more students are unable to make individual fashion statements.A recent University of Houston study suggests that this might be a good thing as school uniforms can positively impactstudents grades, attendance and behavior.UH economics professor Scott Imberman and graduate student Elizabetta Gentile surveyed administrative data from 160public schools in a large urban school district. This data included student demographics, as well as academic, disciplinaryand attendance records that had been filed from 1993 - 2006.By applying econometric techniques - combining economic theory with statistics - Imberman and Gentile comparedstudents from schools that required uniforms to peers from non-uniformed institutions. They specifically focused onstudent outcomes that emerged once a school required uniforms. Their study is documented in the paper "Dressed forSuccess: Do School Uniforms Improve Student Behavior, Attendance and Achievement?"Their findings show bolstered attendance, academics and behavior in middle and high school students once their schoolsadopted uniforms. Imberman and Gentile noted that the biggest improvement was among female students."After uniforms were adopted, girls in middle school and high school missed one day less of school annually," Imbermansaid. "That sounds like a modest improvement, but in terms of educational interventions, it is challenging to motivate aprogression in this area. This is fairly substantial."They also found that once uniforms were mandated, the school district was more likely to retain its female students at allgrade levels."Often, parents withdraw their children from a school district due to dissatisfaction," Imberman said. "This data suggeststhat uniforms helped schools increase parental satisfaction and encouraged students not to leave for charter or privateschools."The quantitative nature of the study does not offer direct insight as to why uniforms produce such favorable results fromstudents. It does, however, point to the fact that students attendance, test scores and behavior consistently improvedfrom the time uniforms were introduced."The benefits increased over time," Imberman said. "The effects were smaller during the first year uniforms wereadopted but grew in subsequent years. We interpret this as indication that there may have been an adjustment period.7
  11. 11. The uniforms might have taken some time to have an effect and become ingrained within the schools environments."
  12. 12. What a North Face jacket means in South KoreaPuffy down outdoor jackets are increasingly becoming symbols of class division and targets of schoolviolenceBy Frances ChaTeacher’s SummaryExpensive North Face jackets are a status (and gang) symbol for Korean highschool students. Incidents of violence, theft and bullying surround the jackets.According to a Korean blog post that made the rounds late last month, North Face jacket wearerscan be immediately classified according to the type of North Face jacket they wear. This isapparently a common phenomenon in elementary and middle schools in particular, where thejackets are so popular they have been dubbed "the uniform worn over the uniform," or"backbreakers," (thus called for the work put in by parents in order to afford the jackets for theirchildren).The rankings also specify what type of student should be wearing which specific type of NorthFace jacket.At the bottom of the scale is the North Face Nuptse 2, cost ₩250,000 (approximately US$220),which is generally worn by “losers" (찌질이).Next on the list is the “common” Nuptse 1, worn both by “losers” and “gang members” (일진).Two categories up is the Dry Loft, ₩470,000. "Losers dont wear the jackets starting from thiscategory because theyre afraid of having them swiped by gang members."At the top, priced at ₩700,000 is the “rare” Himalayan Down Parka, the most expensive modelworn by “the boss.”As laughable as this list may seem, according to some students it simply puts into words whatremains unspoken in school halls.“You can definitely label people according to what North Face jackets they wear,” says Park Jin,14, who is the class president of his middle school in western Seoul.“If you wear a really expensive one, then the iljin (gang members) in school come and take it from you.”8
  13. 13. Bullying: What are the Differences between Boys and Girls?education.comTeacher’s SummaryGirls tend to bully each other with words and gossip, whereas boys use namecalling and physical attacks. Bullying in school can lead to long term bullying asan adult. Parents can help their children cope with bullies by startingconversations and discussing feelings honestly.Bullying is defined as a form of aggression that is repetitively exerted against an individual whofeels unable to defend him/herself. This aggression may occur directly against someone in aphysical (for example, slapping, pushing) or verbal (for example, swearing, name calling)manner. Bullying can also be indirect whereby the targeted person experiences the aggressionthrough others (for example, gossiped about, excluded from a social activity).How are Girls Involved in Bullying?Through Peer GroupGirls tend to bully other girls indirectly through the peer group. Rather than bully a targeted childdirectly, girls more often share with other girls (and boys) hurtful information about the targetedchild. For example, a girl may tell a group of girls an embarrassing story about another girl. Theymay create mean names, gossip, and come up with ways of letting the girl know that she isrejected from the peer group (for example, saying mean things about her on social networkingsites such as Facebook or MySpace, using her email address to send harassing messages toeveryone on her email list, texting her a death threat). These are called “relational” bullyingbecause they attack relationships and friendships.How are Boys Involved in Bullying?PhysicalIn contrast to girls, boys of any age and ethnic group tend to be physically aggressive (e.g., hit,kick, slap, push, or punch). Also, research shows that physical abuse tends to occur more oftenamong boys than girls at all educational levels (e.g., elementary, high school, college). Inaddition, male college students tend to bully and be bullied through physical and verbal forms ofbullying (e.g., name-calling) more often than college girls.Also boys may be more accepting of bullying, than are girls. That is, boys may like a girl even ifshe bullies others and like other boys who bully. Girls may still befriend boys who bully, buttend to dislike girls who bully. At the core of these differences are children’s and, indeed,societal beliefs about acceptable behaviors for boys and girls. Many people may see bullying9
  14. 14. among boys as “just boys being boys”. So, girls may accept this attitude and tolerate boys’bullying. However, girls may be less accepting of girls who bully if it is seen as overlyaggressive.Effects of Bullying: Signs That A Child Is Being BulliedAll types of bullying may have a tremendous impact on targeted children. They may feeldepressed, anxious, eat or sleep less or more, have difficulty concentrating on school work, havetrouble making friends with others, lie, steal, run away from home, avoid school or even considersuicide. Children may not want to tell anyone if they feel they deserve this type of treatment,caused it, or that telling would make it worse (which the bully may have threatened). There mayalso be long-term effects of bullying on bullies themselves. Some children who bully at a youngage may continue to use aggression and control in other relationships as they grow older. Forexample, boys may start dating earlier than other boys and be aggressive in these relationships.Also, as adults they may be aggressive towards colleagues, use aggression with their ownchildren, and engage in criminal acts including sexual assault. Girls involved in significantbullying in the early grade school years may experience depression over a long term, attemptsuicide, or develop an eating disorder.Again, individual men and women, and boys and girls experience bullying in unique ways.Research has documented some of the differences mentioned in this article. It is important tokeep in mind, however, that boys may also experience indirect forms of bullying, and girls mayexperience direct forms. In addition, children involved in bullying may both be targeted andexert aggression themselves.The Importance for Parents: What Parents Can Do To Prevent BullyingFor parents, it’s important to recognize signs in their sons and daughters that they may beinvolved in some or many forms of bullying and to address these experiences as soon as theyarise. For example, checking in with children at the end of the day can include conversationabout academic subjects as well as peer relationships. Questions such as the following, mayencourage children to discuss their friendship experiences with their parents:1. ‘What did you do at recess today?”, or2. “How is your friend (name) doing these days?”When children express negative emotions about their peers it is helpful to acknowledge thesefeelings, encourage them that it’s normal to feel this way, and to discuss practical strategiestogether, especially those that the child considers most helpful.
  15. 15. Pros and Cons of School UniformsBy SarabethAsaff for kids.lovetoknow.comPros ConsThe commonly cited advantages of uniformsare increased academic performance, reducedbehavioral problems, increased socialharmony, and reduced costs of clothingstudents.Academic OutcomesMany educators believe that students who wearschool uniforms perform better academically inschool, and a study done in 1998 by NotreDame shows a slight statistical elevation in studentperformance among students who wear uniforms.Students are often so focused on their wardrobethat it distracts them from learning.Some experts believe that a mandatory uniformpolicy will remove this distraction and improvestudent attention, believing that uniforms set amore serious tone within the school environmentthat is conducive to learning and can improvestudent performance. They also believe thatschool uniforms improve student attendance.Many parents report that their children spend agreat deal of time planning and choosing theirdaily clothing and that uniforms allow students touse this time to sleep or study.Behavioral OutcomesIt is generally thought that students who wearschool uniforms behave more appropriately inthe school environment. They believe thatuniforms dictate a stricter atmosphere and thatstudents who wear uniforms are more likely tofollow school rules. The US Department ofEducation maintains that the mandatory use ofstandardized dress reduces violence within theschool.Social OutcomesUniforms can be a social equalizer.Self-ExpressionMany educators and sociology expertsarguethat requiring children to wearstandardized uniforms stifles their self-expression. Self-expression is an importantpart of child development and some expertsbelieve that curbing it with uniforms can bedetrimental to children. Experts also believethat students who are forced to wear uniformswill only find other, less appropriate ways toexpress themselves, possibly throughinappropriate use of makeup and jewelry.IndividualitySome experts believe that public educationattempts to strip children of their individuality.They believe that public education does not meetthe needs of children who do not fall in the norm,and that uniforms attempt to force every studentinto one mold. They see standard dress as yetanother way for public educators to removestudent individuality where they should beembracing and celebrating diversity. Some expertsbelieve it is not in the best interest of the child totry to control socialization, which is a part ofhuman nature. They believe that such use ofschool uniforms does not prepare children for thereal world, in which they will be judged by theirappearance.CostThere are just as many experts who believe thatthe cost of school uniforms is a negative factor asthose who see it as a positive factor. Some expertsbelieve that it increases the amount of clothingparents will have to buy for their children becausethe children will still want and need clothing forthe hours they are not in school. Uniforms can be10
  16. 16. Some experts believe that, more than in anyother area, school uniforms improve the socialoutcomes in a school environment. Clothingand fashion are often at the root of socialconflict. Children are often ridiculed by otherchildren because of the way they dress. Manychildren use clothing to express themselvesand to define themselves. This self-expressionand definition often leads to the formation ofcliques in the school environment. Manystudents feel that they are judged according towhat they wear by other students, as well as byteachers and administrators. School uniformsremove these factors from the socialenvironment within the school, thus relievingstudents from the pressure to fit in. Expertsbelieve that, by improving the socialenvironment through mandatory standardizeddress, both academic and behavioral outcomesimprove.CostIn some cases, the use of school uniforms ismore affordable to families because there is notas much pressure to buy expensive, trendyclothing. Uniforms are made to last, and can bewashed easily and frequently. After the initialcost of buying uniforms, there is no need tospend as much money on clothing.more expensive for a family who buys fromsecond-hand stores or who relies on hand-me-down clothing from friends and family. Someexperts believe the cost is a negative aspect ofschool uniforms because there is no use for themoutside of school.ComfortCritics argue that different types of clothingfeel comfortable to different people. Somechildren are more comfortable in a specificmaterial or style of clothing. Uniforms reduceones ability to choose clothing that fitsindividual comfort needs. Experts believe thatchildren need to feel comfortable in order tomaximize learning, and that uniforms can, inthis way, deter academic success for somechildren.Delays Transition into AdulthoodSome experts feel that self-expression and self-identification as a teenager helps prepare themto make the leap into adulthood. By forcingteenagers to wear school uniforms, it limitstheir ability to express in this manner, whichmay delay their transition into adulthood.One study done in the state of Louisianafoundthat the only benefits derived from schooluniforms ended once the students left middleschool, and that no benefits were found forhigh school students.Expert OpinionsMany educators and experts believe that, although in theory uniforms should improve academic,behavioral and social outcomes, in reality they do not. These experts argue that the studies ofschools who initiate uniforms do not report improvement in any of these areas; therefore, if thedesired outcomes are not reached, there is no valid reason to standardize student dress.There are also, of course, experts who maintain that uniforms do have advantages. Every schooldistrict decides on this issue separately, usually following much debate surrounding theadvantages and disadvantages of requiring students to wear uniforms.
  17. 17. School uniforms are a bad idea’s SummaryA list of speculative arguments against school uniformsIf school had school uniforms then the kids would have to wear something that they didn’t wantto wear.What about the kid’s individuality if they are confined to wear something they don’twant to wear then that is destroying kids rights. “Just because we are kids that doesn’t meanthat we should not be ignored” “we have rights too”.If school’s had school uniforms then it might cause problems in the student’s. Because thestudent’s might rebel and start to do stuff that teacher’s do when they don’t get paid enough.Go on strike or protest, a sit in that’s when kids and sometimes teacher’s sit in and refuse to dowork and they do that until they give in. so if they had school uniforms there might be problems.If the school’s had school uniforms then there could be problems with the cost. If a family waspoor and The school just had a meeting about the students and them not following the dresscode so they have decided to put school uniforms in to actions. But what happens if they poorfamily cant pay for the school uniforms. Will the kids get kicked out or will the kids get theuniforms and the parents will have to work until they pay off their debt to the school or what.If school’s had school uniforms then what would happen if the kids didn’t like them? Well thekids might come back and refuse to wear them. They might have taken a sewing class so theycould make them different they would change them to look really good. Because some student’s(like me) I would probably not like them, not want to wear them. So I would change them intosomething tighter, shorter or twisting and winding them to make them look much betterIf schools had school uniforms then the kids would probably not be happy. What if they just puta dress code on? Then the kids would have guide lings but they would be ably top wear whatever they want whenever they want. But with limits so they don’t go over bored and show un-needed parts of your body. So they can’t all wear the same thing because that would be aproblem.Just because some parents have to wear school uniforms doesn’t mean that kids should. Someparents have to wear uniforms so they can think that the kids have to. Well that’s not right.They chose to wear uniforms when they got a job ant they know that some have to wearuniforms. So just because they have to doesn’t make use have to. We should have to wearschool uniforms when we are older when we get jobs.I learned that children from kinder garden and up have to wear school uniforms. I mean like whywould they make children in kinder garden wear school uniforms they are not breaking any rulesthey don’t wear inappropriate cloths they are being dressed by there parents maybe not all ofthem but a lot of them are. But its not like they are buying mini skirts are tube tops they arewearing overalls, dresses or shorts that like are so long they are like pants. So why makechildren in kinder garden to grade tree have to wear school uniforms11
  18. 18. Arguments Against School Uniforms’s SummaryA thorough and mostly convincing list of logical arguments against schooluniforms.Lets examine the arguments against school uniforms in government schools.Despite the enthusiasm for uniforms, there are plenty of good sound reasons to avoid them. As notedin my discussion of the benefits of school uniforms in government schools, they are something thatcould work well for certain individuals, but the idea that "one size fits all" just isnt appealing to thisLibertarian.So lets start. Making the top of the list is the idea that this policy is a "one size" fits all, and we allknow that isnt true.This is a common and irritating approach to government. Would you like it if a retail outlet treatedyou like a shoplifter? Of course not, but thats exactly what a "one size fits all" approach to doingbusiness would have your local retailers doing.1. We should have the courage to identify bad actors and implement measures directed atthem. Instead, we punish every student with a "one size fits all" mentality. If you lookclosely at the overall student body, youll likely find that there is a small percentage ofstudents that are gang members or drug dealers or miscreants of some sort.2. Why not target these individuals for control measures instead of everyone? Why not targetthese individuals for expulsion instead of treating the entire student body as if they were athreat of some sort?3. Our system of laws and regulations typically punish everyone for the actions of a few. Itsalways the few who things for the rest of us because of our proclivity to broadly apply a ruleinstead of taking the time to sort out who the trouble-makers are and deal with themindividually.4. Before we further this discussion, perhaps youd care to see a presentation from a school"outfitter" named Michael Apfelberg to see what he thinks about the negatives of schooluniforms. His observations, as a provider of school uniforms, ought to be enlightening.5. Wow, only three negatives from this school "outfitter." Imagine that! And, his negativenumber 3 was pretty lame at that. It makes me think that perhaps he isnt all that willing tolook at the other side.6. So, lets look at more arguments against school uniforms, and Ill dedicate reason #2 to ourfriend from New Hampshire, Mr. Apfelberg, who cant seem to think of reasons why schooluniforms are a bad idea.7. It creates yet another special interest group that wants to convince the government to dosomething that is in their favor. Perhaps our "outfitter," Mr. Apfelberg couldnt bring himselfto create reasoning against his own special interest. After all, people like him will bepetitioning the government (perhaps at multiple levels) to endorse the idea of schooluniforms.8. We dont need more special interest groups, and thats reason enough for me to be againstschool uniforms.12
  19. 19. 9. Implementing a school uniform program by itself reinforces the idea that simply changingwhat students wear will make a difference in their behavior. Its a type of "preventive law." Arestriction that is supposed to stop some undesirable behavior.10. The fact that we try it in the first place gives it some level of credibility as if student dress isreally the root cause of poor behavior and lower performance in school. Its not, so itsreasonable to be against school uniforms because there isnt a cause and effect relationship -something else is causing the violence, bad behavior and poor performance.11. Its an idea for fixing problems that allows us to conveniently avoid proper analysis thatwould identify causes of student violence and poor performance, and create appropriatesolutions.12. First and foremost, we need to clearly identify the problems. Then, we need to identify theimmediate causes of the problems. Only then can we target "fixes" that address the causes. Ifwe effectively address the causes, then the problems will be reduced or eliminated.13. Im against school uniforms simply because a lack of school uniforms isnt whats causing allthe problems. As George Carlin once said: "We dont have time for rational solutions."14. If everyone wears the same clothes, that doesnt transform individual students intowonderful community members with like minds and spirit. There needs to be more at workto create such "oneness," and it takes years to build such a culture.15. This type of thinking is a typical American "drive through" and "just add water" approach thatimagines such transformations could be created by quick and simple methods.16. Its very much like our foreign policies, we forget about the culture of others and how thatcant be changed overnight, no matter how much we wish it to be. We apparently have thesame arrogance when it comes to the culture of communities and individuals.17. Requiring uniforms isnt the role of government, unless that same government organizationis providing uniforms for their troops, and history shows that some countries have done justthat. Listen to observations from George Carlin who was also against school uniforms.18. If we allow school officials to prescribe school uniforms, then we can expect rules on hairstyles, makeup, deodorant, dental hygiene, fingernail length, shoes and so on. I dont like tolet the "camels nose under the tent," so Im against school uniforms as a broad brushapproach to solving problems.19. Following the lead from George Carlin, I believe its very likely that forcing kids to dress alikewill only help create more followers than leaders. If you become accustomed to being toldwhat to do, then how do you handle it when you finally graduate and youre placed in anenvironment where youre not told what to do?20. I think school uniforms set some students up for failure when it comes to making their owndecisions about who they are and how theyre going to present themselves to the world.21. If youre in favor of individual responsibility, then youre likely to be against school uniformsbecause such rules dont foster individuality or individual responsibility, they diminish it.22. Unless youre going straight from a government school into the military,the idea of a dresscode isnt the way the real world works. People in a free society dress they way they wouldlike to. Especially in America, the melting pot, we have all manner of dress that originatesfrom our cultural differences.23. I thought we were supposed to be inclusive, accepting and tolerant.24. Self-image can be adversely affected by forcing someone to wear something that theydislike. Just think of all the unusual clothes that some people wear - baggy pants, jackets witharms too long, long legged pants that stack up around the ankles, hats on backwards andsideways, and blue jeans that are washed out and torn at the knees. Were talking aboutpersonal choices in dress here.
  20. 20. 25. Now, imagine that parents forced their kids to go to school with worn out, ripped andmisfitting clothes that were placed on them backwards or inside out. This wouldnt bepersonal choice, but it could be viewed as quite uncalled for.26. I could envision a lot of conflict arising from forcing a child to wear something they dislike.The same would be true if government officials from the school system told you how to dress,and thats why Im against school uniforms.27. If you think baggy pants allow students to bring weapons to school, then I suggest that clothesarent the cause of weapons, its something else. Lets focus on logical cause and effectrelationships, not band-aids like school uniforms.28. School uniforms diminish free expression at a time when young people are trying to establishwho they are among throngs of others. There is such a thing as distractions in the classroom,but that can be handled on a case-by-case basis or with a reasonable dress code.29. Punishing free expression by everyone because of the actions of a few is a bad precedence.Its not what freedom is all about.30. Uniforms cost money, and thats an additional financial burden placed on families. If a familywould like to purchase a set of clothes for their children to wear to school - "school clothes" -then thats just fine.31. Requiring a uniform to be purchased from a supplier isnt the business of school authorities,and the additional cost isnt justified. Its just another example of government mandates thatarent funded.You get the idea. Im against school uniforms, and I think most freedom-minded people are too.America is strong because we are composed of individuals who are allowed to be leaders andinnovators. Were strong because our government is supposed to be limited in scope and depth.Im against school uniforms because its more government, less freedom, less individual decision-making, and there is no clear link between school uniforms and causes of problems in schools. I wentto government schools that didnt require uniforms, and it didnt seem to affect our performance onelittle bit.If you believe that a lack of school uniforms is the cause of troubles in government schools, then youllalso likely believe that disease is caused by a lack of medication. And, this begs me to repeat thisimportant point: this Libertarian is against school uniforms because we havent done our homeworkto show that trouble in school is caused by a lack of school uniforms.
  21. 21. An Argument Against School UniformsBy Joel M., Hinckley, UTteenink.comTeacher’s SummaryAn eighth grader’s persuasive essay about why he does not want schooluniforms. Good primary source.There is an ongoing discussion in this nation about school uniforms, whether or not they help withbehavior problems, and increase test scores. As an eighth grade student at Delta Middle School, I donot want school uniforms. In this paper I will present the argument against wearing school uniforms. Iwill include personal opinion and will also cite research.Kade A., a sixth grade student, when asked about school uniforms said, “No, I don’t like them,because they are uncomfortable, and make you feel like you are in your church clothes all the time.”Daycen J., another student said, “I don’t like school uniforms because they take away student’sindividuality.”Dr. Alan Hilfer, senior psychologist in Brooklyn’s Children’s and Adolescent Unit at MaimonidesMedical Center states:"Clothes are a source of expression for children, and as kids get older, they become increasinglyresentful of uniforms….By instituting a uniform policy, schools are taking away kids’ individuality---schools need to decide if that sacrifice is worth making.”Dr. Hilfer is talking about whether taking away student’s individuality is worth the payoff of decreasedbehavior problems, and increased test scores. A study done by David L. Brunsma , University ofAlabama and Kerry A. Rockquemore of Notre Dame, entitled Effects of Student Uniforms onAttendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Abuse, and Academic Achievement, showed that uniformsdid not lead to an improvement in these areas. Their conclusion was:“Student uniform use was not significantly correlated with any of the school commitment variablessuch as absenteeism, behavior, or substance use (drugs). In addition, students wearing uniforms didnot appear to have any significantly different academic preparedness, proschool attitudes, or peergroup structures with proschool attitudes than other students.”One area that might be of concern is the lessening of gang related problems, and fashion wars. Astudy published in 1995, by Lillian O. Holloman, a clothing and textiles professor at Virginia PolytechicInstitute and State University, entitled Violence and Other Antisocial Behaviors in Public Schools: CanDress Codes Help Solve the Problem? explores the problems the students can get into because of theway they dress. The study says:“Gang colors and insignias, whether worn intentionally or unintentionally, can get a student jumpedor worse. Status clothes, such as team jackets of professional sports teams, leather coats and designer13
  22. 22. sneakers, have led to thefts, sometimes by knife or at gunpoint.”This may be true in some areas of the country, such as low-income, inner city areas, but I do notbelieve this to be true in the Millard County School District. I cannot recall any accounts of violenceagainst students caused by a student’s clothing selection. I believe that before you put into action aschool uniform policy based on such fears, you need to take into account the area the school is in, theeconomic level of the population, the number of people involved in gangs and the amount of gangrelated activity in the community.Most of the articles that I have read about whether wearing school uniforms changes behavior andincreases test scores, are inconclusive. Most of the time other rules are put into place along with theschool uniforms, which may lead to a desired behavior. However, the uniform itself cannot be entirelyresponsible for the change.Middle School/ Junior High is a time of maturing, physically, mentally, academically, and emotionally.Schools need to create an environment that encourages students individuality and motivate them tochallenge themselves and inspire self confidence. I feel that school uniforms diminish creativity andself expression.
  23. 23. Scientific School Uniform ResearchTeacher’s SummaryA California school district was claiming that a new uniform policy improvedcrime and drug rates by 50-100%. The researchers did not believe that, sothey did a study and found that uniforms did not impact attendance orgrades, and actually made students’ behavior worse.The scientific research on uniforms is just starting to come in. The following discusses a paper fromThe Journal of Education Research (Volume 92, Number 1, Sept./Oct. 1998, pp. 53-62) by David L.Brunsma from the University of Alabama and Kerry A. Rockquemore of Notre Dame:Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Abuse, and AcademicAchievementThis study showed that uniforms did not lead to an improvement in attendance, behavior, drug use,or academic achievement.Heres the abstract from their study:Mandatory uniform policies have been the focus of recent discourse on public school reform.Proponents of such reform measures emphasize the benefits of student uniforms on specificbehavioral and academic outcomes. Tenth grade data from The National Educational LongitudinalStudy of 1988 was used to test empirically the claims made by uniform advocates. The findingsindicate that student uniforms have no direct effect on substance use, behavioral problems, orattendance. Contrary to current discourse, the authors found a negative effect of uniforms onstudent academic achievement. Uniform policies may indirectly affect school environments andstudent outcomes by providing a visible and public symbol of commitment to school improvementand reform.Brunsma and Rockquemore wanted to investigate the extraordinary claims being made about howwonderful school uniforms are, particularly from the Long Beach California. It was being claimed thatmandatory uniform policies were resulting in massive decreases (50 to 100 percent) in crime anddisciplinary problems.It is typically assumed, as exemplified in Long Beach, that uniforms are the sole factor causing directchange in numerous behavioral and academic outcomes. Those pronouncements by uniformproponents have raised strident objections and created a political climate in which public schooluniform policies have become highly contested. The ongoing public discourse is not only entrenched incontroversy but also largely fueled by conjecture and anecdotal evidence. Hence, it now seems criticalthat empirical analysis should be conducted to inform the school uniform debate. In this study, weinvestigated the relationship between uniforms and several outcomes that represent the coreelements of uniform proponents claims. Specifically, we examined how a uniform affects attendance,behavior problems, substance abuse, and academic achievement. We believe that a thorough analysisof the arguments proposed by uniform advocates will add critical insight to the ongoing debate on theeffects of school uniform policies. (Brunsma and Rockquemore, 1998, pg. 54)14
  24. 24. The authors point out that if uniforms work, they should see some of the following trends in schoolswith uniforms:1. Student uniforms decrease substance use (drugs).2. Student uniforms decrease behavioral problems.3. Student uniforms increase attendance.4. Student uniforms increase academic achievement.They suspected that whenother variables affecting these four items were accounted for, it would beshown that uniforms were not the cause for improvement.How They Did Their StudyThey used data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), and three follow-up studies. These studies tracked a national sample of eighth graders (in 1988) from a wide variety ofpublic and private schools and followed their academic careers through college. Some of the datacollected in the studies included uniform policies, student background (economic and minoritystatus), peer group (attitudes towards school and drug use), school achievement, and behavioralcharacteristics (how often did each student get into trouble, fights , suspensions, etc.). The authorsconcentrated on data from the students 10th grade year.Some of the independent variables they considered were sex, race, economic status, public or privateschool, academic or vocational "tracking", rural or urban district, peer proschool attitudes, academicpreparedness, the students own proschool attitudes, and most importantly, whether or not thestudents wore uniforms. The researchers wanted to determine if there was a tie between thesevariables and desirable behavior by the students. The areas that they were looking for improvementas a result of the previous variables included reduced absenteeism, fewer behavioral problems,reduced illegal drug use, and improved standardized test scores. The researchers considered thissecond group of variables to be the dependent variables. The goal of their study was to determine ifthere was any relationship between the independent variables (particularly uniforms) and thedependent variables.The authors took all of the data for these variables from the NELS:88 study and performed aregression analysis to see if any of the independent variables were predictors of any of the dependentvariables. If there was a strong tie in the data between any two variables ( uniforms and absenteeism,for example), it would show up in the study as a correlation coefficient close to 1 or -1. A correlationcoefficient near 0 indicates no relationship between the two variables. So, if wearing uniforms had alarge effect on behavior, we would expect to see a correlation coefficient of say 0.5 between uniformsand measures of good behavior. If we see a very low correlation coefficient between these two, thenwe know that wearing uniforms has no real effect on behavior.ResultsThe only positive result for uniforms that the study showed was a very slight relationship betweenuniforms and standardized achievement scores. The correlation coefficient was 0.05, indicating a veryslight possible relationship between the two variables, but showing that uniforms are a very poorpredictor of standardized test scores and that the relationship is much weaker than has beenindicated in the uniform debate. Notice that 0,05 is much closer to 0 than to 1. Other than this oneweak, possible relationship, uniforms struck out. In the authors own words:Student uniform use was not significantly correlated with any of the school commitment variablessuch as absenteeism, behavior, or substance use (drugs). In addition, students wearing uniforms did
  25. 25. not appear to have any significantly different academic preparedness, proschool attitudes, or peergroup structures with proschool attitudes than other students. Moreover, the negative correlationsbetween the attitudinal variables and the various outcomes of interest are significant; hence, thepredictive analysis provides more substantive results.In other words, the authors saw no relationship between wearing uniforms and the desirablebehavior (reduced absenteeism, reduced drug usage, improved behavior). They did, however, see astrong relationship between academic preparedness, proschool attitudes, and peers having proschoolattitudes and the desirable behaviors. Furthermore, they saw no relationship between wearinguniforms and the variables that do predict good behavior (academic preparedness, proschoolattitudes, and peers having proschool attitudes).ConclusionBased upon this analysis, the authors were forced to reject the ideas that uniforms improvedattendance rates, decreased behavioral problems, decreased drug use, or improved academicachievement. The authors did find that proschool attitudes from students and their peers and goodacademic preparedness did predict the desired behavior. They saw that wearing uniforms did not leadto improvements in proschool attitudes or increased academic preparation.
  26. 26. School Uniforms: Panacea or Band-Aid?’s SummaryUniforms alone do not have all of the magical effects some school districtspromise. However, a school uniform can be one of many factors that couldcontribute to improved school performance and safety.Does requiring students to wear uniforms directly affect school environment andstudent achievement, or is it the equivalent of painting the walls of a crumblingbuilding -- merely cosmetic? What does the research say? What do students, teachers,and parents say?Shopping for back-to-school clothes was just a little different this year for gap-toothed third graderAdiSirkes, who needed new clothes after his school adopted a uniform dress policy. Next year, hell goto a different school, one that mandates different uniforms -- and that will mean yet another wholenew wardrobe."My sons an unusual size," his mother Irit told Education World, "so its hard to find him clothesanyway. Limiting what I buy to certain colors makes shopping for him not only more expensive butthat much harder.""My fifth-grade daughter used to like school," added Connie Terry, "but last year, her school switchedto uniforms. Now when I ask her how school is going, the first thing out of her mouth is she hatesuniforms. Even during the summer time, shed say, I hate to wear uniforms. My daughter likes to beindividual, to wear what she wants. She doesnt want to have to wear what everyone else is wearing.It doesnt make her feel good about herself; it doesnt make her feel special."Despite complaints like these, public schools throughout the United States are adopting uniform dresspolicies. In 1994, the Long Beach, California, school system began requiring that students wearuniforms. The system recorded a drop in suspensions, assaults, thefts, vandalism, and weapon anddrug violations and an increase in attendance. Ten states -- plus scores of individual communities --followed suit and adopted some type of school uniform regulation. Included in those ranks wereschools in Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Nashville, New Orleans,Phoenix, Seattle, and St. Louis. This school year, 550,000 New York City elementary students arewearing uniforms.Although most evidence is anecdotal, the Long Beach schools werent the only schools to noteimproved behavior. Chicago school officials found a drop in gang violence after adopting schooluniforms. Birmingham schools reported a drop in weapon and drug incidents, and Houston schoolsreported a decrease in violent crime. Miami-Dade County schools, however, found that fights nearlydoubled at their middle schools after the school district adopted a uniform policy."Many schools here draw from varied socioeconomic levels," Bev Heller, a teacher at Fienberg-FisherElementary in Miami-Dade County told Education World. "Wealthier students may own every uniformaccessory and wear designer bracelets or shoes that light up; others -- if they do own uniforms -- have15
  27. 27. very basic ones. Adopting uniforms certainly did not blur the socioeconomic lines in our studentbody.""Our school has had a mandatory uniform policy for three years," she continued. "There is a big signin our school, Uniforms Mandatory, but not all the students wear them. Our student body istransient, and purchasing different uniforms every time a student moves can be very expensive.Requiring school uniforms could be a hardship, especially on students who frequently move."HOW TO ADOPT A UNIFORM POLICYBecause of results like those in Long Beach, Chicago, and Birmingham, many schools are adoptinguniform dress policies. Experts offer advice to those schools on how best to initiate it. Among the tipsincluded in the U.S. Department of Educations manual are the following:Involve parents and students from the beginning, including getting their input on what theuniform will look like. Students are more likely to wear a uniform they think is attractive thanone they hate. Make sure there are choices for types of tops and bottoms and perhaps evencolors so the uniform looks good on different body types.Decide what the ramifications will be if a student does not wear a uniform. Will the schooloverlook it? Will the child be sent home? Will your school give the child a uniform from anavailable supply and assess one fee if it is not returned and a smaller cleaning fee when it is?Decide in advance how your school will deal with this issue.Include an arrangement for students who cannot afford or choose not to wear uniforms.Some school districts collect old uniforms to distribute to needy families. Some distributedonated money so parents themselves can select their childrens uniforms. Others permitstudents who do not wish to wear uniforms to transfer to a school that does not requirethem, and some school districts have an opt-out policy."Before initiating a uniform policy, administrators need to investigate options and select the ones thatbest meet the individual schools needs," states the manual. "As the courts have yet to decide if apublic school district can make students wear uniforms, some sort of opt-out policy is definitelydesirable."WHY UNIFORMS?Proponents of school uniforms believe that in addition to reducing assaults, thefts, vandalism, andweapon and drug use in schools, requiring students to wear uniformsincreases security by making it obvious who is not supposed to be on campus;helps parents by reducing the cost of being fashionable;helps students resist peer pressure;blurs socioeconomic lines because people cannot judge others by their clothes;reduces arguments over clothes because kids have no reason to fight over or steal oneanothers clothes;
  28. 28. facilitates school pride, improves school climate, and sets the tone of the classroom as aserious place for learning;increases attendance and academic achievement;reduces gang violence.CAN UNIFORMS REALLY BRING ABOUT THE KINDS OF IMPROVEMENTS THATPROPONENTS CLAIM?Sociologists David Brunsma and Kerry Rockquemore discovered that requiring students to wearuniforms had no direct effect on substance abuse, behavioral problems, or school attendance. Theyused data on approximately 5,000 U.S. sophomores who were part of a 1988 National EducationalLongitudinal Study at the University of Alabama at Huntsville. The results of that study aredocumented in The Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Use,and Academic Achievement, published in The Journal of Educational Research.Brunsma told EducationWorld that the tenth-grade students who were required to wear uniforms actually scored slightlylower on standardized achievement tests than did a comparable group not required to wear them."They think uniforms will solve every problem, but dont they understand being forced to wearuniforms could make rebellious teens even more rebellious?" 13-year-old Emily Granen askedEducation World. Rebellious teens forced to wear uniforms might be even less inclined to do well.Some people think that making kids wear uniforms will reform schools is the equivalent of paintingthe walls of a crumbling building -- merely cosmetic.Long Beach Unified School District public information director Dick Van Der Laan, speaking about thesuccesses achieved after initiating a uniform policy, says in the Manual on School Uniforms, "We cantattribute the improvement exclusively to school uniforms...." What has been found to decreasevandalism, school crime in general, and fights is using a combination of initiatives, one of which couldbe requiring students to wear uniforms."Uniform policies may indirectly affect school environment and student outcomes by providing avisible and public symbol of commitment to school improvement and reform," Brunsma toldEducation World. "They are not the sole factor responsible for the numerous behavioral and academicoutcomes attributed to them."Schools that include, among other initiatives, see-through plastic or mesh book bags, metal detectors,aggressive truancy-reduction initiatives, drug-prevention efforts, student and/or athlete drug testing,community efforts to limit gangs, a zero-tolerance policy for weapons, character education classes,and conflict resolution proposals -- plus the uniform initiative -- frequently do improve schooldiscipline and safety.Although not a panacea for rectifying educational issues, students who wear uniforms may engenderpositive changes in themselves and in schools. Teacher Kathleen Modenback of Northshore HighSchool, a school in Louisiana that adopted a uniform policy this year, told Education World, "Ive neverbeen concerned with what my students wear. Supervising uniforms and dress codes only lengthensthe long list of parental jobs that educators have taken over in recent years. Uniforms, which areeconomical and easy for parents, are sometimes looked on as a solution to the atmosphere of
  29. 29. impending danger that has settled on schools nationwide."However, after seeing our students in uniforms for the last two weeks, I see an almost magicalchange in the student body. My seniors talk of the ease with which they dress in the morning, and allthe kids seem calmer and more mild-mannered. Almost all the students were wearing the uniformsalthough the deadline for wearing them was weeks away. Maybe theres something to them. Perhapsthey draw us all into a sense of false security and well-being that only conformity can give."
  30. 30. Argumentative Essay: School Uniformwww.scholaradvisor.comTeacher’s SummaryAnecdotal thoughts on why school uniforms are good.The idea of school uniforms seems like an antiquated concept for many NorthAmericans. Unless a child attends private school, it is not normally practiced by children and families.Yet around the world, wearing school uniforms is the norm. Students studying in schools requiringschool uniforms generally perform very well academically and seem happy wearing the same outfitevery day. There are many benefits to wearing school uniforms that schools in Canada and the UnitedStates should incorporate into their public schools.One of the biggest concerns in schools these days is bullying. Students are harassed physically,verbally, and socially. The latest trend in bullying is cyberbullying. Often, the cause of bullying stemsfrom people being different for not wearing the “right” clothes. If someone looks richer, most peoplefeel like they have a higher social status or more power. To the contrary, uniforms allow children tolearn on a more level playing field, with less judgment about clothing choices, brands of clothing, orphysical appearance.A lot of students who wear uniforms claim that they feel more proud of their school. Wearing schoolcolors gives students a feeling of being more connected to their school and classmates. If there is asense of community and connectedness among the students, the use of foul language, gang behavior,and crimes like vandalism are largely eliminated. Wearing school uniforms can also help people gainmore self-confidence because they know they are a part of something bigger.One of the main concerns people have about wearing school uniforms is conformity. People fear thatby making children look the same, their individuality will be suppressed. However, this is not the case.Accessories, such as bracelets and hair clips, can jazz up a school uniform. Besides, students can weartheir own clothing after school and during weekends. An individual’s personality is not whollyexpressed by fashion alone. Personality is determined by the way a person moves, feels, thinks, andtalks. Wearing a school uniform neither defines a child’s personality nor erases it.There are even more advantages to wearing school uniforms in public schools in addition to thosepreviously mentioned. It means lower costs for parents during back-to-school shopping. However, theidea that bullying might be alleviated is the leading reason why schools should implement the wearingof uniforms. The other is the fostering of school pride. Students will not lose their personality but willmerely learn new ways to express themselves.16
  31. 31. History of School Uniformskids.lovetoknow.comBy Jodee RedmondLearning something about the history of school uniforms can help parents and students gain someperspective on whether they are in favor of them or not.School uniforms worn by students tend to be conservative in style. For boys, they may be made up ofdark pants and a light colored shirt. A tie completes the outfit. School uniforms for girls may be madeup of a blouse worn with a skirt, culottes, a jumper, or a dress. Some schools will allow femalestudents to wear pants. A jacket may be worn by both genders.History of School Uniforms Over TimeThe history of school uniforms can actually be dated back to the fall of the Roman Empire whenformal education also stopped for young people in the West. Boys were sometimes chosen to attendsong schools to prepare them for the priesthood. They may have worn similar clothing whileattending classes.In the Middle Ages, priests often took on the role of teacher. Boys were the only ones offered aneducation, since educating girls wasnt considered a priority at that time. Students attending secularschools probably didnt wear uniforms while attending classes, which could be for up to 12 hours aday.School Uniforms in EnglandMost students attending elementary and secondary schools in England are required to wear uniforms.Policies vary from school to school as to how strictly the wearing of the uniform is enforced.In thepast several years, a trend has emerged where school uniforms are more modern. Instead of thetraditional uniform (including a blazer and tie) in a thick fabric, T-shirts, polo shirts and sweatshirts inschool colors may be worn. Plain colored pants or jeans may be worn at some schools.This policy was adopted to modernize the apparel of students and also to help families who werefinding it difficult to afford the standard school uniform. Another consideration is the fact that schoolsare now using central heat in the winter, which means the temperature during colder months is mucheasier to control. Students no longer need to bundle up in old-style uniforms to stay comfortablewhile attending classes in winter, and these styles are not the best choice during summer months.Some schools in England are bucking the trend toward more modern school uniforms, and insteadhave chosen to go back to more traditional ones. Administrators want students to have a moreconservative look and feel that having students wear uniforms will help to combat bullying.School Uniforms in the United StatesMost public schools in the U.S. dont require students to wear uniforms; however, the number ofschools that require pupils to wear uniforms has been on the rise. Those children attending privateschools are likely to be required to wear uniforms when they go to school. Catholic schools inparticular expect students to dress in a certain way.Options Instead of School UniformsInstead of setting a policy that students are required to wear a uniform, many school districts decideon a standardized dress code instead. These may be adopted in an attempt to keep "gang clothing"17
  32. 32. out of schools and to reduce pressure on students (and their parents) to buy certain brands ofclothing in order to fit in or be popular.The dress code may specify that certain parts of the body must remain covered while on schoolproperty (stomach and back). Most schools would not encourage students to wear T-shirts withviolent messages or offensive language on them. Some dress codes may be quite specific about thestyle of dress that students are allowed to wear, while others give pupils a certain amount of leeway.Students and their parents may be told that they are expected to wear clothing that is clean, neat,and that covers them appropriately.These recent developments will form part of the history of school uniforms, and we can look back tosee how the popularity of school uniforms changes with time.
  33. 33. "School Uniforms: Prevention or Suppression?"by Raymond F. Felch IIITeacher’s SummarySchool uniforms attack individuality, something especially important toteens. Gang violence is too big of a problem for school uniforms to solve.Uniforms possibly infringe on USA Constitutional rights. Certain studies onschool uniforms are unreliable.Consider the following excerpts from the President’s Radio Address to the Nation;"This morning I want to talk with you about what we can do to break hold of gangs and violence in ourschools and what we can do to create an atmosphere in our schools that promotes discipline andorder and learning ... I believe we should give strong support to school districts that decide to requireyoung students to wear school uniforms. We’ve all seen the tragic headlines screaming of the deathof a teenager who was killed for a pair of sneakers or jewelry or a designer jacket. In Detroit, a 15-yearold boy was shot for his $86 basketball shoes. In Fort Lauderdale, a 15-year old student was robbed ofhis jewelry. Just this past December in Oxon Hill, Maryland, a 17-year old honor student was killed at abus stop, caught in the cross fire during the robbery of another students designer jacket" (Clinton,"Transcript," 1-2).Why are we proposing to mandate school uniforms for all elementary and middle schools students,while at the same time excluding high school students? Is it not obvious, by the President’s ownaccounting, that the problem group is teenage students ages 15 and older? Moreover, is there anyindisputable evidence that school uniforms can help cure society’s violence and disciplinaryproblems? How reliable are the statistics that show the short term implementation of school uniformsin a select group of elementary and middle schools prevents violence? Knowing all of this, are we stillwilling to freely give up more of our God given constitutional rights? Worse yet, by accepting thisproposal, are we saying that we are in favor of stifling the creativity and individuality of our children?The Department of Education, in consultation with the Department of Justice, and under the directionof President Clinton, has developed the Manual of School Uniforms. On February 24, 1996, PresidentClinton signed a directive to distribute this manual to the Nation’s 1600 public school districts(Clinton, "Text," 2). Furthermore, the leaders of our schools appear to have hastily embraced this newproposal. A recent national survey of 5,500 secondary school principals shows that they feel schooluniforms would help eliminate violence (Tousignant 1). Shawn Ashley, principal in the Long BeachUnified School District, claims there have been fewer incidents of fighting since they imposed themandatory school uniform policy one year ago. Ashley reports that incidents of fighting has droppedfrom 1,135 in the 1993-94 school year, to only 554 for the 1994-95 school year (Kennedy 1). Clearly,this is an issue that affects parents across the nation, and should be carefully examined before givingour unconditional support. I believe that any proposal is dangerous if it fails to address the realproblem, threatens to diminish our constitutional rights and has been promoted by using misleadingstatistics.There is no question that school uniforms can instill a feeling of school spirit, school pride and social18
  34. 34. acceptance. When compared to designer clothes and name brand basketball shoes, school uniformscan also be a cost effective solution to school wear. Surely, this is an appealing benefit to thosefamilies that find it difficult, if not impossible, to afford such luxuriance. Certainly, parents will findthat it is easier to shop for their children’s school attire, and the students will be able to quicklychoose their outfits for school in the morning.Unfortunately, as well served as this proposal may appear, school uniforms can not solve the nation’sproblems of gang violence. Clearly, these deeply rooted problems are well beyond the scope of anyschool uniform policy. Furthermore, mandating this policy only at the elementary and middle schoollevel does nothing to curb gang violence occurring at the high schools across our country. As LorenSiegel, Director of the Public Education Department, ACLU, points out, school administrators andteachers have been reluctant to impose the school uniform policy on high school students, because itmost certainly will cause the teenagers to rebel (Siegel 1). Cecilia Smith, a guidance counselor atForestville High School in Prince George’s, tells of how teenage students rebelled when schooluniforms were tried at their school. Smith explains that the teenagers were rebelling because theywere afraid that "it was going to take their individuality away" (Tousignant 2).Also, Siegel argues that younger children can be persuaded to wear school uniforms. Some childrenmay even like the idea of school uniforms and the feeling of being part of the school community.Unfortunately, teenagers are at a point in their lives where expressing their individuality is extremelyimportant. She describes teenagers as young people that are striving to express uniqueness in manydifferent ways. Siegel cleverly shows that the teenagers are already in uniforms of their own choosing-- baggy pants, T-shirts and baseball caps worn backward (Siegel 1). Clearly, there is no way thatschool administrators, teachers and parents could expect the proposed school uniform policy to beimposed at the high school level.Up until now, we have discussed why a school uniform policy is futile in preventing gang violence inour schools. This however, is not the only problem with the school uniform policy. We still need toexamine the effect that such a proposal would have on our constitutional rights.Recently, the A.C.L.U. represented twenty-six families in a school uniform lawsuit against the LongBeach Unified School District. Although the case resulted in an out-of-court settlement, and bothsides tentatively agreed to certain provisions, this case raised important issues concerning our legalrights. Barbara Bernstein, executive director of the New York Civil Liberties Union, reaffirmed theopinion of the A.C.L.U. when she stated that requiring school uniforms is not only illegal, it is not thesolution to the school system’s problems. Clearly, Bernstein was in favor of President Clinton’s goal,calling it "admirable;" however she pointed out that it should not be "accomplished at the expense ofconstitutional rights" (McCarthey 2). Surely, the Long Beach lawsuit has been instrumental in raisingthe public’s awareness of the legal ramifications associated with adopting the school uniformproposal.One important aspect caused by the litigation surrounding the school uniform policy is the "opt out"provision. As a condition of the Long Beach settlement, the school district will attempt to improve thecommunication with parents and provide improved exemption procedures. The relevance of thisprovision is clearly demonstrated by the reference made in the Manual of School Uniforms, Item #5:"When a mandatory school uniform policy is adopted, determine whether to have an ‘opt out’provision" ("Manual" 2). The reference in this manual instructs the school administrators on how toprovide parents with an exemption from the policy. In some cases, the parents can "opt" to have their
  35. 35. children go to another school. In the case where all of the schools in the district require uniforms, as isthe case in the Long Beach Unified School District, the parents can "opt" to send their children toschool without uniforms ("Manual" 2). In any case, the inclusion of this provision in PresidentClinton’s Manual of School Uniforms shows a genuine concern that a mandatory policy may infringeon our constitutional rights.Obviously, one would have to agree that a school uniform policy can do little to fight gang violence inour schools. Furthermore, we should all be in agreement that a mandatory school uniform policy isconsidered unconstitutional. These issues however, are not the only ones surrounding the schooluniform proposal. To gain an overall understanding of the problem, discussion of the misleadingstatistics used in promoting this policy is necessary.In order to emphasis his position on the school uniform proposal and its apparent effectiveness,President Clinton draws attention to the Long Beach Unified School District as the model system. AsSiegel points out, in an obvious attempt to demonstrate its success, President Clinton misleadinglyreports the Long Beach School’s self-generated data showing decreases in student misconduct.Unfortunately, there was no mention of the other steps taken by the School District to improve schoolbehavior during the experimental year. Siegel reports, at the same time the school uniform policy wasimplemented, the District began "increasing the number of teachers patrolling the hallways duringclass changes" (Siegel 1). Clearly, no one can be sure which change had the most effect on studentbehavior. Furthermore, we need to remember who the gate-keeper of this conclusive data is. Couldthe school administrators, in an attempt to promote the effectiveness of their new policy and in lightof the national attention it had drawn, have possibly overlooked certain infractions during the year?Whereas, the reliability of the Long Beach case study is clearly questionable, we must also examinethe effects of other changes made at the state level across the nation. Craig Donegan, editor forCongressional Quarterly, reports a 1995 survey by the National Conference of Mayors indicating therehas been an increase in the number of youth curfews by 45 percent since 1990. Donegan alsoacknowledges that a recent National Governor’s Association (NGA) report states that between 1992and 1994 there have been 27 states that have passed laws making it easier to prosecute children asadults (Donegan 2). In addition, Senator John Ashcroft enacted the Violent and Hardcore JuvenileOffender Reform Act of 1995 (Donegan 1). Ashcroft also indicated that he wants the funding of theJuvenile Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 to be contingent upon states prosecuting juveniles age14 and up as adults. Many cities and states have adopted laws that hold the parents of delinquentchildren accountable for their chldren’s behavior (Donegan 2). Clearly, there have been many changesmade at the national, state and local levels which have been attributed to having a positive effect onjuvenile violence. Regardless of these changes, there is very little correlation between requiringschool uniforms at the elementary and middle school levels, and the recent reduction in teenageviolence at our high schools.In conclusion, the failure to address the real problem of violence in our schools, it’s impact on ourconstitutional rights and the misleading manner in which it has been proposed, clearly illustrates whywe should avert from an unconditional acceptance of the mandatory school uniform policy. It is veryclear that we have a serious juvenile violence problem in our country, and positive efforts areconstantly being made to alleviate the problem. However, we should not fall victim to the illusion thatrequiring school uniforms for children under the age of 14 can prevent this teenage violence.Likewise, we need to remember that our constitution insures our right to creativity. We have anobligation to insure that our children are allowed to grow, to be creative and to be independent
  36. 36. thinkers. Finally, there has not been any official case studies conducted that prove that schooluniforms can prevent teenage violence. The disseminated and relaxed data, which has been socleverly capitalized upon by our administrators, is inconclusive at best. Our tendency tounconditionally accept a school uniform proposal is just one more example of society’s apatheticapproach to problem solving. We all need to take a more active role when addressing issues thatconcern the rights and welfare of our family.