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Hazard in foundry and its safety measures ppt presentation


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( Safety Officer)
Amtek India Ltd
Bhiwadi (RAJ)


Hazard in foundry and its safety measures ppt presentation

  3. 3. <ul><li>The following occupational health and safety issues may be encountered during foundry activities: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Burial hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Fire and explosions </li></ul><ul><li>Eye Problem </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Recommendations for the prevention and control of physical hazards Industry specific physical hazards are discussed below. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical hazards in foundry operations may be related to handling of large, heavy, and hot raw materials and product (e.g. charging of furnaces); accidents related to heavy mechanical transport (e.g. trains, trucks and forklifts); injuries from grinding and cutting activities (e.g. contact with scrap material ejected by machine-tools); and injuries due to falls from elevation (e.g. high platforms, ladders, and stairs). </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Lifting and moving heavy loads at elevated heights using hydraulic platforms and cranes presents a significant occupational safety hazard in foundries. Recommended measures to prevent and control potential worker injury include the following; </li></ul><ul><li>Clear signage in all transport corridors and working areas; </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate design and layout of facilities to avoid crossover of different activities and flow of processes; </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of specific load handling and lifting procedures, including: </li></ul><ul><li>Description of load to be lifted (dimensions, weight, position of center of gravity);   </li></ul><ul><li>Sling scheme and strength parameters; </li></ul><ul><li>Train staff in the handling of lifting equipment and driving mechanical transport devices. </li></ul><ul><li>The area of operation of fixed handling equipment (e.g. cranes, elevated platforms) should not cross above worker and pre-assembly areas; </li></ul><ul><li>Proper handling and shielding of moving hot liquids, as well as solid metal parts; </li></ul><ul><li>Material and product handling should remain within restricted zones under supervision, with particular attention paid to proximity of electrical cables / equipment; </li></ul><ul><li>Regular maintenance and repair of lifting, electrical, and transport equipment should be conducted. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Prevention and control of injuries related to handling, grinding and cutting activities, and use of scrap, include the following:  </li></ul><ul><li>Locate machine-tools at a safe distance from other work areas and from walkways. Individual, enclosed workplaces should be provided to prevent accidents resulting from fettling or the use of grinders; </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct regular inspection and repair of machine-tools, in particular protective shields and safety devices / equipments; </li></ul><ul><li>Provide rails along the transfer plate with interlocked gates that open only when machine is not in use; </li></ul><ul><li>Train staff to properly use machines-tools, and to use appropriate personal protection equipment (PPE). </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>High temperatures and direct infrared (IR) radiation are common hazards in foundries. High temperatures can cause fatigue and dehydration. Direct IR radiation also poses a risk to sight. Contact with hot metal or hot water may result in severe burns. Recommended measures for prevention and control of exposure to heat and hot liquids / materials include the following </li></ul><ul><li>· Shield surfaces where close contact with hot equipment or splashing from hot materials is expected (e.g. in cupola furnaces, EAF, induction melting ladles, and casting); </li></ul><ul><li>Implement safety buffer zones to separate areas where hot materials and items are handled or temporarily stored. Rail guards around those areas should be provided, with interlocked gates to control access to areas during operations; </li></ul><ul><li>Use appropriate PPE (e.g. insulated gloves and shoes, goggles to protect against IR and ultraviolet radiation, and clothing to protect against heat radiation); </li></ul><ul><li>Implement shorter shift durations for work in high air temperature environments. Provide regular work breaks and access to drinking water for workers in hot areas; </li></ul><ul><li>Install cooling ventilation to control extreme temperatures. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Workers may be exposed to gamma rays and related ionizing radiation exposure risks. The following techniques may be used to limit the worker exposure risk: </li></ul><ul><li>Gamma ray testing should be carried out in a controlled, restricted area using a shielded collimator. No other activities should be undertaken in the testing area; </li></ul><ul><li>All incoming scrap should be tested for radioactivity prior to use as feedstock material; </li></ul><ul><li>If the testing area is near the plant boundary, ultrasonic testing (UT) should be considered as an alternative to gamma ray techniques; </li></ul><ul><li>Regular maintenance and repair should be conducted on testing equipment, including protective shields. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Insulation Materials </li></ul><ul><li>The use of insulation material is widespread in foundries and handling of this material during construction and maintenance may release fibers and present an occupational health hazard. Asbestos and other mineral fibers widely used in older plants may expose people to inhalation risks of cancer-causing substances. In order to limit releases, appropriate and material specific work practices should be applied. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Dust generated in foundries includes iron and metallic dusts, which are present in melting, casting and finishing shops; and wooden and sand dusts, which are present in the molding shop. In the former, workers are exposed to iron oxide, and silica dust that may be contaminated with heavy metals such as chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and manganese (Mn). The dust present in the melting and casting shops is generated by high temperature operations, and the fine particle size, and potential metallurgical fumes, creates a serious occupational inhalation risk. In the molding shop, workers are exposed to sand dust, which may contain heavy metals, and wood dust, which may have carcinogenic properties, particularly if hard wood is used. Recommendations to prevent exposure to gas and dust include the following: </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>· Sources of dust and gases should be separated and enclosed;   </li></ul><ul><li>Design facility ventilation to maximize air circulation. Outlet air should be filtered before discharge to the atmosphere; </li></ul><ul><li>Exhaust ventilation should be installed at the significant point sources of dust and gas emissions, particularly the melting shop; </li></ul><ul><li>Use automated equipment, especially in the fettling process; </li></ul><ul><li>Provide separated eating facilities that allow for washing before eating; </li></ul><ul><li>Provide facilities that allow work clothes to be separated from personal clothes and for showering / washing after work and before eating; </li></ul><ul><li>Implement a policy for periodic personnel health checks. </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory hazard control technologies should be used when exposure cannot be avoided with other means, such as operations for creating sand moulds; manual operations such as grinding or use of non-enclosed machine-tools; and during specific maintenance and repair operations. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Recommendations for respiratory protection include the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Use of filter respirators when exposed to heavy dust (e.g. fettling works); </li></ul><ul><li>For light, metallic dust and gases, fresh-air supplied respirators should be used. Alternatively, a complete facial gas mask (or an “overpressure” helmet) can be used, equipped with electrical ventilation; </li></ul><ul><li>For carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, detection equipment should be installed to alert control rooms and local personnel. In case of emergency intervention in areas with high levels of CO, workers should be provided with portable CO detectors, and fresh-air supplied respirators.  </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Handling of liquid metal may generate a risk of explosion, melt run out, and burns, especially if humidity is trapped in enclosed spaces and exposed to molten metal. Other hazards include fires caused by melted metal, and the presence of liquid fuel and other flammable chemicals. In addition, iron foundry slag may be highly reactive if calcium carbide is used to desulfurize the iron. Recommended techniques to prevent and control explosion and fire hazards include the following: </li></ul><ul><li>· Design facility layout to ensure adequate separation of flammable gas and oxygen pipelines, and storage tanks, away from heat sources; </li></ul><ul><li>Separate combustible materials and liquids from hot areas and sources of ignition (e.g. electrical panels); </li></ul><ul><li>Protect flammable gas and oxygen pipelines and tanks during “hot work’ maintenance activities; </li></ul><ul><li>emergency preparedness and response. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>The foundry process generates noise from various sources, including scrap handling, furnace charging and EAF melting, fuel burners, shakeout and mould / core shooting, and transportation and ventilation systems. Recommended noise management techniques include the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Enclose the process buildings and / or insulate them;   </li></ul><ul><li>Cover and enclose scrap storage and handling areas, as well as shake out and fettling processes; </li></ul><ul><li>Enclose fans, insulate ventilation pipes and use dampers;   </li></ul><ul><li>Implement management controls, including limitation of scrap handling and transport during nighttime. Noise abatement measures should achieve the ambient noise levels </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Eye irritation. </li></ul><ul><li>Headache. </li></ul><ul><li>Nose and throat irritation. </li></ul><ul><li>Irritability of respiratory tract </li></ul><ul><li>Gases like hydrogen sulphide, ammonia and mercaptans cause odour nuisance even at low concentrations. </li></ul><ul><li>High temperature can cause fatigue and dehydration. </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic pulmonary diseases like Bronchitis and asthma, are aggravated by a high concentration of SO 2 , NO 2 , particulate matter and photochemical smog. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Carbon monoxide combines with the haemoglobin in the blood and consequently increases stress on those suffering from cardio-vascular and pulmonary diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Dust particles cause respiratory disease. Diseases like silicosis, asbestosis etc. result from specific dust. </li></ul><ul><li>Carcinogenic agents like PAH’s, Cr(VI), Cd etc. cause cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen fluoride causes diseases of bone (fluorosis) and mottling of teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Certain heavy metals like lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, nickel, manganese etc. enter into body by inhalation, skin absorption and through food chain. They cause acute and chronic poisoning.   </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Some of the dusts and chemicals encountered in foundries (e.g., isocyanates, formaldehyde and tertiary amines, such as dimethlyethylamine, triethylamine and so on) are irritants and have been responsible for visual symptoms among exposed workers. These include itchy, watery eyes, hazy or blurred vision or so called “blue-grey vision”. On the basis of the occurrence of these effects, reducing time-weighted average exposures below 3 ppm has been recommended. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>The methods and materials involved in any form of metal casting operation are VERY hazardous.  Educate yourself on the proper safety precautions before attempting any metal casting. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Even trace amounts of MOISTURE and MOLTEN METAL don't mix!!! Steam explosions are the #1 cause of death in foundries. </li></ul><ul><li>Wear safety gear!!  This includes, but is not limited to, leather shoes, leather apron, proper gloves, wire mesh face shield, safety glasses and a hat. A leather foundry hat is the best choice.  These hats look like a sailors hat, with the brim turned down to cover your ears. Even wearing a baseball hat with the brim towards the back will help prevent metal from getting down your back.  Don't laugh, ever had a weld splatter get into your shirt?  Imagine what a tablespoon of molten metal would do!   </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Have a DRY pile of sand and a shovel ready to put out fires or to control metal spills.  </li></ul><ul><li>NEVER put water on a metal fire.  This can cause a HUGH EXPLOSION!!!. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a sand bed under all areas.  The sand bed should be at least 3 inches thick.  This will help in containing metal spills and will help protect flooring. </li></ul><ul><li>Never pour over wet ground.  Remember, even TRACE AMOUNTS of MOISTURE can cause EXPLOSIONS.  </li></ul><ul><li>Molten metal spilled on concrete will cause the concrete to explode.  Use a thick sand bed over concrete.  </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Always use clean metal as feedstock.  Combustion residues from some lubricants and paints can be very toxic. </li></ul><ul><li>Always operate in a well ventilated area. Fumes and dusts from combustion and other foundry chemicals, processes and metals can be toxic. </li></ul><ul><li>Always use a APPROPRIATE rated dusk mask.  Dusts from sand, parting dusts and chemicals can be hazardous or cancer causing.  Protect your lungs! </li></ul><ul><li>Always use safety glasses.  Even minor mishaps can cause blindness. </li></ul><ul><li>Never use a crucible that has been damaged or dropped.  It's just not worth the risk.  Imagine what would happen if a white hot crucible of brass crumbled as you were carrying it! </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Always charge crucibles when cold.  Adding metal to a hot crucible is really dangerous.  If there is moisture on the metal, even just a haze, the metal can cause the entire contents of the crucible to explode. </li></ul><ul><li>Spilled molten metal can travel for a great distance.  Operate in a clear work area. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about what you are doing at all times.  Focus on the job at hand and the next step.  Have all moves planned and rehearsed prior to any operation.   </li></ul><ul><li>Educate yourself beforehand and always be careful of your own and bystander safety. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>HAZARD </li></ul><ul><li>Ceramics work can produce airborne respirable crystalline silica (RCS). All RCS is hazardous, causing silicosis. This is a serious lung disease   </li></ul><ul><li>causing permanent disability and early death.   </li></ul><ul><li>Silicosis is made worse by smoking.   </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Respirable’ means that the dust can get to the deepest parts of the lung. Such fine dust is invisible under normal lighting. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep inhalation of RCS as low as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>When all controls are applied properly, less than 0.1 mg/m 3 RCS is usually achievable (based on an 8-hour time-weighted average). </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>The bursting or breaking of abrasive wheels may cause fatal or very serious injuries: gaps between the wheel and the rest at pedestal grinders may catch and crush the hand or forearm. Unprotected eyes are at risk at all stages. Slips and falls, especially when carrying heavy loads, may be caused by badly maintained or obstructed floors. Injuries to the feet may be caused by falling objects or dropped loads. Sprains and strains may result from overexertion in lifting and carrying. Badly maintained hoisting appliances may fail and cause materials to fall on workers. Electric shock may result from badly maintained or unearthed (ungrounded) electrical equipment, especially portable tools. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>All dangerous parts of machinery, especially abrasive wheels, should have adequate guarding, with automatic lockout if the guard is removed during processing. Dangerous gaps between the wheel and the rest at pedestal grinders should be eliminated, and close attention should be paid to all precautions in the care and maintenance of abrasive wheels and in regulation of their speed (particular care is required with portable wheels). Strict maintenance of all electrical equipment and proper grounding arrangements should be enforced. Workers should be instructed in correct lifting and carrying techniques and should know how to attach loads to crane hooks and other hoisting appliances. Suitable PPE, such as eye and face shields and foot and leg protection, should also be provided. Provision should be made for prompt first aid, even for minor injuries, and for competent medical care when needed. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Portable vibrating tools may cause Raynaud’s phenomenon (hand-arm vibration syndrome-HAVS). This is more prevalent in steel fettlers than in iron fettlers and more frequent among those using rotating tools. The critical vibratory rate for the onset of this phenomenon is between 2,000 and 3,000 revolutions per minute and in the range of 40 to 125 Hz. </li></ul>HAND ARM VIBRATION
  27. 27. <ul><li>Vibration transmitted to the hands of the worker can be considerably reduced by: selection of tools designed to reduce the harmful ranges of frequency and amplitude; direction of the exhaust port away from the hand; use of multiple layers of gloves or an insulating glove; and shortening of exposure time by changes in work operations, tools and rest periods. </li></ul><ul><li>HAVS is now thought to involve effects on a number of other tissues in the forearm apart from peripheral nerves and blood vessels. It is associated with carpal tunnel syndrome and degenerative changes in the joints. A recent study of steelworks chippers and grinders showed they were twice as likely to develop Dupuytren’s contracture than a comparison group </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>COLD </li></ul><ul><li>VIBRATION </li></ul><ul><li>Cold temperatures cause the body to pull blood into the core, resulting in similar symptoms to VWF. Severe extremity vibration, such as the operation of a jack hammer, is a clear hazard; however, even lesser vibration can have a negative effect. Small vibrations over long periods of time can be just as hazardous as large vibrations for short durations. Some examples would be operating a hand drill on an assembly line or operating hand controls on shuddering equipment. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Antivibration Tools : Many tool manufactures are producing lines of tools that absorb a great deal of the vibration output. This is a good purchase for jobs that require long periods of use. </li></ul><ul><li>Antivibration Gloves : There are many lines of gloves made with vibration-absorbing padding or gel in the palm and fingers. These gloves not only absorb vibration, but also keep the fingers warm, further protecting against VWF. This is an excellent preventive measure when different tools are used throughout the workday (construction sites) or when it is not practicable to stop the vibration in the equipment (large or complex equipment). </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Proper Work Practices : It is possible to minimize exposure to vibration by establishing work practices that:   </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the worker and the hands warm during tasks.  </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent vibration coupling between the worker and the vibrating mechanism. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for frequent breaks when using vibrating tools or equipment. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Access and premises </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance, examination and testing </li></ul><ul><li>Personal protective equipment (PPE) </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory protective equipment (RPE) </li></ul><ul><li>Other protective equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning and housekeeping </li></ul><ul><li>Training and supervision </li></ul>SAFETY STEPS :-
  32. 32. <ul><li>Only allow access to authorised staff. </li></ul><ul><li>Floors should slope gently towards gulleys, to help dust removal by wet washing. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Can you use clay with a lower silica content?   </li></ul><ul><li>Keep surfaces clean - never let slip, clay or glaze spills dry out.   </li></ul><ul><li>Fettling green, white and fired ware generates dust. Use an extracted booth or workstation. </li></ul><ul><li>Fettling booths must comply with industry best practice, as described in the ACoP. Contact BCC or Ceram - see ‘Useful links’.   </li></ul><ul><li>Consider useability - workers must be able to use fettling booths properly.   </li></ul><ul><li>Fit a manometer or pressure gauge near the extraction point, to show that the system is working properly.   </li></ul><ul><li>Mark the acceptable range of readings.   </li></ul><ul><li>With multiple extraction points, a simplified pressure check method may suffice.   </li></ul><ul><li>Discharge cleaned, extracted air to a safe place outside, away from doors, windows and air inlets.   </li></ul><ul><li>Have a supply of clean air coming into the workroom to replace extracted air.   </li></ul><ul><li>Fit an indicator or alarm to show if filters have blocked or failed.   </li></ul><ul><li>Consult a qualified ventilation engineer to design new control systems or to update current controls. See sheet G406.   </li></ul><ul><li>Caution: Never fettle dry unfired ware. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Always confirm that the dust extraction is turned on and working before starting work. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure that fettling is always done inside the booth. </li></ul><ul><li>Clean air pre-filters daily, or follow the manufacturer’s advice. </li></ul><ul><li>Shake down air filters regularly (eg every hour), or use automated reverse-jet cleaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you can get spares easily. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Minerals and silica-containing dusts are very abrasive. Plan regular maintenance. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow instructions in maintenance manuals - keep equipment in effective and efficient working order. </li></ul><ul><li>Clean down the equipment before starting maintenance - use wet or dustless methods.   </li></ul><ul><li>Check that filter seatings are in good condition. </li></ul><ul><li>Repair faulty extraction systems immediately. Meanwhile, wear respiratory protective equipment (RPE). </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Daily, look for signs of damage. Noisy or vibrating fans can indicate a problem.   </li></ul><ul><li>At least once a week, check that the dust extraction system and gauges work properly. </li></ul><ul><li>You need to keep all controls in good working order. See sheet G406 for advice on engineering controls. </li></ul><ul><li>You need to know the manufacturer’s specifications to check the extraction’s performance. </li></ul><ul><li>If this information isn’t available, hire a competent ventilation engineer to determine the performance needed for effective control. </li></ul><ul><li>The engineer’s report must show the target extraction rates. Keep this information in your testing log-book. </li></ul><ul><li>Get a competent ventilation engineer to examine the extraction thoroughly and test its performance at least once every 14 months.   </li></ul><ul><li>See the HSE publication HSG54 - see ‘Further information’. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep records of all examinations and tests for at least five years. </li></ul><ul><li>Review records - failure patterns show where preventive maintenance is needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Carry out air sampling to check that the controls are working well. See sheet G409. </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Ask your supplier to help you select the right PPE. Provide storage for clean and contaminated PPE. </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory protective equipment (RPE)   </li></ul><ul><li>RPE should not be needed if the extraction is working properly. However RPE is often needed for maintenance and some cleaning   </li></ul><ul><li>jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Powered or air-fed RPE is more comfortable to wear.   </li></ul><ul><li>Select RPE that suits the wearer, the job and the work environment.   </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Provide clothing designed for use in potteries, eg ‘Terylene’ or ‘Pertex’ with side or rear fastenings. Consult Ceram - see ‘Useful links’. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Use a contract laundry or a suitable equivalent to wash work clothing. Warn them that the dust contains silica. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Skin creams help in washing contamination from the skin. After-work creams help to replace skin oils. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Caution: Never allow use of compressed air for removing dust from clothing. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Preplacement and periodic medical examinations, including a survey of symptoms, chest x rays, pulmonary function tests and audiograms, should be provided for all foundry workers with appropriate follow-up if questionable or abnormal findings are detected </li></ul><ul><li>Consult an occupational health professional – s </li></ul><ul><li>The compounding effects of tobacco smoke on the risk of respiratory problems among foundry workers mandate inclusion of advice on smoking cessation in a programme of health education and promotion. </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Throughout the day, clear up scrap. </li></ul><ul><li>Use wet methods to clean floors regularly during the day. Stop deposits drying out. </li></ul><ul><li>Wash down the workroom at the end of each day’s work. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a Type H vacuum cleaner fitted with a HEPA filter to clear up dust eg. on overhead fittings. </li></ul><ul><li>Caution: Never use compressed air to move dust. Dry sweeping is prohibited. </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Tell workers that silica dust can cause serious lung diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Working in the right way and using the controls correctly is important for exposure control. Train and supervise workers. </li></ul><ul><li>There is also a risk of skin disease - dermatitis. </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Foundry melt-related accidents have been reported to occur for a number of reasons, including </li></ul><ul><li>the introduction of wet or damp metal into the melt, causing a water/metal explosion; </li></ul><ul><li>lack of operator skill during temperature monitoring, sampling or the addition of alloying compounds, causing metal splashing; </li></ul><ul><li>dropping large pieces of charge material into a molten bath, causing metal splashing </li></ul><ul><li>improper attention to charging, causing a bridging condition; </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>failure to stand behind safety lines, causing a trapping situation </li></ul><ul><li>coming into contact with electrical conductors, overriding safety interlock switches or coming into contact with incompletely discharged capacitors, causing electric shock OR electrocution </li></ul><ul><li>Molten Metal Splash </li></ul>
  48. 49. <ul><li>The main hazards are from fire and explosion. These are caused by: </li></ul><ul><li>✴ careless handling of a lighted blowpipe resulting in </li></ul><ul><li>burns to the user or others; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ using the blowpipe too close to combustible material; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ cutting up or repairing tanks or drums which contain or </li></ul><ul><li>may have contained flammable materials; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ gas leaking from hoses, valves and other equipment; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ misuse of oxygen; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ backfires and flashbacks. </li></ul>
  49. 50. <ul><li>Alighted oxy/fuel blowpipe is a very dangerous piece of </li></ul><ul><li>equipment. Many users are burned, sometimes quite </li></ul><ul><li>badly, by their own blowpipes. They may also injure other </li></ul><ul><li>people and set flammable materials on fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Preventing injury </li></ul><ul><li>The following precautions will help to prevent injury: </li></ul><ul><li>✴ work in a safe location away from other people; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ wear protective clothing, gauntlets and eye protection; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ shut off the blowpipe when not in use. Do not leave a </li></ul><ul><li>lighted blowpipe on a bench or the floor as the force of </li></ul><ul><li>the flame may cause it to move; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ clamp the workpiece, do not hold it by hand; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ keep hoses away from the working area to prevent </li></ul><ul><li>contact with flames, heat, sparks or hot spatter; </li></ul>
  50. 51. <ul><li>The flame from an oxy/fuel gas blowpipe is a very powerful </li></ul><ul><li>source of ignition. Many fires have been caused by the </li></ul><ul><li>careless use of oxy/fuel blowpipes. The flame will quickly ignite </li></ul><ul><li>any combustible material it comes into contact with: wood, paper, </li></ul><ul><li>cardboard, textiles, rubber, plastics. Many processes also </li></ul><ul><li>generate sparks and hot spatter which can ignite these materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Preventing fire </li></ul><ul><li>The following precautions will help to prevent fire: </li></ul><ul><li>✴ move the workpiece to a safe location for carrying out </li></ul><ul><li>the hot work process; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ remove any combustible materials (such as flammable </li></ul><ul><li>liquids, wood, paper, textiles, packaging or plastics) </li></ul><ul><li>from within about 10 metres of the work; </li></ul>
  51. 52. <ul><li>ventilate spaces where vapours could accumulate, </li></ul><ul><li>such as vehicle pits or trenches; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ protect any combustible materials that cannot be </li></ul><ul><li>moved, from close contact with flame, heat, sparks or </li></ul><ul><li>hot slag. Use suitable guards or covers such as metal </li></ul><ul><li>sheeting, mineral fibre boards or fire retardant blankets; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ check that there are no combustible materials hidden </li></ul><ul><li>behind walls or partitions which could be ignited, </li></ul><ul><li>particularly if prolonged welding or cutting is planned. </li></ul><ul><li>Some wall panels contain flammable insulation materials; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ use guards or covers to prevent hot particles passing </li></ul><ul><li>through openings in floors and walls (doorways, </li></ul><ul><li>windows, etc); </li></ul><ul><li>✴ maintain a continuous fire watch during the period of </li></ul><ul><li>the work, and for at least an hour afterwards; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ keep fire extinguishers nearby. </li></ul>
  52. 53. <ul><li>Tanks and drums </li></ul><ul><li>F lammable liquids and vapours such as petrol, diesel, fuel </li></ul><ul><li>oil, paints, solvents, glue, lacquer and cleaning agents are </li></ul><ul><li>found in many places of work. If a welding blowpipe or burner </li></ul><ul><li>is used on a tank or drum containing flammable material (solid, </li></ul><ul><li>liquid or vapour), the tank or drum can explode violently. </li></ul><ul><li>People have been killed and seriously injured by such </li></ul><ul><li>explosions. Tanks and drums that are 'empty' usually still have </li></ul><ul><li>residues in the bottom, and in seams and crevices. Just a </li></ul><ul><li>teaspoon of flammable liquid in a drum can be enough to cause </li></ul><ul><li>an explosion when heated and turned into vapour. </li></ul>
  53. 54. <ul><li>You must never use an oxy/fuel gas blowpipe on a drum or </li></ul><ul><li>tank that has contained or may have contained flammable </li></ul><ul><li>material unless you know it has been made safe. </li></ul><ul><li>If it contains flammable material, it will need thorough cleaning </li></ul><ul><li>or inerting (see the HSE guidance note CS15 The cleaning and </li></ul><ul><li>gas freeing of tanks containing flammable residues) . It may be </li></ul><ul><li>safer for a specialist company to carry out the work. If in </li></ul><ul><li>doubt, ask. </li></ul><ul><li>Tyres </li></ul><ul><li>Similarly, you must never weld or flame cut wheels to which </li></ul><ul><li>tyres are fitted. The heat may generate flammable vapour from </li></ul><ul><li>any oil or lubricating fluid on the inner rim of the wheel. This </li></ul><ul><li>vapour, confined by the tyre may be enough to cause an </li></ul><ul><li>explosion, if ignited. These explosions are very violent and can </li></ul><ul><li>kill. Always remove the tyre. </li></ul>
  54. 55. <ul><li>There is a risk of fire and explosion if oxy/fuel gas </li></ul><ul><li>equipment is allowed to leak. Acetylene and other fuel gases </li></ul><ul><li>are highly flammable, and form explosive mixtures with air and </li></ul><ul><li>oxygen. Even small leaks can have serious consequences, </li></ul><ul><li>particularly if they are leaking into a poorly ventilated room or </li></ul><ul><li>confined space where the gases can accumulate. A leak of </li></ul><ul><li>flammable gas could cause a flashfire or explosion. </li></ul><ul><li>Gas leaks are often the result of damaged or poorly maintained </li></ul><ul><li>gas control equipment, hoses, blowpipes and valves, poor </li></ul><ul><li>connections and not closing valves properly after use. </li></ul>
  55. 56. <ul><li>Preventing leaks </li></ul><ul><li>The following precautions will help to prevent leaks: </li></ul><ul><li>✴ keep hoses clear of sharp edges and abrasive </li></ul><ul><li>surfaces or where vehicles can run over them; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ do not allow hot metal or spatter to fall on hoses; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ handle cylinders carefully. Keep them in an upright </li></ul><ul><li>position and fasten them to prevent them from falling </li></ul><ul><li>or being knocked over. For example, chain them in a </li></ul><ul><li>wheeled trolley or against a wall; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ always turn the gas supply off at the cylinder when the </li></ul><ul><li>job is finished; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ maintain all equipment and keep in good condition; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ regularly check all connections and equipment for </li></ul><ul><li>faults and leaks. </li></ul>
  56. 57. <ul><li>You should take suitable precautions when checking for gas </li></ul><ul><li>leaks. You should use a proprietary leak detecting spray or </li></ul><ul><li>solution suitable for use with oxy/fuel systems. Soapy water </li></ul><ul><li>or solutions containing grease should not be used on oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>When the leak is found, you should repair or replace the </li></ul><ul><li>component immediately. Any detergent should be flushed off </li></ul><ul><li>with clean water to remove any corrosive salts. You must never </li></ul><ul><li>look for gas leaks with a naked flame. </li></ul><ul><li>If a cylinder leaks when the valve is closed, the cylinder should </li></ul><ul><li>be taken outside to a ventilated area, away from sources of </li></ul><ul><li>ignition (naked flames, sparks, electric lights and motors, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>and unauthorised access. You should notify the supplier </li></ul><ul><li>immediately. </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Small leaks may not be detected immediately. If they leak over </li></ul><ul><li>a period of time into a poorly ventilated room or confined </li></ul><ul><li>space, a dangerous concentration of gas may accumulate. </li></ul>
  57. 58. <ul><li>To prevent gas accumulating: </li></ul><ul><li>✴ always provide adequate ventilation during welding and </li></ul><ul><li>cutting operations; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ store gas cylinders outside whenever possible or in a </li></ul><ul><li>well-ventilated place; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ avoid taking gas cylinders into poorly ventilated rooms </li></ul><ul><li>or confined spaces. </li></ul>
  58. 59. <ul><li>Oxygen leaks also increase the fire risk. In particular, if </li></ul><ul><li>clothing is contaminated with oxygen, it will catch fire </li></ul><ul><li>easily and burn very fiercely resulting in severe injury. Even fire </li></ul><ul><li>retardant clothing will burn if contaminated with oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>Also oxygen can cause explosions if used with incompatible </li></ul><ul><li>materials. In particular, oxygen reacts explosively with oil and </li></ul><ul><li>grease. </li></ul><ul><li>You should always take the following precautions: </li></ul><ul><li>✴ never allow oil or grease to come into contact with </li></ul><ul><li>oxygen valves or cylinder fittings; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ never use oxygen with equipment not designed for it. </li></ul><ul><li>In particular, check that the regulator is safe for oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>and for the cylinder pressure. </li></ul>
  59. 60. <ul><li>Backfires and flashbacks are usually caused by defective or </li></ul><ul><li>incorrectly operated equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Backfires </li></ul><ul><li>A backfire is when the flame burns back into the blowpipe </li></ul><ul><li>often with a sharp bang. This may happen when the blowpipe is </li></ul><ul><li>held too close to the workpiece, or if the nozzle is blocked or </li></ul><ul><li>partly blocked. The flame may go out or it may re-ignite at the </li></ul><ul><li>nozzle. Sometimes the flame burns back into the blowpipe, and </li></ul><ul><li>burning continues at the mixing point. Backfires do not usually </li></ul><ul><li>cause serious injury or damage but they indicate a fault in the </li></ul><ul><li>equipment. </li></ul>
  60. 61. <ul><li>If a backfire does occur: </li></ul><ul><li>✴ shut off the blowpipe valves, oxygen first and then the </li></ul><ul><li>fuel gas; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ shut off the oxygen and fuel gas cylinder valves; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ cool the blowpipe with water, if necessary; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ check the equipment for damage or faults, particularly </li></ul><ul><li>the nozzle. </li></ul><ul><li>Flashbacks </li></ul><ul><li>Flashbacks are commonly caused by a reverse flow of oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>into the fuel gas hose (or fuel into the oxygen hose), producing </li></ul><ul><li>an explosive mixture in the hose. The flame can then burn </li></ul><ul><li>back through the blowpipe, into the hose and may even reach </li></ul><ul><li>the pressure regulator and the cylinder. The consequences of a </li></ul><ul><li>flashback are potentially very serious. They can result in </li></ul><ul><li>damage or destruction of equipment, and could even cause the </li></ul><ul><li>cylinder to explode. This could end in serious injury to </li></ul><ul><li>personnel and severe damage to propert y. </li></ul><ul><li>SAFETY IN GAS WELDING, CUTT </li></ul>
  61. 62. <ul><li>Preventing flashbacks </li></ul><ul><li>The following precautions will help to prevent flashbacks: </li></ul><ul><li>use the correct lighting up procedure. Purge the hoses before lighting the blowpipe to remove any potentiallyexplosive gas mixtures. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a spark ignitor and ignite the gas quickly after turning it on; ensure the blowpipe is fitted with spring-loaded non return valves to prevent a backflow of gas into the hoses; </li></ul><ul><li>use the correct gas pressures and nozzle size for the job. In particular, the acetylene pressure must not exceed 0.62 bar (9 psi); </li></ul><ul><li>maintain the equipment in good condition. </li></ul><ul><li>These measures will reduce the risk of a flashback but will not </li></ul><ul><li>completely eliminate it. Non-return valves will not stop a </li></ul><ul><li>flashback once it has occurred. As the consequences of a </li></ul><ul><li>flashback are potentially very serious, cylinders should be </li></ul><ul><li>protected. </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting cylinders from flashbacks </li></ul><ul><li>To protect a cylinder, you should fit flashback arresters onto </li></ul><ul><li>the regulator, on both the fuel and oxygen supply. Arresters </li></ul><ul><li>may be fitted on the blowpipe but these do not give protection </li></ul><ul><li>from a fire starting in the hose. For long lengths of hose, you </li></ul><ul><li>should fit arresters on both the blowpipe and the regulator. </li></ul><ul><li>The fitting of a flashback arrester should not be considered as </li></ul><ul><li>a substitute for safe working practice. </li></ul>
  62. 63. <ul><li>If a flashback does occur: </li></ul><ul><li>✴ </li></ul><ul><li>immediately close the cylinder valves, both fuel gas and </li></ul><ul><li>oxygen, if it is safe to do so. The flame should go out when </li></ul><ul><li>the fuel gas is shut off. If the fire cannot be put out at </li></ul><ul><li>once, evacuate the area and call the emergency fire </li></ul><ul><li>services; </li></ul><ul><li>✴ </li></ul><ul><li>the blowpipe, hoses, regulators, flashback arresters and </li></ul><ul><li>other components may have been damaged. Check </li></ul><ul><li>carefully and replace if necessary before reuse. If in doubt, </li></ul><ul><li>consult the supplier. </li></ul><ul><li>Acetylene cylinders </li></ul><ul><li>You should pay particular attention to any acetylene cylinder </li></ul><ul><li>which has been involved in a flashback or has been affected by </li></ul><ul><li>fire. There is a risk that the acetylene could start to </li></ul><ul><li>decompose, and the cylinder could explode within a few </li></ul><ul><li>minutes. If an acetylene cylinder becomes hot or starts to </li></ul><ul><li>vibrate, you must evacuate the building immediately and call </li></ul><ul><li>the emergency fire services. </li></ul>
  63. 64. <ul><li>UNSAFE SAFE </li></ul>Welding helmets/shields with filter lenses are intended to protect users from arc rays and from weld sparks and spatter which impinge directly against the helmet. They are not intended to protect against falling of object from height or any impact. Welding Face Shield with Safety Helmet will give protection against both arc rays, weld sparks, spatters and protect against falling of object from height or any impact. Normal Welding Helmet / Face Shield Welding Face Shield With Safety Helmet
  64. 65. <ul><li>Gas Cutting Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Valve Protection Cap on O2 Cylinders </li></ul>
  65. 66. 1) Gas cylinder trolly with proper cylinder Holding arrangement 2) Standard ISI Approved Oxygen regulator With flash back Arrester 3) Standard ISI Approved LPG regulator With flash back Arrester 4) Cutting Torch with Flash back arrester at Both inlet 1) Gas cylinder without Trolly no Fall protection 2) Non standard oxygen regulator With broken gauge & no flash back 3) Non standard LPG regulator With broken gauge & no flash back Arrester SAFE UNSAFE
  66. 67. <ul><li>Foundries have been an essential industrial operation for centuries. Despite continuing advances in technology, they present workers with a panoply of hazards to safety and health. Because hazards continue to exist even in the most modern plants with exemplary prevention and control programmes, protecting the health and well-being of workers remains an ongoing challenge to management and to the workers and their representatives. This remains difficult both in industry downturns (when concerns for worker health and safety tend to give way to economic stringencies) and in boom times (when the demand for increased output may lead to potentially dangerous short cuts in the processes). Education and training in hazard control, therefore, remain a constant necessity.       </li></ul>
  67. 68. <ul><li>RAJESH SAMKARIA </li></ul><ul><li>(Safety officer) </li></ul><ul><li>Amtek India Limited </li></ul>