Malaria

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Malaria

  1. 1. Plasmodium Presented by khushnuma
  2. 2. • Plasmodium is a genus of Apicomplexan parasite and cause an infection known as malaria. • Plasmodium, spends most of its life in the red blood cells of humans.
  3. 3. Continued… • There are four distinct species of the Plasmodium parasite that affect humans: • Plasmodium vivax • Plasmodium malariae • Plasmodium ovale • Plasmodium falciparum • Plasmodium falciparum is the greatest threat to public health, and also the most life- threatening.
  4. 4. Host and Transmission • Normal Host of plasmodium is Female Anopheles mosquitoes. • It is transmitted by Bite of a female Anopheles mosquito that had contact with another individual infected with malaria.
  5. 5. Prevalence • Malaria is actually a very widespread disease, infecting approximately 200-300 million people worldwide each year.
  6. 6. Geographical distribution • Found all over the world. • The tropical zone is endemic home of all malarial parasites while of P. malarie is a parasite of sub- tropical zone.
  7. 7. Life cycle • Pre- erythrocytic Schizogony • Erythrocytic Schizogony • Gametogony
  8. 8. Continued… • When female anopheles mosquito penetrate human skin to obtain blood meal, it inject saliva mixed with a anti coagulant . • If mosquito is infected with plasmodium it will inject elongated sporozoits to the blood stream of the victim.
  9. 9. Pre- erythrocytic Schizogony • The sporozoites travel to the liver where enter into the liver cell and divide asexually which is called schizogony generates the next life cycle form called merozoits. • This cycle lasting approximately 8days in P.vivox,6days in P. falciparum, 9days in ovale .
  10. 10. Erhthrocytic Schizogony • The released merozoite invade other liver cell and enter the host blood stream and invade erthrocytes and the merozoites begins to enlarge as uninucleate cell termed as ring trophozoit. • The merozoite then divides asexually to produce schizont which contain several Nuclei and the schizont then divides and produce mono nucleated merozoits.
  11. 11. Continued… • The erthrocytes then rapture and releases toxins throughout the body of the host bringing about the will known cycle of fever cold chill that is the characteristics of malaria. • This cycle lasting approximately 48-72 hrs in P.vivox,48hrs in P.falciparum, and in P.ovale also while 72 hrs in P. malarie.
  12. 12. Gametogony • Plasmodium enter to sexual phase when some of the merozoits in RBC develop into gametocytes and become capable of producing both male and female gametes within the human hosts and extracted from the infected host by a mosquito.
  13. 13. Continued… • Within the gut of mosquito the gametocytes form male and female gametes and the resultant diploid zygote develop within the mosquitoes intestinal wall and differentiated into oocyte
  14. 14. Continued… • In the oocyst mitotic division occur producing large number of sporozoit which migrates then to the saliva of the female anopheles and injected to the blood stream of the host
  15. 15. Pathogenicity • Malaria is the third leading cause of death due to infectious disease. • It causes approximately 300 million acute illnesses per year. • The serious complication of P.f. involves. • massive haemoglobinuria (backwater fever) in which the urine becomes dark in color because of acute hemolysis of RBC.
  16. 16. Continued… • Acute respiratory distress syndrome. • Severe gastrointestinal symptoms, shock and renal failure which may cause death. • cerebral malaria (involving the brain).
  17. 17. Laboratory diagnosis • Laboratory diagnosis of malaria is confirmed by the demonstration of malarial parasites in the blood film under microscopic examination
  18. 18. Treatment • Chlorquine and quinine----anti-erythrocytic stage drugs. • Primaquine and pyrimethamine ----anti- exoerythrocytic stage drugs .
  19. 19. Mosquito control • Reconstruction of environment: eradicate the breeding places of mosquitoes. • Spry insecticides: DDVP and so on. • Use mosquito nets, screen, or mosquito repellents to protect the person from mosquito bites.
  20. 20. Thank you

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