© Reaktor 2013It is all about system: HowScrum helps in the bigger picture1Monday, May 6, 13
© Reaktor 2013Two systems colliding2Monday, May 6, 13
© Reaktor 2013Topics• What is System and what are SystemConditions• How Systems impact Scrum• How Scrum helps in the bigge...
”© Reaktor 2013A system is not thesum of its parts butthe product of theirinteractions- Russell AckoffWhat is System• Coll...
© Reaktor 2013SystemSystemBoundariesSystemSystemAll systems interact at some levelWe can choose boundaries and decidewhat ...
© Reaktor 2013Cause-effectIssueCause Cause Impact ImpactCause-effect relations are cyclic, not linear6Monday, May 6, 13
© Reaktor 2013Companies and organizations are SystemsCustomer)Care)Legal)Logis/cs)Sales)CTO$Dept$1$ Dept$2$ Dept$3$HR$New$...
”© Reaktor 2013W Edwards DemingOrganization as a systemA bad system beats a good personevery time8Monday, May 6, 13
© Reaktor 2013An example of a systemJoeTeamProductOwnerHelpDeskCustomersLogisticsDepartmentSuppliersMAIN MENU1. Catalogue2...
© Reaktor 2013What impacts Joe’s work• Clarity of the customer request• Communication channels betweendepartments• Quality...
© Reaktor 2013SystemThinkingPerformance11Monday, May 6, 13
© Reaktor 2013London, 1854ActionsConsequencesAssumptions aboutcause-effect relationshipsChange this?Or this?SystemThinking...
© Reaktor 2013SystemThinkingPerformanceHow do we make resourceplanning in ScrumWhat are project managertasks in ScrumWho a...
© Reaktor 2013System conditions are direct ofindirect results of the design andmanagement of work.System conditions14Monda...
© Reaktor 2013Some system conditionsProcesses TrainingExisting source codeStage gatesToolsOrganizationalstructuresPolicies...
© Reaktor 2013System conditionsSystem conditions drive theperformance of organizationImproving the work requires atleast s...
”© Reaktor 2013John SeddonPeople issues are not the point ofintervention.17Monday, May 6, 13
© Reaktor 2013Why do harmful system conditions exist?Because people responsible forsystem conditions lackknowledge about t...
© Reaktor 2013Changing system conditions?• When thinking does not change, theprograms of change often fail• We need to cha...
© Reaktor 2013Change strategies• Power-Coercive• Obliges compliance and punishes failure• Standards, best practices, proce...
© Reaktor 2013Systems Thinking and Scrum?Scrum changes somesystem conditionsScrum hasmechanisms that helpto make Normative...
© Reaktor 2013Scrum changes system conditionsTeamProductOwnerSprintPlanning Sprint Reviewand RetroPotentiallyShippableProd...
© Reaktor 2013Scrum changes system conditionsTeamProductOwnerSprintPlanning Sprint Reviewand RetroPotentiallyShippableProd...
© Reaktor 2013Scrum and seeing System conditions• Understanding Purpose and Demand• Transparency and visibility• Experimen...
© Reaktor 2013Understanding Purpose and Demand“System has a Purpose”CustomersOrganizationDemandNew$Technologies$Research$a...
”© Reaktor 2013How do I know if I amdoing Scrum right?At the end of eachiteration, if you knowexactly where you are;then y...
© Reaktor 2013ExperimentsTeamProductOwnerSprintPlanning Sprint Reviewand RetroPotentiallyShippableProductIncrementProductB...
© Reaktor 2013Summary• Organizations are systems, created by thinking• Thinking -> System -> Performance• System dictates ...
© Reaktor 2013A confessionIt is not about Scrum.It is about the System.Turning eyes away from Scrum and lookingat the syst...
© Reaktor 2013Thank you!Twitter: @samililja30Monday, May 6, 13
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It's about system: How Scrum helps in the big picture

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Presentation slides from my presentation in 2013 Scrum Gathering in Las Vegas

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It's about system: How Scrum helps in the big picture

  1. 1. © Reaktor 2013It is all about system: HowScrum helps in the bigger picture1Monday, May 6, 13
  2. 2. © Reaktor 2013Two systems colliding2Monday, May 6, 13
  3. 3. © Reaktor 2013Topics• What is System and what are SystemConditions• How Systems impact Scrum• How Scrum helps in the bigger picture• A confession to make..3Monday, May 6, 13
  4. 4. ”© Reaktor 2013A system is not thesum of its parts butthe product of theirinteractions- Russell AckoffWhat is System• Collection of parts thatare interdependent.• The parts interact in asuch a way that it affectsthe capabilities andqualities of the entiresystem• System has a purpose4Monday, May 6, 13
  5. 5. © Reaktor 2013SystemSystemBoundariesSystemSystemAll systems interact at some levelWe can choose boundaries and decidewhat system we study and improve5Monday, May 6, 13
  6. 6. © Reaktor 2013Cause-effectIssueCause Cause Impact ImpactCause-effect relations are cyclic, not linear6Monday, May 6, 13
  7. 7. © Reaktor 2013Companies and organizations are SystemsCustomer)Care)Legal)Logis/cs)Sales)CTO$Dept$1$ Dept$2$ Dept$3$HR$New$Technologies$Research$and$Development$Product$management$Department$1$$Sec;on$A$Group$I$ Group$II$Sec;on$B$Group$III$Embedded&SW&Drivers& HW&adapta2on& Tes2ng&3rd&party&SW&7Monday, May 6, 13
  8. 8. ”© Reaktor 2013W Edwards DemingOrganization as a systemA bad system beats a good personevery time8Monday, May 6, 13
  9. 9. © Reaktor 2013An example of a systemJoeTeamProductOwnerHelpDeskCustomersLogisticsDepartmentSuppliersMAIN MENU1. Catalogue2. myInvoicesSelect: ___webshop.comIT SystemWhat could possibly gowrong in Joe’s work?9Monday, May 6, 13
  10. 10. © Reaktor 2013What impacts Joe’s work• Clarity of the customer request• Communication channels betweendepartments• Quality of backlog• Other items in the backlog• Team’s working practices• Tools (compilers, editors, TA, CI, ...)• Pressure• Dependencies with other departments• Processes and working practices• Interrupts• Bonuses (Joe, team members, PO, otherpeople in the company)• Responsibility sharing between thepeople• Priority of work• Non-work-related issues (e.g. motherhospitalized)• Code base• Joe’s Competency (domain knowledge,technical skills, “interpersonal skills”)• Product Owner’s competence (e.g. abilityto prioritize• etc.SystemSystemSystemSystemSystemSystemSystemSystemSystemSystemJoeJoeSystemSystemSystemSystemAnother SystemSystemSystem10Monday, May 6, 13
  11. 11. © Reaktor 2013SystemThinkingPerformance11Monday, May 6, 13
  12. 12. © Reaktor 2013London, 1854ActionsConsequencesAssumptions aboutcause-effect relationshipsChange this?Or this?SystemThinkingPerformance12Monday, May 6, 13
  13. 13. © Reaktor 2013SystemThinkingPerformanceHow do we make resourceplanning in ScrumWhat are project managertasks in ScrumWho assigns tasks in Scrum13Monday, May 6, 13
  14. 14. © Reaktor 2013System conditions are direct ofindirect results of the design andmanagement of work.System conditions14Monday, May 6, 13
  15. 15. © Reaktor 2013Some system conditionsProcesses TrainingExisting source codeStage gatesToolsOrganizationalstructuresPoliciesGovernanceBonusesExisting source codeIT systemsPhysical workingenvironmentQuality ofrequirementsProject modelRelationship withcustomersCulture of highutilization rate TechnologiesApproval chainsMissing feedbackMetricsRoles andresponsibilitiesMeetingsOutsourcing andoff-shoring15Monday, May 6, 13
  16. 16. © Reaktor 2013System conditionsSystem conditions drive theperformance of organizationImproving the work requires atleast some system conditions arechangedSystem conditions tell us aboutmanagement thinking16Monday, May 6, 13
  17. 17. ”© Reaktor 2013John SeddonPeople issues are not the point ofintervention.17Monday, May 6, 13
  18. 18. © Reaktor 2013Why do harmful system conditions exist?Because people responsible forsystem conditions lackknowledge about the nature ofwork being done within a systemThey do not know how thework works18Monday, May 6, 13
  19. 19. © Reaktor 2013Changing system conditions?• When thinking does not change, theprograms of change often fail• We need to change thinking. By whatmethod?• Scrum is not a method to change thinking• Scrum is an agile framework for completingcomplex projects.19Monday, May 6, 13
  20. 20. © Reaktor 2013Change strategies• Power-Coercive• Obliges compliance and punishes failure• Standards, best practices, process roll-outs• Empirical-Rational• “I explain and you follow”• Works if thinking has already changed• Can lead to argument or conflict• Normative-Reeducative• Change thinking through action and observation• Get knowledge before planning actionsChin and Benne: Generalstrategies for affecting change inhuman systems (1969)20Monday, May 6, 13
  21. 21. © Reaktor 2013Systems Thinking and Scrum?Scrum changes somesystem conditionsScrum hasmechanisms that helpto make Normativechange21Monday, May 6, 13
  22. 22. © Reaktor 2013Scrum changes system conditionsTeamProductOwnerSprintPlanning Sprint Reviewand RetroPotentiallyShippableProductIncrementProductBacklogFromcompetingprojectstoonebacklogofworkFromprojectmanagementtoproductownershipFromhandoverstocollaborativeplanningFromfunctionalsilostocross-functionalteamsFromlongfeedbackcyclestodailyandweeklyfeedbackFromproblemhidingtocultureoflearningFromprojectmodeltocontinuousdelivery22Monday, May 6, 13
  23. 23. © Reaktor 2013Scrum changes system conditionsTeamProductOwnerSprintPlanning Sprint Reviewand RetroPotentiallyShippableProductIncrementProductBacklogCoercive?Rational?23Monday, May 6, 13
  24. 24. © Reaktor 2013Scrum and seeing System conditions• Understanding Purpose and Demand• Transparency and visibility• Experiments24Monday, May 6, 13
  25. 25. © Reaktor 2013Understanding Purpose and Demand“System has a Purpose”CustomersOrganizationDemandNew$Technologies$Research$and$Development$Product$management$Department$1$$Sec;on$A$Group$I$ Group$II$Sec;on$B$Group$III$1. Understand the Demand from customers2. Define a purpose for organization in customer terms3. Have freedom to organize against the demand4. Measure how well the organization fulfills the Purpose25Monday, May 6, 13
  26. 26. ”© Reaktor 2013How do I know if I amdoing Scrum right?At the end of eachiteration, if you knowexactly where you are;then you are doing itrightTransparency and VisibilityFreedom to make aninformed choiceValid informationConstant monitoringof actionsPurpose- Chris Argyris26Monday, May 6, 13
  27. 27. © Reaktor 2013ExperimentsTeamProductOwnerSprintPlanning Sprint Reviewand RetroPotentiallyShippableProductIncrementProductBacklogEvery Sprint is an experiment!Learning and adapting requires moving fromfail-safe design to safe-to-fail experiments27Monday, May 6, 13
  28. 28. © Reaktor 2013Summary• Organizations are systems, created by thinking• Thinking -> System -> Performance• System dictates the sustainable performance of anorganization• System conditions help to see a system• To improve a system we must change thinking• Change can be Coercive, Rational or Normative• Scrum helps to see. Scrum helps with new thinking28Monday, May 6, 13
  29. 29. © Reaktor 2013A confessionIt is not about Scrum.It is about the System.Turning eyes away from Scrum and lookingat the system might help a lot.29Monday, May 6, 13
  30. 30. © Reaktor 2013Thank you!Twitter: @samililja30Monday, May 6, 13

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