Today, we have gathered and we see that the cycles of life continue. We have been given the duty to live in balance and harmony with each other and all living things. So now, we bring our minds together as one as we give greetings and thanks to each other as people
“Reminder of the place we as human beings were meant to occupy in relation to the other elements of creation.”The Creator gave a gift to our people: awareness that our existence as human beings is embedded in a web of life that encompasses the entire universeWe are responsible for ensuring that the creators original balance is maintained.
The words of thanksgiving speak of survivalBasic call to humility, honour, respcetIt provides the key to understanding the way to survivalThe Creator has given the gift of special consciousness. By heeding the message coded within the thanksgiving address, we can bring our minds together and achieve respectful coexistance with each other and our world
We are all thankful to our Mother, the Earth, for she gives us all that we need for life. She supports our feet as we walk about upon her. It gives us joy that she continues to care for us as she has from the beginning of time. To our mother, we send greetings and thanks.Our Mother Earth has given birth, as she has for many centuries. She has given birth to all Animal Creatures and to al Plants. For this, we are constantly giving thanks.
http://www.mi.nrcs.usda.gov/images/7%20generations%20poster%20Web.jpgNot owners of earth but depend on it for survivalOur responsibilty for its protection for our people and otherNations of CreationDuty to take into acount actions and impacts upon next seven generationsKnow your environment, learn the names of the gifts of the earth and appreicate all that they contribute to the family of Creation
We give thanks to all the waters of the world for quenching our thirst and providing us with strength. Water is life. We know its power in many forms-waterfalls and rain, mists and streams, rivers and oceans. With one mind, we send greetings and thanks to the spirit of Water.
Quench the thirst of all lifeAct as the bloodlines of Mother Earth and carry sustenance to the rest of CreationCleanse and Purify Mother hearthWe are all thankful to our Mother, the Earth, for she gives us all that we need for life. She supports our feet as we walk about upon her. It gives us joy that she continues to care for us as she has from the beginning of time. To our mother, we send greetings and thanks.
Thanksgivingaddres reminds us that it is our responsibility to take care of all life, including the watersIf waters are to fulfil their responsibilites, we must ensure that they are healthy enough to do soKeep them clean so that a heart attack does not come to our Mother Earth;If blood becomes contaminated, it will spread throughout our bodies, and kill usMust view the waters the same way and ensure the health of our mother earth
We turn our minds to the all the Fish life in the water. They were instructed to cleanse and purify the water. They also give themselves to us as food. We are grateful that we can still find pure water. So, we turn now to the Fish and send our greetings and thanks.
100’s of commercial fisheries caused declining harvests by early 1900’sSettlers did not recognize how cycles of fish intertwined with each otherTargeted certain species of fish; others considered “garbage”After a species declined to point where no longer economical, chose a new target fishWhitefish, then Lake Trout, then Salmon, Herring, and finally Sturgeon
Stocking is a foreign concept to the Haudenosaunee who believe all life is sacredDiminishment of gene pool transforms populations into monocultures susceptible to disease and parasitesTo think that fish populations can be artificially controlled is ignorant and short sited
Now we turn toward the vast fields of Plant life. As far as the eye can see, the Plants grow, working many wonders. They sustain many life forms. With our minds gathered together, we give thanks and look forward to seeing Plant life for many generations to come.
Filter toxins and provide clean airSpeak a language to us lost in the woods? Mosses grow on the north side of trees plants are specifically adapted to specific regions – know the plants and you will never be lost
Habitat destruction – loss of the places where plants growMassive development projects; damnsDredging of rivers places clay on top – plants won’t growDiversity Loss – monocultures Agriculture Lawns Loss of plants with disease resistance
With one mind, we turn to honour and thank all of the Berry Plants for providing the two and four legged animals and the birds with sustenance. They also provide us with medicines so that we will not know sickness. We gather our thoughts as one and send all of the Berry Plants our greetings and thanks.Katsi (gudji) Cook
Over 250 species of berries and frutes are gathered by Native people and used for nutrition and medicine. Wild strawberry is the “leader” of the berries first to appear in spring, and eaten as a blood purifyer Iron and minerals make it a valuable blood remedyBerries are rich in vitamin C Scurvy was common among europeans, and was thought to be attributed to “bad air” Native peoples of Turtle Island already recognized dietary nature of disese and knew how to prevent it with berriesOthers: Cranberries and bearberry treat cystitis (UTI) Blackberry root with wild straverry leaves causes tissue contraction and is used to remedy diarrhea and dysentery Berry plants used to stimulate and promote normal menstration, others to eas childbearing and birth, still others alleviate menopausal symptoms
With one mind, we turn to honour and thank all the foot plants we harvest from the garden. Since the beginning of time, the foot plants, especially the three sisters of corn, beans, and squash have helped the people survive. We gather all the food plants together as on and send them our greetings and thanks
If we eat them regularly, we stay in good balanceEssential element in all cermonial functionsMajor gathering conclude with a meal of the three sistersMedincine societies also need the three sisters to serve as an offering to the healing spirit beings
Now we turn to all the Medicine herbs of the world. From the beginning they were instructed to take away sickness. They are always waiting and ready to heal us. We are happy there are still among us those special few who remember how to use these plants for healing. With one mind, we send greetings and thanks to the Medicines and to the keepers of the Medicines.The creator made the medicine plants and gave each of them special instructions. Their energy would know exactly where to go int eh body to provide strength and healing (What happens when we process medicinal plants?? – Instructions are lost… antibiotics causing other illness etc)
When you gather medicine, your attitude plays a role in the effect that he medicine will have in the bodyWhat you touch is affected by how you feelWhen you gather medicines, make sure that you have a good mind, and are not illMake an offering of tobacco, the strongest plant among the medicines
We gather our minds together to send greetings and thanks to all the Animal life in the world. They have many things to teach us as people. We are honored by them when they give up their lives so we may use their bodies as food for our people. We see them near our homes and in the deep forests. We are glad they are still here and we hope that it will always be so.
From a practical aspect, dependant on animals for food clothing shelter and medicineLearned to hunt, store food, and survive from animalsYoung chief and merciful hunter was killed; animal friends came across his dead body, stricken with grief; created a powerful medicine from flowers, barks, leaves of rare plants. Each member of the animal kingdom added it’s onwn personal healing medicine. Created medicine so powerful it could help humans who were severely injured or ill by giving them back a breath of lifeWe give thanks to have this medicine.(what are the threats for animals? Fear, overhunting, habitat loss, toxins, road mortality, alien species, pet industry, neglect
We now turn our thoughts to the Trees. The Earth has many families of Trees who have their own instructions and uses. Some provide us with shelter and shade, others with fruit, beauty and other useful things. Many people of the world use a Tree as a symbol of peace and strength. With one mind, we greet and thank the Tree life.
Trees provide a living example of how we should live our lives and conduct our actions. For example, the great white pine which stands above all other trees is a symbol of the ever growing peace. As it remains continually green, it reminds us to always have peace in our mindsJake Swamp, a spiritual elder and leader of the wolf clan of the mohawk founded the tree of peace society and travels the world planting trees as symbols of peace and teaching cultural values. His goal was to plant 1 million trees. He passed on in 2010(What can we do to ensure the trees remain healthy in our lives)
We put our minds together as one and thank all the Birds who move and fly about over our heads. The Creator gave them beautiful songs. Each day they remind us to enjoy and appreciate life. The Eagle was chosen to be their leader. To all the Birds-from the smallest to the largest-we send our joyful greetings and thanks.
The haudenosaunee have a clan system with birds on one side and animals on the other side of a fire. There are four birds in the clan system, each with a lesson to tearch for our survival as humansGreat Blue Heron – how to survive on land and water, warm and cold climateThe Snipe – obtaining water in arid climatesThe Killdeer – Luring predators away with his “injured wing”The Hawk – keen eyesight, hunting
We are all thankful to the powers we know as the Four Winds. We hear their voices in the moving air as they refresh us and purify the air we breathe. They help us to bring the change of seasons. From the four directions they come, bringing us messages and giving us strength. With one mind, we send our greetings and thanks to the Four Winds.
The four winds are critical in the life cycles. Carry migratory birds, and allow the eagle to stay aloft for long periods of timeSeeds and spores, plus small creatures are carried on the wind for dispersionWind also carries our life force, Water, in vapour, which falls as rain and snowHeating and cooling of air, which causes the winds, is greatly affected by the water and land temperatures (El Nino)
Now we turn to the west where our grandfathers, the Thunder Beings, live. With lightning and thundering voices, they bring with them the water that renews life. We are thankful that they keep those evil things made by Okwiseres underground. We bring our minds together as one to send greetings and thanks to our Grandfathers, the Thunderers.
Duty of thunderers is to make fresh waterAnother duty is to keep the spirits that roamed mother earth and preyed upon the people. The spirits now live benieth the ground. The thunderers strike the ground where the spirits attempt to come close to the surface of the earthThunder ceremony occurs anytime after one to three thunderstorms have returned in the new year, or during a dry periodA fire is prepared and a speaker burns tobacco, thanking the thunderers for their return
We put our minds together to give thanks to our oldest Grandmother, the Moon, who lights the night-time sky. She is the leader of woman all over the world, and she governs the movement of the ocean tides. By her changing face we measure time, and it is the Moon who watches over the arrival of children here on Earth. With one mind, we send greetings and thanks to our Grandmother, the Moon.
Teaches us about ourselvesWe journey through life in the cradle of her rythms seeking the cadence of our individual internal tempo in the reflection of her many faces. In her monthly wax and wane, in her continuous beginning and ending, she organizes human behavior on earth.Grandmother moon holds symbolism of birth and renewal“Birth is a ceremony, a lifeway that is primary in re-affirming peoples, relationships to each other, to their environment, to all of creation, and to themselves. Pregnancy and birth are windows of opportunity. They serve as a point in time in which a woman is filled with her primordial power of recreation.
We now send greetings and thanks to our eldest Brother, the Sun. Each day without fail he travels the sky from east to west, bringing the light of a new day. He is the source of all the fires of life. With one mind, we send greetings and thanks to our Brother, the Sun.
The sun is the elder brother of MotherEargh, and recognized as one of the many forces which sustain life. (How do human impacts ipede the sun from properly doing his job?)
We give thanks to the Stars who are spread across the sky like jewelry. We see them in the night, helping the Moon to light the darkness and bringing dew to the gardens and growing things. When we travel at night, they guide us home. With our minds gathered together as one, we send greetings and thanks to the Stars.
The milky way is thougth to be the path to the creator, and each star represents the spirit of a single person, making their way homeward. On the clearesrt nights if we stand long and quiet enough in an open place, we can hear the stars singing. The beat of their songs is the beat of our hearts and the rhythm of Creation. The worlds of their song are in our language.
We gather our minds to greet and thank the enlightened Teachers who have come to help throughout the ages. When we forget how to live in harmony, they remind us of the way we were instructed to live as people. With one mind, we send greetings and thanks to these caring teachers.
As we have learned, the duty of the Four Beings is to watch over and care for humankind. We are to live this way
Now we turn our thoughts to the creator, or Great Spirit, and send greetings and thanks for all the gifts of Creation. Everything we need to live a good life is here on this Mother Earth. For all the love that is still around us, we gather our minds together as one and send our choicest words of greetings and thanks to the Creator.
Lets take these last moments to talk about responsibilityConcept is central to Haudenosaunee. They need no police, contracts or armies to govern the people because they had faith in the ability of an individual person in the confederacy to know and understand their responsibility to the creator. To use a colloquial saying, there was no division of church and stateThe creator is not good or eather, but is the creator of things. All of Creation is equal; the rocks and trees have as much right to exist as people do.The Mother earth which has been held in such contempt is now sick and diseased and the nations of the world feel scarcity.The Haudenosaunee are here to help and teach their brothers the way of Creation and remind us and themselves aobut our responsibility to Mother Mearth, Creation and all of its people. Maybe, Just Maybe we can learn the ways together, brothers and sisters, helping each otherWe have now arrived at the place where we end our words. Of all the things we have named, it was not our intention to leave anything out. If something was forgotten, we leave it to each individual to send such greetings and thanks in their own way.
Indigenous presentation the great laws
GAI’WIIO (THE CODE OF HANDSOME LAKE)THE PEACEMAKER, THE GREAT LAWS AND THE CONDOLENCE CEREMONY THE ONHENTON KARIWAHTEKWEN (THE THANKSGIVING ADDRESS)
GAI’WIIO’THE CODE OF HANDSOME LAKE http://www3.rmsc.org/museum/exhibits/online/lhm/Images/113.jpg
GAI’WIIO’ – HANDSOME LAKE “New Religion” of the Six Nations Recited on various Haudenosaunne reservations in Ontario & New York Ontario – Grand River & Muncytown New York – Onondaga, Tonawanda, Cattaraugus & Allegany Recited at all annual midwinter thanksgiving in the moon Nîsko’wûkni (between January 15th & February 15th) Recited at the Six Nations meeting in September Six “holder’s” of the Gai’wiio’
RECITING THE GAI’WIIO’ http://www.andytheflyguy.ca/pages/images/sunrise/sunrise001.jpg• Takes 3 days Before sunrise each morning, the preacher stands at thefireplace in the longhouse and sings the Sun Songan assistant or an officer of the rites sits beside thepreacher and holds a white wampum strandFirst morning a speech is delivered on how the meetingcame to be established as an annual affair
RECITING THE GAI’WIIO’ The next few mornings are devoted to hearing “The Good Message”, the Code of Handsome Lake Everyday at noon the expositor stops because the sun is in midheaven and is ready to descend The concluding afternoon thanks are given to the Longhouse for fulfilling its obligation http://www.nygeo.org/Longhouse.jpg
MESSAGE OF THE FOUR BEINGS Sent to Handsome Lake by the Creator Message that the Creator has given four Rituals that are to be performed: Feather Dance - Thanksgiving Dance Personal Chant - Bowl Game With teachings for the Haudenausonee people These instructions are the basis of the “New Religion”
FIRST 4 TEACHINGS Stop Drinking Withes should confess and cease their practices Stop the use of Charms Women should stop aborting
TEACHINGS Children should be treated kindly & listened to Old people unable to work should be helped by their grandchildren Visitors & children playing near the house should be invited to eat when those in the house are eating People should not gossip or spread evil People should help each other and not steal
TEACHINGS FOR HUSBANDS & WIVES Should not desert each other Love each other & their children Should not commit adultery Childless couples should adopt children of the wife‟s sister http://ushistoryimages.com/images/native-american-graphics/fullsize/native-american-graphics-3.jpg
CODE OF HANDSOME LAKE Combines traditional Haudenosaunne religion with white Christian values Stressed survival without sacrifice of Haudenosaunne identity Recognized the realistic need to make adjustment to survive their changing world If the Code was not followed a fire would destroy the world by 2100 Has Played a significant role in the preservation of the Haudenosaunne Nations
THE PEACEMAKER, HIS MESSAGE OF PEACE, & THE GREAT LAWSResources:Haudenosaunee Development Institute. Haudenosaunee Confederacy. Retrieved fromhttp://http://www.haudenosauneeconfederacy.ca/contactus.htmlMitchell, M. K., & Buck R. (1984). Traditional teachings. B. K. Barnes (Ed.). Cornwall Island, Ontario: North American IndianTravelling College.Parker, A. C. (1916). The Constitution of the Five Nations or The Iroquois Book of The Great Law. Albany, NY: Univeristy of the Stateof New York.Porter, T. (2008). And Grandma said … Iroquois teachings as passed down through the oral tradition. U.S.A.: Xlibris Corporation.
THE PEACEMAKER AND HIS JOURNEY Legends vary in specific details, but all have the same general messages
THE SETTING At the time the Peacemaker was born, life was said to be very dark All Nations were fighting with one another and war was constant, even among Indigenous Nations Some men began to develop dark minds and enjoyed the violence and suffering People had forgotten their faith, culture, and ceremonies
THE PEACEMAKER: DEGANAWIDAH Born in the Huron Nation to a virgin mother (Grand)mother tried to kill him, but he could not be killed When he became a man he built a canoe out of white marble and started to „sail towards the sunrise‟ to spread his message of Peace
THE PEACEMAKER’S JOURNEY Crossed the lake and met Mohawk Hunters; sent message back to Chief Continued to the lodge of an (evil) woman As the first person to accept his message, he names her “Jigonahsasee”, and proclaims women will pass down chiefship and name their chiefs
THE PEACEMAKER’S JOURNEY Continues to the house of Tekarihoken, the cannibal Leads him to change his mind and actions Appoints him the first „Sachem‟ (Chief) of the Mohawks
THE PEACEMAKER’S JOURNEY Returns to the Mohawk people Passes their „test‟ and the Mohawk nation becomes the first to accept his message of peace They are thus the founders of the League of Nations
THE PEACEMAKER’S JOURNEY Two other key players: Hiawatha & Atotarhoh of the Onondaga Nation Legends vary in the story of Hiawatha
HIAWATHA/AYONWATHA Worked with village people to overcome evil Atotarhoh Dreamer had vision of Hiawatha & Peacemaker together transforming Atotarhoh Hiawatha = He who combs Daughters (& wife) die one by one Overcome with grief, leaves the Onondaga peopleSome say Tekarihoken wasHiawatha, driven mad by grief
WAMPUMS AND WORDS OF CONDOLENCE Will be further covered by Katie in a minute … Basically, Peacemaker helped Hiawatha overcome his grief and return his healthy mind Used Hiawatha‟s idea of wampum strings to „transcribe‟ the Great Laws of Peace with him
THE PEACEMAKER’S JOURNEY CONTINUED Together the Peacemaker and Hiawatha travelled to the other 3 nations and convinced them to join the League and accept the words of peace Finally, journeyed back to Atotarho
ATOTARHO / TADODAHO So evil he had 7 crooks in his body and snakes in his hair Used powerful Dark Magic Strength of 5 Nations & the Song of Peace were stronger than him The Peacemaker healed his body & mind, and named him the head Chief of the 5 Nations
THE 5-NATIONS CLAN SYSTEM Each of the 5 Nations named Chiefs Peacemaker divided each Nation into Clans - represented by animals that came to powerful female elders Clans are like families across Nations
THE TREE OF PEACE Peacemaker planted a tree of peace to symbolize the union of the Nations A Great White Pine 4 roots extending in all directions Eagle to keep watch for anyone threatening the Nations Buried all weapons in a stream under tree
THE GREAT LAWS Transcribed through 113 wampum strings Based on 3 main ideas: Righteousness, justice Health of mind & body; peace Power, authority; based on law, customs, & religion
THE GREAT LAWS Other important points: keep in mind future generations act in the best interest of the whole share resources and trades have thick skin don‟t hold grudges
OTHER IMPORTANT SYMBOLS FROMTHE PEACEMAKER Bound Arrows: stronger than each individual arrow Longhouse: where Chiefs hold council meetings; symbolizes one big family Antlers: worn by chiefs Wampums: signal truth, carry messages
HIAWATHA’S GRIEF AND WANDERING -Grief at loss of daughters -Wanders woodlands image source: fanpop.com/spots/elder-scrolls-v- skyrim/images/28220143/title/mountain-forest-path- screencap
HIAWATHA’S GRIEF AND WANDERING -Comes to place with jointed rushes -Makes three strings -Words of condolence Jointed Rush (juncus articulatus) image source: cs.man.ac.uk/~david/orkney/flora.htm
HIAWATHA’S GRIEF AND WANDERING - Lake filled with ducks - Shells on the lake bed - Used shells in strings with words of condolence image source: imagekind.com/Quahog-Shell-in- Sand-art?IMID=9e3db7ef-4eef-4b2a-a1aa- e3fa4fb97ee9
HIAWATHA’S GRIEF AND WANDERING -Invited to Oneida Council -Nobody speaks to him, leaves in grief Image source: ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/EoL/chp6.html
HIAWATHA’S GRIEF AND WANDERING -Eventually reaches the Peacemaker -Peacemaker performs first Condolence Ceremony -Hiawatha‟s grief is lifted
CONDOLENCE CEREMONY - Primarily performed on two occasions (although other uses have been documented historically) -For anyone mourning a death, a small condolence performed -For the death of leaders/chiefs and to raise a successor, a large condolence is performed. -Historically, also for atonement purposes and at openings of diplomatic meetings.
CONDOLENCE CEREMONY•Series of rituals performed for (approximately) 6-8 hours over a 2 day period•Occurs partly in the long house and partly outside•Purpose of the ceremony is to soothe the mind and relieve/reduce pain and confusion that can come with mourning•We have accounts of the Condolence ceremony from Morgan, who stated that “it was not uncommon to spend several days in these festivities; devoting the days in succession to athletic games, and the evenings to the feast, and to the social dance” (Morgan, 122).
CONDOLENCE CEREMONYSome of the metaphors expressed for healing functionsduring the ceremony (as recorded by William Beauchamp)were:“The forest paths were symbolically cleared, thorns takenout of the feet, tears were wiped away, the throat and earswere cleansed that all might speak and hear, the heart wasrestored to its right place, and clouds were removed fromthe sun in the sky. Blood was washed from the seat, [and] ifanyone had died, graves were leveled or covered, thebones of the slain were gathered and hidden under theroots of some great tree. (Beauchamp, 393) Image source: rgbstock.com/cache1olBFB/users/t/ta/tacluda/300/msIvzTo.jpg
CONDOLENCE CEREMONY-First component: “Journeying on the Trail” (or“Eulogy of the Roll Call of the Chiefs”)-Second Component: “Welcome at the Wood‟sEdge”-Third component: “The RequickeningAddress”
CONDOLENCE CEREMONY-Part of the Requickening address which was cited is as follows:“Now then, we say, we wipe awayThe falling tears, so that peacefullyYou might look around.” (Dennis, 102) Image source: fanpop.com/spots/eyes/images/16143904/title/tears-photo
THANKSGIVING ADDRESS The Thanksgiving Address is formally known as Ohenton Karihawatehkwen which in Mohawk means " the words before all else" These words come from the Haudenosaunee or Longhouse people which includes Mohawk, Oneida, Onodaga, Cayuga, Seneca, and Tuscarora These words date back to at least several thousand years to the formation of the Great Law of Peace by a man called the Peacemaker
THANKSGIVING ADDRESS The traditional Native American words of Thanksgiving come from the people of the Six Nations: the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca and Tuscarora, also known as the Iroquois or Haudenosaunee, who live in upstate New York, Wisconsin and Canada. When performing the ceremony a speaker is chosen to give thanks on behalf of the people. Each speaker chooses his own words, for we are all unique and have our own style of prayer, but the general form is traditional
THANKSGIVING ADDRESS The Great address is based on the belief that the world cannot be taken for granted, that a spiritual communication of thankfulness and acknowledgment of all living things must be given to align the minds and hearts of the people with the natural world that has been created by a loving Creator. This forms the guiding principle of our culture, as aboriginals. They believe that all people at one time in their history, has similar words to acknowledge the words of the Creator: Sonkwiatison . Which means " he who created all things".
THANKSGIVING ADDRESS The Thanksgiving Address teaches mutual respect, conservation, love, generosity, and the responsibility to understand that what is done to one part of the Web of Life, we do to ourselves. The Great Law of Peace and the Thanksgiving Address are based on natural law, and they are the backbone of the Haudenosaunee traditional law and ecological knowledge. The Great Law of Peace and the Thanksgiving Address are composed of policies, principles, moral duties, laws, ceremonies, and other religious and political aspects that the Haudenosaunee were given on how to live in harmony with each other and with the Natural World
OPENING A CEREMONYWe are gathered here in this assembly and we thank the Creator that we, who have gathered here are all well and that we have arrived here safely. And now we would ask that we allow our minds to come together to focus on the reasons for us gathering here…The Creator has planned it this way that every time we meet, whether day or night, no matter how many or how few we are, we give thanks to him for what he has given us.
THE WORDS THAT COME BEFORE ALL ELSE Ohen:ton Karihwatehkwe n
HOW THE CREATOR WISHES US TO LIVE To listen to all when good advice is given To be kind to old people To feed the poor and to share To not boast and give thanks To help each other
THE PROPHECIES Objects will move about the earth without anything pulling them There will be diseases appearing that were not known before and many will die Children will go outside and not return The creator will remove our life sustainers because we fail to give thanks Crops will be destroyed Trees will die Rivers and streams will become polluted Nature… will stop.
And now our minds, hearts and spirits have been united for the purpose at hand. We realize that we have been called to take care of this creation, to be the caretakers. We would ask for the strength, honesty, wisdom, and sincerity to accomplish the task that we have been create for. With that we now declare this gathering open, May we continue to dwell in peace with each other, with this land, and with the creator, Da nay no