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GAI’WIIO (THE CODE OF HANDSOME LAKE)THE PEACEMAKER, THE GREAT LAWS AND THE         CONDOLENCE CEREMONY    THE ONHENTON KAR...
GAI’WIIO’THE CODE OF HANDSOME LAKE        http://www3.rmsc.org/museum/exhibits/online/lhm/Images/113.jpg
GAI’WIIO’ – HANDSOME LAKE  “New Religion” of the Six Nations   Recited on various Haudenosaunne    reservations in Ontari...
RECITING THE GAI’WIIO’                                    http://www.andytheflyguy.ca/pages/images/sunrise/sunrise001.jpg•...
RECITING THE GAI’WIIO’   The next few mornings are devoted to hearing    “The Good Message”, the Code of Handsome    Lake...
MESSAGE OF THE FOUR BEINGS   Sent to Handsome Lake by the Creator   Message that the Creator has given four    Rituals t...
FIRST 4 TEACHINGS   Stop Drinking   Withes should confess and cease their    practices   Stop the use of Charms   Wome...
TEACHINGS   Children should be treated kindly & listened to   Old people unable to work should be helped by    their gra...
TEACHINGS FOR HUSBANDS & WIVES   Should not desert each other   Love each other & their children   Should not commit ad...
CODE OF HANDSOME LAKE   Combines traditional Haudenosaunne religion with    white Christian values   Stressed survival w...
THE PEACEMAKER,                                                      HIS MESSAGE OF                                       ...
THE PEACEMAKER AND HIS JOURNEY   Legends vary in specific details, but all have    the same general messages
THE SETTING At the time the Peacemaker was born, life  was said to be very dark All Nations were fighting with one anoth...
THE PEACEMAKER: DEGANAWIDAH   Born in the Huron Nation    to a virgin mother   (Grand)mother tried to kill    him, but h...
THE PEACEMAKER’S JOURNEY   Crossed the lake and    met Mohawk Hunters;    sent message back to    Chief   Continued to t...
THE PEACEMAKER’S JOURNEY   Continues to the house of Tekarihoken, the    cannibal     Leads him to change his mind and a...
THE PEACEMAKER’S JOURNEY   Returns to the Mohawk    people       Passes their „test‟ and        the Mohawk nation       ...
THE PEACEMAKER’S JOURNEY   Two other key players:     Hiawatha   & Atotarhoh of the Onondaga      Nation   Legends vary...
HIAWATHA/AYONWATHA   Worked with village people to overcome evil    Atotarhoh   Dreamer had vision of Hiawatha & Peacema...
WAMPUMS AND WORDS OF CONDOLENCE Will be further covered by Katie in a minute … Basically, Peacemaker helped Hiawatha  ov...
THE PEACEMAKER’S JOURNEY CONTINUED   Together the Peacemaker and Hiawatha    travelled to the other 3 nations and    conv...
ATOTARHO / TADODAHO   So evil he had 7 crooks in    his body and snakes in his    hair   Used powerful Dark Magic   Str...
THE 5-NATIONS CLAN SYSTEM   Each of the 5 Nations    named Chiefs   Peacemaker divided    each Nation into Clans    - re...
THE TREE OF PEACE   Peacemaker planted    a tree of peace to    symbolize the union    of the Nations   A Great White Pi...
THE GREAT LAWS Transcribed through 113 wampum strings Based on 3 main ideas:      Righteousness, justice     Health of...
THE GREAT LAWS   Other important points:     keep  in mind future generations     act in the best interest of the whole...
OTHER IMPORTANT SYMBOLS FROMTHE PEACEMAKER   Bound Arrows:    stronger than each    individual arrow   Longhouse: where ...
HIAWATHA’S GRIEF AND WANDERING                -Grief at loss of daughters                -Wanders woodlands               ...
HIAWATHA’S GRIEF AND WANDERING                                       -Comes to place with                                 ...
HIAWATHA’S GRIEF AND WANDERING     - Lake filled with ducks     - Shells on the lake bed     - Used shells in strings with...
HIAWATHA’S GRIEF AND WANDERING        -Invited to Oneida Council        -Nobody speaks to him, leaves in grief            ...
HIAWATHA’S GRIEF AND WANDERING               -Eventually reaches the Peacemaker               -Peacemaker performs first C...
CONDOLENCE CEREMONY - Primarily performed on two occasions (although other uses have been documented historically) -For an...
CONDOLENCE CEREMONY•Series of rituals performed for (approximately) 6-8 hours over a 2 day period•Occurs partly in the lon...
CONDOLENCE CEREMONYSome of the metaphors expressed for healing functionsduring the ceremony (as recorded by William Beauch...
CONDOLENCE CEREMONY-First component: “Journeying on the Trail” (or“Eulogy of the Roll Call of the Chiefs”)-Second Componen...
CONDOLENCE CEREMONY-Part of the Requickening address which was cited is as follows:“Now then, we say, we wipe awayThe fall...
THANKSGIVING ADDRESS   The Thanksgiving Address is formally known as    Ohenton Karihawatehkwen which in Mohawk    means ...
THANKSGIVING ADDRESS   The traditional Native American words of Thanksgiving come from    the people of the Six Nations: ...
THANKSGIVING ADDRESS   The Great address is based on the belief that the world cannot be    taken for granted, that a spi...
THANKSGIVING ADDRESS   The Thanksgiving Address teaches mutual respect, conservation,    love, generosity, and the respon...
OPENING A CEREMONYWe are gathered here in this assembly and we thank the Creator that we, who have gathered here are all w...
THE WORDS THAT COME BEFORE ALL ELSE    Ohen:ton  Karihwatehkwe        n
THE PEOPLE
BALANCE AND RESPECT Reminder of the place we as human beings weremeant to occupy in relation to the other elements of     ...
HUMILITY, HONOUR, RESPECT
FOR THE EARTH MOTHER
PROTECTING THE EARTH FOR SEVENGENERATIONS
THE WATERS
RESPONSIBILTIES OF THE WATERS
OUR RESPONSIBILITY
THE FISH
OVERFISHING
FISH STOCKING: THE ANSWER?
THE SMALL PLANTS AND GRASSES
WHAT THE PLANTS KNOW
CHALLENGES FOR THE SMALL PLANTS
BERRY PLANTS
BERRIES: A GIFT TO CHILDREN AND WOMEN
THE THREE SISTERS
THREE SISTERS AS MEDICINE
THE MEDICINE PLANTS
GATHERERS INFLUENCE MEDICINES
THE ANIMALS
ANIMALS AS TEACHERS
THE TREES
JAKE SWAMP
THE BIRDS
THE CLAN SYSTEM
THE FOUR WINDS
THE THUNDERERS
THE THUNDER CEREMONY
GRAND MOTHER MOON
BIRTH
THE SUN
BROTHER OF MOTHER EARTH
THE STARS
PATH TO THE CREATOR
THE FOUR BEINGS/ENLIGHTENEDTEACHERS
HOW THE CREATOR WISHES US TO LIVE To listen to all when good advice is given To be kind to old people To feed the poor ...
THE PROPHECIES   Objects will move about the earth without anything    pulling them   There will be diseases appearing t...
THE CREATOR
   And now our minds, hearts and spirits have    been united for the purpose at hand. We    realize that we have been cal...
Indigenous presentation  the great laws
Indigenous presentation  the great laws
Indigenous presentation  the great laws
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Indigenous presentation the great laws

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Indigenous presentation the great laws

  1. 1. GAI’WIIO (THE CODE OF HANDSOME LAKE)THE PEACEMAKER, THE GREAT LAWS AND THE CONDOLENCE CEREMONY THE ONHENTON KARIWAHTEKWEN (THE THANKSGIVING ADDRESS)
  2. 2. GAI’WIIO’THE CODE OF HANDSOME LAKE http://www3.rmsc.org/museum/exhibits/online/lhm/Images/113.jpg
  3. 3. GAI’WIIO’ – HANDSOME LAKE “New Religion” of the Six Nations Recited on various Haudenosaunne reservations in Ontario & New York  Ontario – Grand River & Muncytown  New York – Onondaga, Tonawanda, Cattaraugus & Allegany Recited at all annual midwinter thanksgiving in the moon Nîsko’wûkni (between January 15th & February 15th) Recited at the Six Nations meeting in September Six “holder’s” of the Gai’wiio’
  4. 4. RECITING THE GAI’WIIO’ http://www.andytheflyguy.ca/pages/images/sunrise/sunrise001.jpg• Takes 3 days Before sunrise each morning, the preacher stands at thefireplace in the longhouse and sings the Sun Songan assistant or an officer of the rites sits beside thepreacher and holds a white wampum strandFirst morning a speech is delivered on how the meetingcame to be established as an annual affair
  5. 5. RECITING THE GAI’WIIO’ The next few mornings are devoted to hearing “The Good Message”, the Code of Handsome Lake Everyday at noon the expositor stops because the sun is in midheaven and is ready to descend The concluding afternoon thanks are given to the Longhouse for fulfilling its obligation http://www.nygeo.org/Longhouse.jpg
  6. 6. MESSAGE OF THE FOUR BEINGS Sent to Handsome Lake by the Creator Message that the Creator has given four Rituals that are to be performed:  Feather Dance - Thanksgiving Dance  Personal Chant - Bowl Game With teachings for the Haudenausonee people These instructions are the basis of the “New Religion”
  7. 7. FIRST 4 TEACHINGS Stop Drinking Withes should confess and cease their practices Stop the use of Charms Women should stop aborting
  8. 8. TEACHINGS Children should be treated kindly & listened to Old people unable to work should be helped by their grandchildren Visitors & children playing near the house should be invited to eat when those in the house are eating People should not gossip or spread evil People should help each other and not steal
  9. 9. TEACHINGS FOR HUSBANDS & WIVES Should not desert each other Love each other & their children Should not commit adultery Childless couples should adopt children of the wife‟s sister http://ushistoryimages.com/images/native-american-graphics/fullsize/native-american-graphics-3.jpg
  10. 10. CODE OF HANDSOME LAKE Combines traditional Haudenosaunne religion with white Christian values Stressed survival without sacrifice of Haudenosaunne identity Recognized the realistic need to make adjustment to survive their changing world If the Code was not followed a fire would destroy the world by 2100 Has Played a significant role in the preservation of the Haudenosaunne Nations
  11. 11. THE PEACEMAKER, HIS MESSAGE OF PEACE, & THE GREAT LAWSResources:Haudenosaunee Development Institute. Haudenosaunee Confederacy. Retrieved fromhttp://http://www.haudenosauneeconfederacy.ca/contactus.htmlMitchell, M. K., & Buck R. (1984). Traditional teachings. B. K. Barnes (Ed.). Cornwall Island, Ontario: North American IndianTravelling College.Parker, A. C. (1916). The Constitution of the Five Nations or The Iroquois Book of The Great Law. Albany, NY: Univeristy of the Stateof New York.Porter, T. (2008). And Grandma said … Iroquois teachings as passed down through the oral tradition. U.S.A.: Xlibris Corporation.
  12. 12. THE PEACEMAKER AND HIS JOURNEY Legends vary in specific details, but all have the same general messages
  13. 13. THE SETTING At the time the Peacemaker was born, life was said to be very dark All Nations were fighting with one another and war was constant, even among Indigenous Nations Some men began to develop dark minds and enjoyed the violence and suffering People had forgotten their faith, culture, and ceremonies
  14. 14. THE PEACEMAKER: DEGANAWIDAH Born in the Huron Nation to a virgin mother (Grand)mother tried to kill him, but he could not be killed When he became a man he built a canoe out of white marble and started to „sail towards the sunrise‟ to spread his message of Peace
  15. 15. THE PEACEMAKER’S JOURNEY Crossed the lake and met Mohawk Hunters; sent message back to Chief Continued to the lodge of an (evil) woman  As the first person to accept his message, he names her “Jigonahsasee”, and proclaims women will pass down chiefship and name their chiefs
  16. 16. THE PEACEMAKER’S JOURNEY Continues to the house of Tekarihoken, the cannibal  Leads him to change his mind and actions  Appoints him the first „Sachem‟ (Chief) of the Mohawks
  17. 17. THE PEACEMAKER’S JOURNEY Returns to the Mohawk people  Passes their „test‟ and the Mohawk nation becomes the first to accept his message of peace  They are thus the founders of the League of Nations
  18. 18. THE PEACEMAKER’S JOURNEY Two other key players:  Hiawatha & Atotarhoh of the Onondaga Nation Legends vary in the story of Hiawatha
  19. 19. HIAWATHA/AYONWATHA Worked with village people to overcome evil Atotarhoh Dreamer had vision of Hiawatha & Peacemaker together transforming Atotarhoh  Hiawatha = He who combs Daughters (& wife) die one by one Overcome with grief, leaves the Onondaga peopleSome say Tekarihoken wasHiawatha, driven mad by grief
  20. 20. WAMPUMS AND WORDS OF CONDOLENCE Will be further covered by Katie in a minute … Basically, Peacemaker helped Hiawatha overcome his grief and return his healthy mind Used Hiawatha‟s idea of wampum strings to „transcribe‟ the Great Laws of Peace with him
  21. 21. THE PEACEMAKER’S JOURNEY CONTINUED Together the Peacemaker and Hiawatha travelled to the other 3 nations and convinced them to join the League and accept the words of peace Finally, journeyed back to Atotarho
  22. 22. ATOTARHO / TADODAHO So evil he had 7 crooks in his body and snakes in his hair Used powerful Dark Magic Strength of 5 Nations & the Song of Peace were stronger than him The Peacemaker healed his body & mind, and named him the head Chief of the 5 Nations
  23. 23. THE 5-NATIONS CLAN SYSTEM Each of the 5 Nations named Chiefs Peacemaker divided each Nation into Clans - represented by animals that came to powerful female elders Clans are like families across Nations
  24. 24. THE TREE OF PEACE Peacemaker planted a tree of peace to symbolize the union of the Nations A Great White Pine 4 roots extending in all directions Eagle to keep watch for anyone threatening the Nations Buried all weapons in a stream under tree
  25. 25. THE GREAT LAWS Transcribed through 113 wampum strings Based on 3 main ideas:  Righteousness, justice  Health of mind & body; peace  Power, authority; based on law, customs, & religion
  26. 26. THE GREAT LAWS Other important points:  keep in mind future generations  act in the best interest of the whole  share resources and trades  have thick skin  don‟t hold grudges
  27. 27. OTHER IMPORTANT SYMBOLS FROMTHE PEACEMAKER Bound Arrows: stronger than each individual arrow Longhouse: where Chiefs hold council meetings; symbolizes one big family Antlers: worn by chiefs Wampums: signal truth, carry messages
  28. 28. HIAWATHA’S GRIEF AND WANDERING -Grief at loss of daughters -Wanders woodlands image source: fanpop.com/spots/elder-scrolls-v- skyrim/images/28220143/title/mountain-forest-path- screencap
  29. 29. HIAWATHA’S GRIEF AND WANDERING -Comes to place with jointed rushes -Makes three strings -Words of condolence Jointed Rush (juncus articulatus) image source: cs.man.ac.uk/~david/orkney/flora.htm
  30. 30. HIAWATHA’S GRIEF AND WANDERING - Lake filled with ducks - Shells on the lake bed - Used shells in strings with words of condolence image source: imagekind.com/Quahog-Shell-in- Sand-art?IMID=9e3db7ef-4eef-4b2a-a1aa- e3fa4fb97ee9
  31. 31. HIAWATHA’S GRIEF AND WANDERING -Invited to Oneida Council -Nobody speaks to him, leaves in grief Image source: ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/EoL/chp6.html
  32. 32. HIAWATHA’S GRIEF AND WANDERING -Eventually reaches the Peacemaker -Peacemaker performs first Condolence Ceremony -Hiawatha‟s grief is lifted
  33. 33. CONDOLENCE CEREMONY - Primarily performed on two occasions (although other uses have been documented historically) -For anyone mourning a death, a small condolence performed -For the death of leaders/chiefs and to raise a successor, a large condolence is performed. -Historically, also for atonement purposes and at openings of diplomatic meetings.
  34. 34. CONDOLENCE CEREMONY•Series of rituals performed for (approximately) 6-8 hours over a 2 day period•Occurs partly in the long house and partly outside•Purpose of the ceremony is to soothe the mind and relieve/reduce pain and confusion that can come with mourning•We have accounts of the Condolence ceremony from Morgan, who stated that “it was not uncommon to spend several days in these festivities; devoting the days in succession to athletic games, and the evenings to the feast, and to the social dance” (Morgan, 122).
  35. 35. CONDOLENCE CEREMONYSome of the metaphors expressed for healing functionsduring the ceremony (as recorded by William Beauchamp)were:“The forest paths were symbolically cleared, thorns takenout of the feet, tears were wiped away, the throat and earswere cleansed that all might speak and hear, the heart wasrestored to its right place, and clouds were removed fromthe sun in the sky. Blood was washed from the seat, [and] ifanyone had died, graves were leveled or covered, thebones of the slain were gathered and hidden under theroots of some great tree. (Beauchamp, 393) Image source: rgbstock.com/cache1olBFB/users/t/ta/tacluda/300/msIvzTo.jpg
  36. 36. CONDOLENCE CEREMONY-First component: “Journeying on the Trail” (or“Eulogy of the Roll Call of the Chiefs”)-Second Component: “Welcome at the Wood‟sEdge”-Third component: “The RequickeningAddress”
  37. 37. CONDOLENCE CEREMONY-Part of the Requickening address which was cited is as follows:“Now then, we say, we wipe awayThe falling tears, so that peacefullyYou might look around.” (Dennis, 102) Image source: fanpop.com/spots/eyes/images/16143904/title/tears-photo
  38. 38. THANKSGIVING ADDRESS The Thanksgiving Address is formally known as Ohenton Karihawatehkwen which in Mohawk means " the words before all else" These words come from the Haudenosaunee or Longhouse people which includes Mohawk, Oneida, Onodaga, Cayuga, Seneca, and Tuscarora These words date back to at least several thousand years to the formation of the Great Law of Peace by a man called the Peacemaker
  39. 39. THANKSGIVING ADDRESS The traditional Native American words of Thanksgiving come from the people of the Six Nations: the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca and Tuscarora, also known as the Iroquois or Haudenosaunee, who live in upstate New York, Wisconsin and Canada. When performing the ceremony a speaker is chosen to give thanks on behalf of the people. Each speaker chooses his own words, for we are all unique and have our own style of prayer, but the general form is traditional
  40. 40. THANKSGIVING ADDRESS The Great address is based on the belief that the world cannot be taken for granted, that a spiritual communication of thankfulness and acknowledgment of all living things must be given to align the minds and hearts of the people with the natural world that has been created by a loving Creator. This forms the guiding principle of our culture, as aboriginals. They believe that all people at one time in their history, has similar words to acknowledge the words of the Creator: Sonkwiatison . Which means " he who created all things".
  41. 41. THANKSGIVING ADDRESS The Thanksgiving Address teaches mutual respect, conservation, love, generosity, and the responsibility to understand that what is done to one part of the Web of Life, we do to ourselves. The Great Law of Peace and the Thanksgiving Address are based on natural law, and they are the backbone of the Haudenosaunee traditional law and ecological knowledge. The Great Law of Peace and the Thanksgiving Address are composed of policies, principles, moral duties, laws, ceremonies, and other religious and political aspects that the Haudenosaunee were given on how to live in harmony with each other and with the Natural World
  42. 42. OPENING A CEREMONYWe are gathered here in this assembly and we thank the Creator that we, who have gathered here are all well and that we have arrived here safely. And now we would ask that we allow our minds to come together to focus on the reasons for us gathering here…The Creator has planned it this way that every time we meet, whether day or night, no matter how many or how few we are, we give thanks to him for what he has given us.
  43. 43. THE WORDS THAT COME BEFORE ALL ELSE Ohen:ton Karihwatehkwe n
  44. 44. THE PEOPLE
  45. 45. BALANCE AND RESPECT Reminder of the place we as human beings weremeant to occupy in relation to the other elements of creation
  46. 46. HUMILITY, HONOUR, RESPECT
  47. 47. FOR THE EARTH MOTHER
  48. 48. PROTECTING THE EARTH FOR SEVENGENERATIONS
  49. 49. THE WATERS
  50. 50. RESPONSIBILTIES OF THE WATERS
  51. 51. OUR RESPONSIBILITY
  52. 52. THE FISH
  53. 53. OVERFISHING
  54. 54. FISH STOCKING: THE ANSWER?
  55. 55. THE SMALL PLANTS AND GRASSES
  56. 56. WHAT THE PLANTS KNOW
  57. 57. CHALLENGES FOR THE SMALL PLANTS
  58. 58. BERRY PLANTS
  59. 59. BERRIES: A GIFT TO CHILDREN AND WOMEN
  60. 60. THE THREE SISTERS
  61. 61. THREE SISTERS AS MEDICINE
  62. 62. THE MEDICINE PLANTS
  63. 63. GATHERERS INFLUENCE MEDICINES
  64. 64. THE ANIMALS
  65. 65. ANIMALS AS TEACHERS
  66. 66. THE TREES
  67. 67. JAKE SWAMP
  68. 68. THE BIRDS
  69. 69. THE CLAN SYSTEM
  70. 70. THE FOUR WINDS
  71. 71. THE THUNDERERS
  72. 72. THE THUNDER CEREMONY
  73. 73. GRAND MOTHER MOON
  74. 74. BIRTH
  75. 75. THE SUN
  76. 76. BROTHER OF MOTHER EARTH
  77. 77. THE STARS
  78. 78. PATH TO THE CREATOR
  79. 79. THE FOUR BEINGS/ENLIGHTENEDTEACHERS
  80. 80. HOW THE CREATOR WISHES US TO LIVE To listen to all when good advice is given To be kind to old people To feed the poor and to share To not boast and give thanks To help each other
  81. 81. THE PROPHECIES Objects will move about the earth without anything pulling them There will be diseases appearing that were not known before and many will die Children will go outside and not return The creator will remove our life sustainers because we fail to give thanks Crops will be destroyed Trees will die Rivers and streams will become polluted Nature… will stop.
  82. 82. THE CREATOR
  83. 83.  And now our minds, hearts and spirits have been united for the purpose at hand. We realize that we have been called to take care of this creation, to be the caretakers. We would ask for the strength, honesty, wisdom, and sincerity to accomplish the task that we have been create for. With that we now declare this gathering open, May we continue to dwell in peace with each other, with this land, and with the creator, Da nay no

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