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Research steps


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Research steps

  1. 1. IN GOD’S HANDS Isaiah 41:10 10 Fear thou not; for I am with thee: be not dismayed; for I am thy God: I will strengthen thee; yea, I will help thee; yea, I will uphold thee with the right hand of my righteousness.
  3. 3. RESEARCH : What is it?  "Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue". It consists of three steps: Pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question”. Creswell, J. W. (2008). Educational Research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson.
  4. 4. Steps to Develop a Research  Identification of Research Problem. (1)  What is a problem?  What we do with problems?  A research problem is an issue or concern that investigators present and justify in a research project to find a solution for it.
  5. 5. Steps to Develop a Research  Literature Review. (2)  A careful examination of a body of literature pointing toward the answer to your research question.  Finding too much? If you find so many citations that there is no end in sight to the number of references you could use, its time to re-evaluate your question. It's too broad.  Finding too little? On the other hand, if you can't find much of anything, ask yourself if you're looking in the right area. Your topic is too narrow.
  6. 6. Steps to Develop a Research  Specify the purpose or objective of research. (3)  It should explain the final conclusions that the research study hopes to reach.  Start with a general purpose, then move to specific purposes.
  7. 7. Null Hypothesis  It is the contrary hypothesis of the research. E.G.  Teenagers do not use social networks to find a couple.  Teenagers use social networks to find a couple.
  8. 8. Steps to Develop a Research  Determine specific research questions or hypotheses. (4)  “A research question is essentially a hypothesis asked in the form of a question”.  “An hypothesis is a statement or explanation that is suggested by knowledge or observation but has not, yet, been proved or disproved.” (Macleod Clark J and Hockey L 1981)  A problem cannot be scientifically solved unless it is reduced to hypothesis form.
  9. 9. Steps to Develop a Research  Data collection. (5)  The process of gathering and measuring information on variables of interest, in an established systematic fashion that enables one to answer stated research questions, test hypotheses, and evaluate outcomes.
  10. 10. Steps to Develop a Research  Consequences from improperly collected data include:  Inability to answer research questions accurately  Inability to repeat and validate the study  Distorted findings resulting in wasted resources  Misleading other researchers to pursue fruitless avenues of investigation  Compromising decisions for public policy  Causing harm to human participants and animal subjects
  11. 11. Steps to Develop a Research  Approaches that can preserve data integrity and ensure the scientific validity of study results are:  Quality assurance - activities that take place before data collection begins  Quality control - activities that take place during and after data collection Each approach is implemented at different points in the research timeline (Whitney, Lind, Wahl, 1998)
  12. 12. Steps to Develop a Research  Analyzing and interpreting the data. (6)  Data analysis and interpretation is the process of assigning meaning to the collected information and determining the conclusions, significance, and implications of the findings.
  13. 13. Analysis of NUMERICAL (QUANTITATIVE) DATA  Represented in mathematical terms and include:  Mean: represents a numerical average for a set of responses.  Standard deviation: represents the distribution of the responses around the mean. It indicates the degree of consistency among the responses.  Frequency distribution: indicates the frequency of each response.
  14. 14. Analysis of NARRATIVE (QUALITATIVE) DATA  Conducted by organizing the data into common themes or categories.  Strategies to analyze qualitative data:  Focus groups and Interviews: read and organize the data from each question separately. Group the comments by themes, topics, or categories.  Documents: Code content and characteristics of documents into various categories  Observations: Code patterns from the focus of the observation
  15. 15. Effective Data Analysis  Effective data analysis involves:  keeping your eye on the main game  managing your data  engaging in the actual process of quantitative and / or qualitative analysis  presenting your data  drawing meaningful and logical conclusions
  16. 16. Steps to Develop a Research  Reporting and evaluating research. (7)  Organization  Presentation
  17. 17. Steps to Develop a Research  Communicating the research findings and, possibly, recommendations. (8)  The steps generally represent the overall process, however they should be viewed as an ever-changing iterative process rather than a fixed set of steps.  Gauch, Jr., H.G. (2003). Scientific method in practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 2003 ISBN 0-521-81689-0 (page 3
  18. 18. IN CONCLUSION  "... no researcher should accept any one or two tests as definitive. It is only when a range of tests are consistent over many kinds of data, researchers, and methods can one have confidence in the results.“  Rudolph Rummel. Questions About Freedom, Democide, And War
  19. 19. Workshop  Go to the library and find out information about the different types of researches and write a summary explaining each one.  Discuss in class.