3. Epistle Biblea. One of the letters included as a book in the New Testament.b. An excerpt from one of these letters, read as part of a religious service.
history of non formal education
Perspectives & Scope
Of Non-formal Education
Presented By: Sami Arif
Preston University Islamabad
a process of learning positive
habits , knowledge , skill etc , under the
guidance of teacher.
Non formal education
formal education is a kind (medium of
instruction)of education, in which a student
studies by correspondence ,sitting at home or
out of school .
Any organised, systematic,
educational activity carried on out
side the frame work of the formal
system to provide selected types of
learning to particular sub-group in
the population, adults as well as
term covers education & training in which
tutor & learner are not in the same place.
Correspondence courses are the most vivid
example & it is possible to obtain a very wide
range of skills & qualification in this way.
( ILMI education dictionary )
…..this method/system provides education/courses
by correspondence, broadcasting and occasional
Education that happens outside of
the context of a formally
structured educational institution
and that may address the teaching
of knowledge or skills other than
those typically concentrated in
education helps a lot in achieving
the goals of formal education
Non-formal education takes into
account the out-of-school
education for adult through oral
written & audio-visual methods of
imparting knowledge, skill/value
and activity like literacy, vocational
training, civic, economic and
cultural education for overall
development of the individual and
rural and urban.
out and out of school
under privileged youth and adults
to upgrade their existing
In the eye of history
Non-formal education has a long history over
a 100 years . How ever in its non-organized
form non-formal education has been traced
back to the beginning of written records .
period epistles of Plato were
used for the instruction of early Christian
(Erdos1967,sewart 1981 ,holmberg1986)
Holmberg , mention of what
could be termed as non-formal education ,
was made in the Boston Gazette(U.S.A ) of
20th march 1728 when Caleb Philips, a teacher
of New Method shorthand advertised that
people who wanted to learn this art could have
their lessons sent weekly to them and … be as
perfectly instructed as those that live in
Boston” (Battenberg, p.44, quoted by
Early 19th Century
Open universities & institutes opened
in Sweden ,West Germany ,U.S.A
&U.K where correspondence
courses were offered. The
university of London was first to
award degree in non formal
1833 non-formal education started
In England Isaac Pitman started shorthand
on post cards .
1856 Germany, Frenchman Charles Toussaint &
German Gustay Langenscheidt started teaching
language in Berlin.
1870 Hans Hermod opened a school in Malmo.
1894 Joseph.W.knipe published
1873-1897 In U.S.A Anna Eliot Tichnor founded
& run Boston Society.
1910 W.A.Grundy programmed course
training in Australia.
Soviet union used non-formal education
to expend there educated manpower.
1929 non-formal education
became a significant
component of soviet education system as a
solution to shortage of teachers & institutions .
Even today Russian students do part of their
degree at a distance & part full-time.
radio introduced in school education.
1939 10,000 schools
had radio in Britain.
several thousand listening groups were
formed in Britain.
radio came in for adult education in New
1960’S Linkage of 3rd component
,face-to-face tuition with
Broadcasting and correspondence.
campuses studies started from
first world war.
In Asia and Latin
1960 non-formal education
solution for educational problems.
Non formal education started in sub –continent
first open university founded in 1974
named as People open university in Islamabad
now known as Allama Iqbal Open University.
second open university is Virtual
University which founded in 2002.
Madaras are playing important role
in providing nfe in Pakistan.
conclude we may state that nonformal education has a history of one
hundred years . Non-formal education is
based on traditional education .Nonformal education is expending day by
day, it is cost effective and now a need
of under developing countries. It is a
solution of third world countries low