Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

history of non formal education


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

history of non formal education

  1. 1. Concept, Historical Perspectives & Scope Of Non-formal Education Presented By: Sami Arif ) Preston University Islamabad
  2. 2. Introduction  Education  Education is a process of learning positive habits , knowledge , skill etc , under the guidance of teacher. Formal Non formal education Informal  Non formal education is a kind (medium of instruction)of education, in which a student studies by correspondence ,sitting at home or out of school .
  3. 3. Definition  Ahmed and Coombs (1974), Any organised, systematic, educational activity carried on out side the frame work of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-group in the population, adults as well as children.
  4. 4. Definition (cont...)  This term covers education & training in which tutor & learner are not in the same place. Correspondence courses are the most vivid example & it is possible to obtain a very wide range of skills & qualification in this way. ( ILMI education dictionary )  According to Dodd's (1978) …..this method/system provides education/courses by correspondence, broadcasting and occasional face-to-face learning.
  5. 5. Concept Education that happens outside of the context of a formally structured educational institution and that may address the teaching of knowledge or skills other than those typically concentrated in educational institution.this education helps a lot in achieving the goals of formal education
  6. 6. Concept  (cont.…) Non-formal education takes into account the out-of-school education for adult through oral written & audio-visual methods of imparting knowledge, skill/value and activity like literacy, vocational training, civic, economic and cultural education for overall development of the individual and community.
  7. 7. Terminology  Non-formal  Indigenous education  Open learning  Correspondence education  Distance education  Community education  Out-of-school  Adult education  Life long education  Continuing education
  8. 8. Scope /Need  Rural population.  Women ,both  School drop rural and urban. out and out of school youth.  Unemployed, under-employed, under privileged youth and adults to upgrade their existing qualifications,  The handicapped.
  9. 9. In the eye of history  Early  era Non-formal education has a long history over a 100 years . How ever in its non-organized form non-formal education has been traced back to the beginning of written records .  During Biblical period epistles of Plato were used for the instruction of early Christian congregations. (Erdos1967,sewart 1981 ,holmberg1986)
  10. 10. 18th Century  According to Holmberg , mention of what could be termed as non-formal education , was made in the Boston Gazette(U.S.A ) of 20th march 1728 when Caleb Philips, a teacher of New Method shorthand advertised that people who wanted to learn this art could have their lessons sent weekly to them and … be as perfectly instructed as those that live in Boston” (Battenberg, p.44, quoted by Holmberg 1986,p.6).
  11. 11. Early 19th Century Open universities & institutes opened in Sweden ,West Germany ,U.S.A &U.K where correspondence courses were offered. The university of London was first to award degree in non formal education. 1833 non-formal education started in Sweden.
  12. 12. Mid th 19 Century  1850 In England Isaac Pitman started shorthand on post cards .  1856 Germany, Frenchman Charles Toussaint & German Gustay Langenscheidt started teaching language in Berlin.  1870 Hans Hermod opened a school in Malmo.  1880 Isaac Pitman College.  1894 Joseph.W.knipe published “The schoolmaster.”  1873-1897 In U.S.A Anna Eliot Tichnor founded & run Boston Society.
  13. 13. th 20 Century  1910 W.A.Grundy programmed course of health training in Australia.  1920 Soviet union used non-formal education to expend there educated manpower.  1929 non-formal education became a significant component of soviet education system as a solution to shortage of teachers & institutions . Even today Russian students do part of their degree at a distance & part full-time.
  14. 14. Radio Era  Child education  1925 radio introduced in school education.  1939 10,000 schools  had radio in Britain. Adult education  1930 several thousand listening groups were formed in Britain.  1937 radio came in for adult education in New Zealand.
  15. 15. rd 3  Component 1960’S Linkage of 3rd component ,face-to-face tuition with Broadcasting and correspondence.  Off campuses studies started from first world war.  1940-1950 In Asia and Latin America.  1960 non-formal education as a solution for educational problems.
  16. 16. In Pakistan  Non formal education started in sub –continent in 1920`s.  The first open university founded in 1974 named as People open university in Islamabad now known as Allama Iqbal Open University.  The second open university is Virtual University which founded in 2002.  Many Madaras are playing important role in providing nfe in Pakistan.
  17. 17. Conclusion  To conclude we may state that nonformal education has a history of one hundred years . Non-formal education is based on traditional education .Nonformal education is expending day by day, it is cost effective and now a need of under developing countries. It is a solution of third world countries low literacy rate.
  18. 18. 20