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history of non formal education

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history of non formal education

  1. 1. Concept, Historical Perspectives & Scope Of Non-formal Education Presented By: Sami Arif ) Preston University Islamabad
  2. 2. Introduction  Education  Education is a process of learning positive habits , knowledge , skill etc , under the guidance of teacher. Formal Non formal education Informal  Non formal education is a kind (medium of instruction)of education, in which a student studies by correspondence ,sitting at home or out of school .
  3. 3. Definition  Ahmed and Coombs (1974), Any organised, systematic, educational activity carried on out side the frame work of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-group in the population, adults as well as children.
  4. 4. Definition (cont...)  This term covers education & training in which tutor & learner are not in the same place. Correspondence courses are the most vivid example & it is possible to obtain a very wide range of skills & qualification in this way. ( ILMI education dictionary )  According to Dodd's (1978) …..this method/system provides education/courses by correspondence, broadcasting and occasional face-to-face learning.
  5. 5. Concept Education that happens outside of the context of a formally structured educational institution and that may address the teaching of knowledge or skills other than those typically concentrated in educational institution.this education helps a lot in achieving the goals of formal education
  6. 6. Concept  (cont.…) Non-formal education takes into account the out-of-school education for adult through oral written & audio-visual methods of imparting knowledge, skill/value and activity like literacy, vocational training, civic, economic and cultural education for overall development of the individual and community.
  7. 7. Terminology  Non-formal  Indigenous education  Open learning  Correspondence education  Distance education  Community education  Out-of-school  Adult education  Life long education  Continuing education
  8. 8. Scope /Need  Rural population.  Women ,both  School drop rural and urban. out and out of school youth.  Unemployed, under-employed, under privileged youth and adults to upgrade their existing qualifications,  The handicapped.
  9. 9. In the eye of history  Early  era Non-formal education has a long history over a 100 years . How ever in its non-organized form non-formal education has been traced back to the beginning of written records .  During Biblical period epistles of Plato were used for the instruction of early Christian congregations. (Erdos1967,sewart 1981 ,holmberg1986)
  10. 10. 18th Century  According to Holmberg , mention of what could be termed as non-formal education , was made in the Boston Gazette(U.S.A ) of 20th march 1728 when Caleb Philips, a teacher of New Method shorthand advertised that people who wanted to learn this art could have their lessons sent weekly to them and … be as perfectly instructed as those that live in Boston” (Battenberg, p.44, quoted by Holmberg 1986,p.6).
  11. 11. Early 19th Century Open universities & institutes opened in Sweden ,West Germany ,U.S.A &U.K where correspondence courses were offered. The university of London was first to award degree in non formal education. 1833 non-formal education started in Sweden.
  12. 12. Mid th 19 Century  1850 In England Isaac Pitman started shorthand on post cards .  1856 Germany, Frenchman Charles Toussaint & German Gustay Langenscheidt started teaching language in Berlin.  1870 Hans Hermod opened a school in Malmo.  1880 Isaac Pitman College.  1894 Joseph.W.knipe published “The schoolmaster.”  1873-1897 In U.S.A Anna Eliot Tichnor founded & run Boston Society.
  13. 13. th 20 Century  1910 W.A.Grundy programmed course of health training in Australia.  1920 Soviet union used non-formal education to expend there educated manpower.  1929 non-formal education became a significant component of soviet education system as a solution to shortage of teachers & institutions . Even today Russian students do part of their degree at a distance & part full-time.
  14. 14. Radio Era  Child education  1925 radio introduced in school education.  1939 10,000 schools  had radio in Britain. Adult education  1930 several thousand listening groups were formed in Britain.  1937 radio came in for adult education in New Zealand.
  15. 15. rd 3  Component 1960’S Linkage of 3rd component ,face-to-face tuition with Broadcasting and correspondence.  Off campuses studies started from first world war.  1940-1950 In Asia and Latin America.  1960 non-formal education as a solution for educational problems.
  16. 16. In Pakistan  Non formal education started in sub –continent in 1920`s.  The first open university founded in 1974 named as People open university in Islamabad now known as Allama Iqbal Open University.  The second open university is Virtual University which founded in 2002.  Many Madaras are playing important role in providing nfe in Pakistan.
  17. 17. Conclusion  To conclude we may state that nonformal education has a history of one hundred years . Non-formal education is based on traditional education .Nonformal education is expending day by day, it is cost effective and now a need of under developing countries. It is a solution of third world countries low literacy rate.
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