Future skills education of animal and veterinary students for bsas 2011

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Future skills education of animal and veterinary students for bsas 2011

  1. 1. Future education of animaland veterinary students: skills Liam A. Sinclair & Jayne Powles Harper Adams University College
  2. 2. Outline of Presentation• Employment market for animal and veterinary skills• Review of current provision of animal and veterinary courses• Approaches to teaching animal and veterinary related courses with an emphasis on skills
  3. 3. Employment market for Animal/Vet students 350 300 250Employment (000) 200 150 100 50 0 Agricultural Animal care Veterinary Game + Equine Veterinary Feed Animal livestock nursing wildlife industry Techn Data derived from Feed Statistics (2009), Lantra (2010); IDBR (2008); Defra (2008)
  4. 4. Undergraduate provision in England 6000 5000• Recent increase in Animal Science 4000related courses Anim Sci 3000 Agric• Agric livestock = dominated by 2000 Vet Pre-Clin Vet ClinFEC’s (HEFCE 2007) 1000 0• Animal care & equine have agreater HE delivery (HEFCE 2007) HESA returns (2010) 80 70• Fastest growing sector = FEC’s 60providing foundation degrees 50 FECs 40• In HE skills arena, migration of 30 Franchised FECs HEIpeople from rural employment 20following education. 10 0 Agric Animal Equine Sector Livestock Care average Review of provision for land-based subjects (2007)
  5. 5. Qualification level: Agric livestock- Distinction between skills needed 25by industry and how these skills arerecognised by government (i.e. 20qualifications). % of work force 15 Industry- Majority of livestock employers % UK 10expect employees to gain skills “onthe job” 5- Few HE courses formally teach 0skills; some courses include a None Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4+ Lantra (2010)placement year- 75% of vets learn practical skills at Univ; 96% stated they learned their skills viaextramural activities- 76% of veterinary graduates stated “insufficient practical instruction, especiallysurgery” (Fitzpatrick & Mellor, 2003)
  6. 6. Veterinary student satisfaction: practicals Year 6 Year 5 V. poor Year 4 Poor Avg Good Year 3 V. Good Year 2 Year 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
  7. 7. What skills do new graduates need?Generic (domain general) Skills• Application of knowledge• Communication/team work• Problem solving/critical thinking• Reflective judgementAnimal and Veterinary course skills (domain specific)• Animal management, husbandry, handling• Laboratory/clinical skills• People and business management/ethical practiceGroup Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) can be used to assesslearning styles (Watkin et al., 1971)GEFT scores are based on locating simple shapes within complexfigures
  8. 8. Effective teaching of skills“Scientists are inherently and appropriately sceptical, so datademonstrating that teaching differently will result in greaterlearning must be part of any effort to convince them to changetheir practices” Carl Wieman: Nobel Prize in Physics (2001)• Didactic lecture is most common but least effective method• Superiority of novel pedagogies supported by inexpensive technologies are supported by cognitive psychology research (Wieman 2007)• Common practice does not equal good practice
  9. 9. Support and Motivation Scaffolding for successConstruct knowledge“the most important factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows” Ausubel 1963“teach concepts in terms of everyday understanding” Vygotsky (1978) 90 80 %Farming Background 70 60 50 Agricuture 40 Animals/Vet Nursing 30 20 10 0 2007 2008 2009 2010
  10. 10. Bloom’s (Anderson) taxonomy Reasoning: Deep learning Reproducing: Surface learning• Training for technicians may cover knowledge, comprehension and application, but not concern itself with analysis and above• Full professional training may be expected to include this and synthesis and evaluation as well
  11. 11. Teaching approach and student learning• "I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand." (Confucius 551-479 BC) . This quote indicates that from the early ages people had different learning preferences.• The VARK model focuses on an individual and places the learner into one of four categories: Visual, Aural, Read/Write, Kinesthetic. Instructor should recognise stimuli and preference for learning/ processing new material (Dunn & Dunn 1993)• Herrmann’s (1996) whole brain model (left brain/right brain) divides preferred styles of learning into theorist or organiser (both left brain) or innovator or humanitarian (both right brain) Petty 2006 90 80 75% theorists are Males 70 60 75% humanitarians are Females % Male 50 Agriculture 40 Animals/Vet Nursing 30 20 10 0 2007 2008 2009 2010
  12. 12. Can you find Wally? Field Independent
  13. 13. Teaching approach and student learningField-dependent: Field-independent:- Difficulty when several steps in - Enjoy several steps in task tasks, not analytical - Good at analytical problem solving- Experience difficulty in problem - Prefer an enquiry approach to solving situations learning- Prefer external goals- Prefer collaboration and answers - Dislike collaboration provided - Poor social skills - Enjoy competition Dairy Science Animal Science Poultry Science Pre-veterinary Nutrition No effect of age or sex No effect of age or sex Suburban background Rural background Hoover & Marshall (1998)
  14. 14. Teaching approach and student learning• Instructor should recognize stimuli and preference for learning/ processing new material. This model focuses on an individual and places the learner into one of four categories: (Dunn & Dunn 1993)• Herrmann’s (1996) whole brain model (left brain/right brain) divides preferred styles of learning into theorist or organiser (both left brain) or innovator or humanitarian (both right brain) Petty 2006• Use a range of activities which suit the different learning styles suggested by these models and help students to develop their skills in the areas in which they are initially less comfortable (Coffield et al 2004a)
  15. 15. Teaching approach and student learning Student satisfaction Field dependent• Does matching teaching style to 4.2 student learning style improve 4.1 performance in animal related skills? 4.0 3.9 3.8• Pig practical classes evaluated for 3.7 3.6 field dependant, independent or 3.5 mixed teaching style (Honeyman & Miller 3.4 1998) Field-independent Combination Field-dependent Field independent• Students preferred teaching style 4.2 that matched their learning style 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.4 Field-independent Combination Field-dependent
  16. 16. Teaching approach and student learning Student achievement Field dependent• Does matching teaching style to 95 student learning style improve 90 performance in animal related skills? 85 80• Teaching style makes little difference 75 to field-independent learners, but 70 does influence field-dependent 65 Field-independent Combination Field-dependent learners• Higher levels of cognitive effort Field independent 95 and gains in achievement with a 90 mixed approach 85 80 75 70 65 Field-independent Combination Field-dependent
  17. 17. Communication skills• Communication problems contribute 120to > 80% of cases dealt with by VeterinaryDefence Society 100 A 80• Regarded by the RCVS as a core B Mean mark Cprofessional competence 60 403 groups: 20A = no formal training 0 Building Providing Aiding recallB = 3 hours group study observing and relationship information discussing videoed scenariosC = 6 hours of small groups involving Latham & Morris (2007) discussion, videoed scenarios and role- play actors with opportunity to repeat & rehearse
  18. 18. Communication skills• Communication problems contribute 120to > 80% of cases dealt with by VeterinaryDefence Society 100 A 80• Regarded by the RCVS as a core B Mean mark Cprofessional competence 60 403 groups: 20A = no formal training 0 Building Providing Aiding recallB = 3 hours group study observing and relationship information discussing videoed scenariosC = 6 hours of small groups involving Latham & Morris (2007) discussion, videoed scenarios and role- play actors with opportunity to repeat & rehearse
  19. 19. Communication skills• Communication problems contribute 120to > 80% of cases dealt with by VeterinaryDefence Society 100 A 80• Regarded by the RCVS as a core B Mean mark Cprofessional competence 60 403 groups: 20A = no formal training 0 Building Providing Aiding recallB = 3 hours group study observing and relationship information discussing videoed scenariosC = 6 hours of small groups involving Latham & Morris (2007) discussion, videoed scenarios and role- play actors with opportunity to repeat & rehearse
  20. 20. Problem Based LearningStudents identify learning objectives from a case/problemFocus is on active learners – develops transferable skillsIt is PROBLEM-Based Learning Not subject based – students identify learningIt is Problem-BASED Learning Aim not to solve problem: emphasis on gaps in knolwedge and skills and how to remedyIt is Problem-Based LEARNING Not teaching – students learn, tutors facilitate
  21. 21. Critical interactive thinking exercisesIn Undergraduate Reproductive PhysiologyProblem solving question given to class 100Students prepared composition 90 80 70 Percent of studentsSmall group discussions 60 50 40Large class discussion 30 20 10Activity greatly enhanced 0Critical Thinking Skills and Learning Greatly Somewhat Did not enhance enhanced enhanced Peters et al, 2002
  22. 22. Active learning The didactic lecture is ineffective for student learning (Bligh,1998) and rated low by students (Sander et al, 2000)Demonstrations/equipment/models Personal Response Systemsprovide hands-on experience demand interactivity from all students and provide feedback on• Active learning develops deep individual conceptions and skills understanding (Biggs, 2003) • reinforce skills Communicubes (Bostock et al 2006)
  23. 23. Project-based learning lab practicals• Replace traditional “recipe-style” lab practicals with mini-research projects.• Students given a contextualised problem which they must solve in a team.Experimental skillsLaboratory manipulation, experimental observation, equipmentexpertise.Data Handling SkillsData collection, processing and analysis, interpretationGeneric/Transferable SkillsProblem solving, team work, Scientific method/approach,communication McDonnell et al (2007)
  24. 24. Integration of E-learning Assessment of laboratory skillsDiscussion boards, chat roomsOpen ended problemsSelf assessment quizzesSimulations and animationsPictures and videos Powles, 2010
  25. 25. Professional mentality – acquiring and maintaining skills forlifelong learning Competence in a skill Clinical data Literature Self-directed learning Experimental learning cycle (Kolb,1984)
  26. 26. Summary• Increasing range of employment for animal based students and potential shortfall in several areas• Practical skills traditionally “taught on the job” with little formal recognition within Higher Education• Using a range of activities which suit different learning styles help students to develop their skills in the areas in which they are initially less comfortable (Coffield et al 2004a and 2004b)• Building on prior knowledge and relating teaching to practical examples/scenarios is critical.

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