Mineral resources


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Mineral resources

  2. 2. Mineral ResourceMineral Resource is defined as aoccurrence of natural, solid, inorganicor fossilized organic material in or onthe Earth’s crust in such form andquantity and of such a grade or qualitythat it has reasonable prospects foreconomic extraction.
  3. 3. National Mineral Scenario India produces as many as 87 minerals, which includes 4 fuel, 10 metallic, 47 non- metallic, 3 atomic and 23 minor minerals (including building and other materials).• India possesses a large variety of mineral-ores in fairly huge quantities.• India is rich in coal, manganese, iron, chromites and mica. It is deficient in the gold, silver, nickel etc.
  4. 4. Estimated life expiry of minerals depends on two things: 1. the size of the reserve 2. the rate at which we are using it up! Resource                 Est. Life Exp. in Yrs.              Uses       • Coal                                      200-300                       (electricity)• Copper                                  36                                (electric wiring)• Iron                                        62                                (steel prod.)• Lead                                      25                                (batteries)• Natural Gas                         125                              (fuel; heat)• Oil                                          50                                (gasoline)• Silver                                     17                                (electric wiring)• Tin                                          31                               (cans; industry)• Uranium                               ???                              (electricity)
  5. 5. Distribution of Mineral Resources in India
  6. 6. Iron Iron : Orissa, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Goa .
  7. 7. Copper Copper : Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim.
  8. 8. Coal  Coal : Bihar-Bengal- Jharkhand coal belt, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh.
  9. 9. Graphitized Petroleum Coke  Petroleum : Assam, Gujarat, Maharashtra
  10. 10. Zinc & Lead  Lead and Zinc: Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Gujarat, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Meghalaya, Sikkim.
  11. 11. Nickel  Nickel : Orissa, Jharkhand .
  12. 12. Manganese Manganese : Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Goa, Orissa, Karnataka, Rajasthan.
  13. 13. Chromium  Chromite : Orissa, Maharashtra, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Manipur .
  14. 14. Tungsten   Tungsten : Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Haryana, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh.
  15. 15. Gold Gold :Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh.
  16. 16. Pictures of some other minerals
  17. 17. Mica
  18. 18. Aluminium
  19. 19. Platinum
  20. 20. Silver
  21. 21. Uranium
  22. 22. Tin
  23. 23. Sulphur
  24. 24. Phosphorus
  25. 25. Sodium
  26. 26. Potassium
  27. 27. Gypsum
  28. 28. Talc
  29. 29. Thorium
  30. 30. Diamond
  31. 31. Mining
  32. 32. Surface MiningSurface mines are mining operations that delve into rock toextract deposits of mineral resources that are close to thesurface . In most forms of surface mining, heavy equipment, such asearthmovers, first remove the overburden (the soil and rockabove the deposit). Next, huge machines such as drag lineexcavators extract the mineral. Once the material has been removed, the land isrecovered for safe use on the surface through a process calledreclamation.
  33. 33. 1.Placer mining involves any type of mining where raw mineralsare deposited in sand or gravel or on the surface and are pickedup without having to drive, use dynamite or any other significantmeans. Ex:gold.
  34. 34. Placer mining
  35. 35. 2.Strip mining is the practice of mining a seam of mineral ore byfirst removing all of the soil and rock that lies on top of it (theoverburden). It is similar to open-pit mining in many regards .
  36. 36. Strip mining
  37. 37. 3.Mountaintop removalMountaintop removal (MTR) is a relatively new form of coalmining that involves the mass restructuring of earth in order toreach sediment as deep as 1,000 feet below the surface.Mountaintop removal requires that the targeted land be firstclear-cut and then leveled by explosives
  38. 38. Mountaintop
  39. 39. 4.HydraulicHydraulic mining involves high pressure water. The water is sprayedat an area of rock and/or gravel and the water breaks the rock up,dislodging ore and placer deposits. The water/oremixture is thenmilled. This is a very destructive way to mine and has beenoutlawed in most areas.
  40. 40. HydraulicMining
  41. 41. 5.Open pit mines involve digging large open holes in the groundas opposed to a small shaft in hard rock mining. This method ofmining is most often used with minerals like copper andmolybdenum
  42. 42. Open pit mines
  43. 43. 6.DredgingDredging is a method often used to bring up underwater mineraldeposits. Although dredging is usually employed to clear or enlargewaterways for boats, it can also recover significant amounts ofunderwater minerals relatively efficiently and cheaply.
  44. 44. Dredging
  45. 45. Underground miningUnderground mining refers to a group of techniques used for theextraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials fromthe earth. In contrast to the other main type of excavation,surface mining, sub-surface mining requires equipment and peopleto operate under the surface of the earth.
  46. 46. 1.Drift mining is a method of accessing valuable geologicalmaterial, such as coal, by cutting into the side of the earth,rather than tunneling straight downwards. Drift mines havehorizontal entries into the coal seam from a hillside. Drift minesare distinct from slope mines, which have an inclined entrancefrom the surface to the coal seam
  47. 47. Drift mining
  48. 48. 2.Slope miningSlope mining is a method of accessing valuable geological material,such as coal. A sloping access shaft travels downwards towards thecoal seam. Slope mines differ from shaft and drift mines, whichaccess resources by tunneling straight down or horizontally,respectively
  49. 49. Slope mining
  50. 50. 3.Shaft mining is a type of underground mining done by use of amine shaft. A mine shaft is a vertical passageway used for accessto an underground mine. On the surface above the shaft stands abuilding known as the head frame, which in previous yearscontained a winding engine and in modern times contains an electrichoist controller. This raises and lowers the cage within the shaft.The cage serves as a lift for the transportation of minerals,equipment, and workers.
  51. 51. Shaft mining
  52. 52. 4.Hard Rock mining refers to various techniques used to mine orebodies by creating underground "rooms" supported by surroundingpillars of standing rock
  53. 53. Hard Rock mining
  54. 54. 5.Borehole MiningBorehole Mining (BHM) is a remote operated method of miningmineral resources through boreholes by means of high pressurewater jets. This process can be carried out from the land surface,open pit floor, underground mine, floating platform, or vesselthrough pre-drilled boreholes.
  55. 55. Borehole Mining
  56. 56. Contour Mining
  57. 57. The Sulphur Mines in Indonesia
  58. 58. The Radioactive Mines
  59. 59. Artisanal gold mining in western Tanzania
  60. 60. Kalgold is an open pit gold mine
  61. 61. The Tata open cast coal mine at West Bokaro
  62. 62. Sygun Copper Mine
  63. 63. Large iron mine in the Serra dos Carajás, Pará state, Brazil.
  64. 64. Some effects of mining on the environment•Deforestation and loss of biodiversity aremajor effects of mining.(It destroys forest andwetlands. It may mean that you have to cut down lots oftrees just to get to the spot that has all the gold oriron ore).•Many mine require tailings dams to prevent wastebeing washed into the rivers. Unethical miners candispense with the dams, to save costs, resulting inmassive pollution downstream. In other cases, thetailings dam can overflow, and even breach, duringperiods of heavy rain.
  65. 65. •Underground coal mining can require the removal ofalmost an entire layer of material deep under thesurface. When the timber supports collapse, this canlead to subsidence. The subsidence can mean economicloss to people above or damage to natural areas. It caneven cause cracks in river beds, leading to loss of riverflow.
  66. 66. •Some mining involves the inadvertent dispersal ofheavy metals, such as lead, into the atmosphere. Thiscan have serious health effects, including mentalretardation in children.•Asbestos mining causes the dispersal of asbestosinto the environment. This will cause deaths amonglocal residents and workers, often several decadeslater. Fortunately, the mining and use of asbestos arebanned in most parts of the world.
  67. 67. we must plan for a day when they will disappear. -What can we do? 1. findalternative resources 2. develop efficient and reliable renewable resources 3. reduce our use and avoid waste 4. reuse what we can 5. recycle (collect and reusematerials from waste) what we canExamples:  hybrid/electric cars, carpool, walk/ride abike, turn off unneeded lights/electrical appliances,don’t let H20 run, place recyclables in markedcontainers
  68. 68. A N KTH ...!!! YOU