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  1. 1. Use in industries today3d Models are used in many industries today. Some examples include TV and film,construction and science. It may seem a little strange that 3d models are being used forscientific purposes but they can help simulate operations and potentially save someone’s life.They are also heavily used in the media and on TV, for example they are used in lots and lotsof sci-fi shows, such as Doctor Who to create all of the monsters and aliens. They can also beused as good presentation tools for news broadcasts and stories by creating diagrams andunits for presentation. They are also used as afore mentioned to help visualize and constructreal buildings and properties. They are mainly used by architects for things like this as itreally helps them to mould and visualize their ideas. 3d models are also very important in thegames industry as every single object and entity has to be created and built in 3d usingindustry standard programs such as 3ds Max and Maya. There are three popular ways torepresent a model: 1. Polygonal modeling - Points in 3D space, called vertices, are connected by line segments to form a polygonal mesh. The vast majority of 3D models today are built as textured polygonal models, because they are flexible and because computers can render them so quickly. However, polygons are planar and can only approximate curved surfaces using many polygons. 2. Curve modeling - Surfaces are defined by curves, which are influenced by weighted control points. The curve follows (but does not necessarily interpolate) the points. Increasing the weight for a point will pull the curve closer to that point. Curve types include Nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS), Splines, Patches and geometric primitives 3. Digital sculpting - Still a fairly new method of modeling, 3D sculpting has become very popular in the few short years it has been around.[citation needed] There are currently 3 types of digital sculpting: Displacement, which is the most widely used among applications at this moment, volumetric and dynamic tessellation. Displacement uses a dense model (often generated by Subdivision surfaces of a polygon control mesh) and stores new locations for the vertex positions through use of a 32bit image map that stores the adjusted locations. Volumetric which is based loosely on Voxels has similar capabilities as displacement but does not suffer from polygon stretching when there are not enough polygons in a region to achieve a deformation. Dynamic tesselation Is similar to Voxel but divides the surface using triangulation to maintain a smooth surface and allow finer details. These methods allow for very artistic exploration as the model will have a new topology created over it once the models form and possibly details have been sculpted. The new mesh will usually have the original high resolution mesh information transferred into displacement data or normal map data if for a game engine.
  2. 2. Most 3d models are made using 3d Studio Max or Maya, then animations can be created andrendered in them but most people use Cinema 4d for the rendering. Some models howeverare created in Sketchup, this is for things like architecture and buildings because it has a veryadvanced measurement system.The TechnologyAutodesk 3ds Max, formerly 3D Studio Max, is 3D computer graphics software for making3D animations, models, and images. It was developed and produced by Autodesk Media and
  3. 3. Entertainment. It has modeling capabilities, a flexible plugin architecture and can be used onthe Microsoft Windows platform. It is frequently used by video game developers, TVcommercial studios and architectural visualization studios. It is also used for movie effectsand movie pre-visualization.In addition to its modeling and animation tools, the latest version of 3ds Max also featuresshaders (such as ambient occlusion and subsurface scattering), dynamic simulation, particlesystems, radiosity, normal map creation and rendering, global illumination, a customizableuser interface, and its own scripting language. Maya, commonly shortened to Maya, is 3D computer graphics software that runson Microsoft Windows, Mac OS and Linux, originally developed by Alias SystemsCorporation (formerly Alias|Wavefront) and currently owned and developed by Autodesk,Inc. It is used to create interactive 3D applications, including video games, animated film, TVseries, or visual effects. The product is named after the Sanskrit word Maya ( māyā), theHindu concept of illusion. 4D is a 3D modeling, animation and rendering application developed by MAXONComputer GmbH of Friedrichsdorf, Germany. It is capable of procedural and polygonal/subdmodeling, animating, lighting, texturing, rendering, and common features found in 3dmodelling applications. is a 3D modeling program optimized for a broad range of applications such asarchitectural, civil, mechanical, film as well as video game design — and available in free aswell as professional versions. The program highlights its ease of use, and an onlinerepository of model assemblies (e.g., windows, doors, automobiles, entourage, etc.) known as3D Warehouse enables designers to locate, download, use and contribute free models. Theprogram includes a drawing layout functionality, allows surface rendering in variable"styles," accommodates third-party "plug-in" programs enabling other capabilities (e.g., nearphoto realistic rendering) and enables placement of its models within Google Earth. In early2012, Google, the current owner of Sketchup, announced it will sell the program to Trimble,a company formerly known for GPS location services.
  4. 4. ConstraintsThe only real downsides of these programs are things such as memory capacity and rendertimes. They take up a lot of your PCs memory whilst working on something that has a highamount of polygons. This can really bring things to a standstill for a while and it means youwill need a high end pc if you plan on working on anything that has a lot of polys. There isalso file size; these files can take up a lot of space on your hard drive and this can lead to youhaving to buy some external hard drives which could cost quite a bit. The final and probablythe most occuring problem is render times. A short not to detailed animation can takes hoursto render, a simple flythrough of an object can set you back a day or 2.ConclusionIn conclusion I think that 3d modelling software still has a long way to go. There is an everincreasing number of free to use software which is as good as the real deals, such as Blender,but render times and file sizes will keep things like video games constrained to certaingraphical power and it will mean that many people who want to get into the industry willhave to spend a lot of money on new hardware for the job.