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Making of a silicon chip
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Manufacturing of microprocessor

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Manufacturing of microprocessor

  1. 1. Manufacturing of Microprocessor Farooq Ahmad Shah
  2. 2. Preliminary Discussion • Integrated circuit: An electronic circuit designed to perform some function, in which the electronic components (transistors, resistors, diodes, capacitors, etc.) are miniaturized, built into a small "chip" made of silicon and interconnected through tiny strands of aluminum. More commonly referred to as "microchips", or "IC chips― • The chip found inside of a "musical" birthday card contain only a few dozen components, whereas a Pentium processor today contains over 800 million transistors! When an integrated circuit is extremely complex, it is usually known as a microprocessor.
  3. 3. Preliminary Discussion (contd.) • Microprocessors are manufactured in clean rooms, the ambiance of which cleaner than a hospital operating room. – The air in the clean room is air conditioned to a temperature of 21C (70F) and 45% relative humidity. – The air is passed through a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter to capture particle contaminants – workers must be covered from head to toe in specialized garments, called bunny suits, designed to trap particles.
  4. 4. Outline of the processing steps Sequence of processing steps in the production of integrated circuits: (1) pure silicon is formed from the molten state into an ingot and then sliced into wafers; (2) fabrication of integrated circuits on the wafer surface; and (3) wafer is cut into chips and packaged.
  5. 5. Silicon Ingot • To provide uniform electrical properties throughout, the silicon must be almost totally pure and a perfect crystal. Ingot diameter 300mm(12 in) and up to 3m(10 ft) long The Czochralski process for growing single-crystal ingots of silicon: (a) initial setup prior to start of crystal pulling, and (b) during crystal pulling to form the boule.
  6. 6. Silicon Ingot (contd.) Grinding operations used in shaping the silicon ingot: (a) a form of cylindrical grinding provides diameter and roundness control, and (b) a flat ground on the cylinder.
  7. 7. Silicon Wafers Wafer slicing using a diamond abrasive cutoff saw.
  8. 8. Silicon Wafers (contd.) Two of the steps in wafer preparation: (a) contour grinding to round the wafer rim, and (b) surface polishing.
  9. 9. IC Fabrication • Repeated sequential steps (200 times or more). • Layering: Adding new material on top of or into the silicon like dopants, insulators, conductors. • Photolithography: By exposing a light sensitive chemical (photoresist) through a mask, the desired pattern is transferred onto the current top layer. • Etching: Removes the material to give the desired pattern.
  10. 10. IC Fabrication (contd.) AN EXAMPLE: How can you create a p-type region in a n-type doped silicon region? Ions of arsenic are bombarded using ion implantation to create a n-type doped region. Layer of SiO2 is grown using oxidation. Layer of photoresist is applied. • photoresist is an organic polymer sensitive to light radiation in a certain wavelength range; the sensitivity causes either an increase or decrease in solubility of the polymer to certain chemicals.
  11. 11. IC Fabrication (E.g. contd.) Expose photoresist using appropriate lithographic mask. Develop the photoresist. Etch photoresist and silicon dioxide. Implant boron Remove silicon dioxide
  12. 12. IC Fabrication (contd.) (A) A p-type wafer (silicon doped with Boron) has a epilayer of n-type (silicon doped with Phosphorous or Arsenic) (B) A mask is used to implant Silicon Dioxide, for the insulator (C) Acceptor atoms (Boron) are diffused into the window in the Silicon Dioxide (D) Using another mask additional Silicon Dioxide is grown. and donor atoms (elements like Arsenic with excess electrons) are implanted. (E) Another mask is used to grow additional Silicon Dioxide. Another mask is then used to implant evaporated Aluminum or Copper for the contacts. This is a Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT).
  13. 13. Packaging • Wafer Testing: a computer-controlled needle probes contacts the chip connection pads and a series of DC tests are carried out to indicate short circuits and other faults; the failed chips are marked with an ink dot; these defects are not packaged. • Chip Separation: A thin diamond-impregnated saw blade is used to perform the cutting operation. The sawing machine is highly automatic and its alignment with the ‘‘streets’’ between circuits is very accurate. • Die Bonding: Automated handling systems pick the separated chips and place them for on the die. Epoxy is applied to the base of the chip. • Wire Bonding After the die is bonded to the package, electrical connections are made between the contact pads on the chip surface and the package leads. • Video
  14. 14. Thank you.
  15. 15. Ion Implantation First a gas containing the desired dopant is ionized by bombarding it with electrons, producing charged atoms. This process will also produce ions of other types, are screened out. By carefully adjusting the field, the desired ions are given the correct arc to exit the mass spectrometer. Ions that are heavier will curve too wide and ions that are lighter will curve too sharply to escape. The dopant ions are then accelerated through a very strong electric field and fired at the wafer. A patterned layer of photoresist or other material is used to block the dopant atoms from areas where they are not needed. In areas of silicon that are exposed, the ions crash into the surface at high rates of speeds. The total dose of dopant depends upon how many ions are fired into the silicon. Wafer must be annealed to allow the doper atoms and silicon atoms to position themselves in their proper places.
  16. 16. Photolithography Photolithography, also known as optical lithography, uses light radiation to expose a coating of photoresist on the surface of the silicon wafer; a mask containing the required geometric pattern for each layer separates the light source from the wafer, so that only the portions of the photoresist not blocked by the mask are exposed. The mask consists of a flat plate of transparent glass on to which a thin film of an opaque substance has been deposited in certain areas to form the desired pattern. Thickness of the glass plate is around 2 mm (0.080 in), whereas the deposited film is only a few mm thick—for some film materials, less than 1 mm.The mask itself is fabricated by lithography, the pattern being based on circuit design data, usually in the form of digital output from the CAD system used by the circuit designer.
  17. 17. Etching Etching is usually done selectively, by coating surface areas that are to be protected and leaving other areas exposed for etching. The coating maybe an etch-resistant photoresist, or it maybe a previously applied layer of material such as silicon dioxide. Wet Chemical Etching involves the use of an aqueous solution, usually an acid, to etch away a target material. The etching solution is selected because it chemically attacks the specific material to be removed and not the protective layer used as a mask. Dry Plasma Etching uses an ionized gas to etch a target material. The ionized gas is created by introducing an appropriate gas mixture into a vacuum chamber. and using radio frequency (RF) electrical energy to ionize a portion of the gas, thus creating a plasma. The high-energy plasma reacts with the target surface, vaporizing the material to remove it.
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