For example; In English tidy– there is just one morpheme untidy = un + tidy (prefix + tidy) there are two morphemes In Turkish Çiçek-there is one morpheme Çiçekçi= çiçek + çi (çiçek + suffix) there are two morphemes The basic unit of Morphological analysis is the morpheme . Morphemes are the smallest meaningful units of language.
For Instance; In English Panda =has two syllables but only one morpheme ( neither /pan/ nor /da/ has a meaning on its own) While Dogs=has two morphemes but only one syllable In Turkish merdiven= has three syllables but only one morpheme kitaplar = has two morphemes but three syllables • A morpheme is different from syllable • A syllable is a sound unit but a morpheme is a meaning unit *morphemes such as table that can stand alone as a word are called free morphemes , while those that cannot stand alone as words,such as the plural -s are called bound morphemes
* Inflectional Morphology =are closely linked to the syntax of a language and governed the adaptation of a word to fit particular grammatical contexts (I am play ing football, kitap oku yorum ) however, these rules do not create an essentially new word. * While English is relatively poor in inflectional morphology but does have the verb endings -ing, -ed,-s,-en;the plural marker –s; and the possesive marker –s. <ul><li>Turkish is rich in inflectional morphology : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>plural marker – lAr </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>time suffixes -DI,-AcAk –yor, -Ar, -mIş </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>case suffixes yalın hali, yönelme hali, belirtme hali, bulunma hali, ayrılma hali </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>possessive marker (I)m, (I)n, - (s) I, m(I)z, n(I)z, lAr I </li></ul></ul><ul><li>kalem+ ler + i satın al+ dı+m , Ali okul+ a gid+ ecek </li></ul>
*the rules of derivational morphology are used to create new words. English uses three main processes: Compounding : combining two words(free morphemes)as in blackboard Affixation : adding bound morphemes to a base word, as in dis like or organiz ation Conversion : simply changing a word from one class to another without adding any derivational affixes. Generally this involves converting nouns or adjectives into verbs. e.g.: the noun lunch becomes the verb to lunch * I n Turkish there are three most common processes: Compounding : biçerdöver Affixation : göz + lük + çü Blending : kahve + altı = kahvaltı
The development of Inflectional Morphology <ul><li>At this age English speaking children freely produce nouns and verbs without any inflections on them for example saying toy when referring to many toys. </li></ul><ul><li>But in Turkish, unlike English, all nouns and verbs are essentially bound morphemes. They only become a word when they have an inflection added. So Turkish children can produce words with at least one inflection even at the one word stage. (benim annem) </li></ul><ul><li>English speaking children don’t use the past tense inflection until about 2;3,altough they can produce irregular pasts like went earlier than this stage. they show through their over-generalizations that they begin to use productive rules for inflecting nouns and verbs, producing for instance drinked cola and childs </li></ul>Children already seem to have an idea of what constitutes a legitimate word in their language even in the early stages (1;0 and 2;0)
<ul><li>However T urkish speaking children, as turkish is a highly inflected language, productively use most of the noun and verb inflectional morphology before 2;0 . </li></ul><ul><li>What is the reason of this ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one is that because english is relatively poor in inflections,children have less opportunity to hear them.but almost all words which turkish child hears is inflected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The other one is related to the form of the inflection itself.in english most of the inflections are not syllabic and less salient for the child </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But in turkish each inflection is a whole stressed syllable,thus making it easier for turkish speaking children </li></ul>
The development of Derivational M orphology <ul><li>Even before the 2 years old, children can create new words.what is the reason of this?this is partly because their vocabularies are still growing . </li></ul><ul><li>They might not yet know the existing word for the concept they are trying to express, or they may momentarily forget words as in the case of one little girl who refered to ocak as pişirici and then immediately correct herself. </li></ul>*There are some axamples of word inventions from children acquiring English and turkish Compounding : sky -car(for airplane) yılanlı makarna(spagetti) Conversion : I’m souping (eating soup) Ben mucukladım (öptüm) Affixation : I am a big reacher (reaching across the kitchen counter) Ben bu sıcamışları yemem (soğumuştan yola çıkarak sıcamış)
Clark has proposed three principles which children appear to follow when they are creating new words.the first one is ; <ul><li>Transparency principle Create new words whose meaning comes from the meaning of their parts e.g . If you already know the word store and the word man , then it makes sense to create the compound storeman – especially if you haven’t yet heard the word clerk . I n tukish children sometimes say yemek pişirici in instead of fırın . </li></ul><ul><li>Simplicity principle Create new words from old words without changing their form. e.g . A childwho says Did you needle this ? or I sharped them has star ted to figure this out. I n turkish children can say sen bunu sağlamladın mı? </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity principle Create new words from endings that can be used with many different words e.g. English speaking children can say writist instead of writer . And in turkish children , can say gezici instead of gezgin. </li></ul>* In this principle children begin to use certain processes of lexical innovation in their particular language.for example children learning germanic languages (including English)use compounding and conversion very extensively as these are also used by adult speakers, while children learning romance languages use these devices far less,and affixation more, again reflecting the high productivity of that process in their languages .