SEMINAR
ON
UPDATES ON NEOPLASM OF
NERVOUS SYSTEM IN LIVESTOCK,
THEIR PATHOLOGICAL
DISTINCTION AND DIAGNOSIS
Presented
by
D...
“ An abnormal mass of tissue, the growth of
which exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of
the normal tissues and persist...
Anatomy of brain
Anatomy of brain
5
Classification
 World Health Organization classification
– Primary tumors classified on basis of cell origin
 Most pri...
Different type of nervous tissue tumors
 Primary Neoplasm of Neuronal cells
o Medulloblastoma
o Neuroblastomas
 Primary ...
Cont..
 Primary Neoplasm of Hematopoietic system
o Lymphoma/Lymphosarcoma
o Plasma cell tumor
o Malignant Histiocytosis
o...
Medulloblastoma
Fig. Medulloblastoma between cerebellum
and fourth ventricale with extention into
colliculus (arrow ) in c...
Cont..
Fig. Medulloblastoma in calf showing Pseudorosettes (A) and detailed in (B) as
circular grouping of dark tumor cell...
Neuroblastomas
 These tumors are rare and occur in any part of the CNS.
 They are thought to arise from primitive neuroe...
Astrocytoma
Fig. (B) Astrocytoma in piriform lobe in dog. Note lack of
definition but displacement of internal capsule (ar...
 Histologically, these tumors are very diverse and are classified as
 Low-grade astrocytoma (well differentiated)
 Medi...
Cont..
Fig. (A) Fibrous astrocytoma in dog (C) Gemistocytic astrocytoma in dog
Oligodendroglioma
Fig. Oligodendroglioma involving right side of brain stem and
piriform lobe in dog
 This is the easiest...
Cont..
Fig. Oligodendroglioma showing densely cellular with no stroma
and nuclei are remarkably uniform and like those of ...
Oligodendroglioma
This glial neoplasm is composed of both neoplastic
astrocytes and oligodendroglia.
Gliosarcoma
This rare...
Ependymoma
 Ependymomas are neuroglial tumors derived from the lining epithelium of
the ventricles and central canal of t...
Pineal tumors
 The benign variant is called pineocytoma
 the malignant variant is called pineoblastoma.
 They are descr...
Choroid plexus tumors
 These are rare, reported in cats, horses, and cattle, and occur with
higher frequency in dogs.
 T...
Cont..
Fig. Choroid pexus papilloma in
dog
Fig. Invasion into the periventricular white
matter of a dog by a Choroid pexus...
Meningioma
 Meningioma is the most common type of intracranial tumor in the cat
and it is one of the commonest of the int...
Histologic Varieties of Meningiomas
1. Epitheloid form:- In this type, cell resembling epithelial cells (polyhedral cells)...
Cont..
Fig.Meningioma attached to dura and calvaria
(left) and leaving an indentation in left parietal
cerebral cortex of ...
Lymphoma/ Lymphosarcoma
 Primary CNS lymphomas are reported mainly in dogs and cats
and sporadically in ruminants.
 They...
Malignant histiocytosis
 Primary neural malignant histiocytosis was reported in the right
parieto-occipital lobe of a min...
 Epidermoid cysts in the brain are confined to the fourth
ventricle and environs.
 They are rare, probably represent sur...
 Hamartoma or meningio-angiomatosis is a rare
benign lesion, best regarded as a malformation or
hamartoma producing circu...
Ganglioneuroma
 These rare tumors originate from the cranial and spinal ganglia and
from sympathetic ganglia of the auton...
Paraganglioma
This rare neuroendocrine tumor originates
from extra-adrenal paraganglion chief cells
associated with auton...
Peripheral nerve sheath tumor
 These include the benign form (schwannoma, neurofibroma) or the
malignant form (malignant ...
Cont..
Fig. Acostic schwannoma at
cerebellopontine angle and filling the
fourth ventricle of a dog .
Fig. Acostic schwanno...
Neurofibromatosis
 Neurofibromatosis of cattle is a well-recognized Schwannoma.
 It is common in abattoir material from ...
Secondary Neoplasm or Metastatic Tumors of
Central Nervous System
 Secondary tumors can metastasize from extraneural tiss...
Early detection is the key!
Cancer diagnosis comprises of
.involves evaluation of the patient’s history,
 clinical examinations
paraneoplastic diso...
IMAGING
 Malignancy is based on imaging information ,later confirmed on
histology
 Ultrasound (kondyo et al.,2008)
Comp...
• computed tomography (CT)-scans
• magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI).
• Neoplasms will often show as
differently colored ma...
Benign brain tumors often
show up as hypodense
(darker than brain tissue)
mass lesions on cranial CT-
scans.
On MRI, they ...
Cytology and Histopathological Technique
1. Still a gold standard for diagnosis of tumour.
Recent technique
 Imaging
IHC...
The definitive diagnosis of brain tumor
can only be confirmed by
 Histological examination of tumor tissue samples obtain...
• What is tumor marker?
 Tumor markers are glycoproteins
produced by tumor cells or by other
body cells in response to ca...
• Ag –Ab based Techniques :
i) ELISA
ii) Radio-immunoassay
iii) Flow Cytometry
iv) Immunohistochemistry
• Molecular Geneti...
According to the US National Cancer Institute (OTIR, 2006)
“Nanotechnology willchange the very foundations of cancer diagn...
. Nanotechnology will make possible to run test without physically
altering the cells or tissue
Cancer nanotechnology is emerging as a new field of interdisciplinary
research, cutting across the disciplines of biology, ...
Nanodevices Are
Small Enough to Enter Cells
Cell
White
blood cell
Water
molecule
Nanodevices
Nanodevices
Nanodevices Can Improve Cancer
Detection and Diagnosis
ImagingNanotechnology Physical Exam,
Symptoms
Nanodevices Can Improve Sensitivity
and determine
which cells are
cancerous or
precancerous.
Precancerous cells
Normal cel...
Nanodevices Can
Preserve Patients’ Samples
Cells from patient
Cells preserved
Active state preserved
Cells altered
Active ...
Nanodevices Can Make Cancer Tests
Faster and More Efficient
Patient A Patient B
Cancer prevention
Conclusion
1.Histopathology remains the standard conventional
method.
2. Recent technique such as imaging ,ICH ,PCR ,flow
...
Update on Neoplasm of Nervous system in Livestock and their Dignosi
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Update on Neoplasm of Nervous system in Livestock and their Dignosi

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World Health Organization classification of nervous system tumor is based on origin of cell. Most primary tumors of neuroepithelial origin from malignant transformation of astrocytes, ependymocytes, and oligodendrocytes in this Gliomas are most common. some are from Arise from astrocytes . some tumor are Metastases more likely than primary CNS tumor in patient with known systemic malignant disease. there are different verities explain in this seminar

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Update on Neoplasm of Nervous system in Livestock and their Dignosi

  1. 1. SEMINAR ON UPDATES ON NEOPLASM OF NERVOUS SYSTEM IN LIVESTOCK, THEIR PATHOLOGICAL DISTINCTION AND DIAGNOSIS Presented by Dr. Rahul G. Kadam Ph.D Scholar Roll NO. P1661
  2. 2. “ An abnormal mass of tissue, the growth of which exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of the normal tissues and persists in the same excessive manner even after cessation of the stimuli that evoked the change.” New growth composed of cells originally derived from normal tissues, that have undergone heritable genetic changes allowing them to become relatively unresponsive to normal growth controls and to expand beyond their normal anatomical boundaries. Cancer
  3. 3. Anatomy of brain
  4. 4. Anatomy of brain
  5. 5. 5 Classification  World Health Organization classification – Primary tumors classified on basis of cell origin  Most primary tumors of neuroepithelial origin – From malignant transformation of astrocytes, ependymocytes, and oligodendrocytes  Gliomas most common – Arise from astrocytes  Metastases more likely than primary CNS tumor in patient with known systemic malignant disease
  6. 6. Different type of nervous tissue tumors  Primary Neoplasm of Neuronal cells o Medulloblastoma o Neuroblastomas  Primary Neoplasm's of Neuroglial cells o Astrocytoma o Oligodendroglioma o Oligoastrocytoma (Mixed Glial Tumor) o Gliosarcoma o Ependymoma o Pineal tumors  Primary Neoplasm of the Choroid Plexus o Choroid Plexus Papilloma o Choroid Plexus Carcinoma  Primary Neoplasm of Mesodermal Tissue o Meningioma  Epitheloid form  Psammoma form  Fibrous form ossified m  Angiomatoid form  Sacomatous form
  7. 7. Cont..  Primary Neoplasm of Hematopoietic system o Lymphoma/Lymphosarcoma o Plasma cell tumor o Malignant Histiocytosis o Microgliomatosis  Other primary tumors and cyst o Epidermoid cyst o Hemartoma or meningio-angiomatosis  Neoplasm of the peripheral nervous system o Ganglioneroma o Paraganglioma o Periferal nerve sheath tumor  Secondary Neoplasm or Metastatic Tumors of Central Nervous System
  8. 8. Medulloblastoma Fig. Medulloblastoma between cerebellum and fourth ventricale with extention into colliculus (arrow ) in cat  Medulloblastoma, well-known in children, is rare in animals  Occurs in the young of several species, mainly calves and dogs.  This tumor of unknown parentage.  It is currently thought to arise from undifferentiated cells found in neonatal life beneath the cerebellar piamater and thought to be the precursors of the cerebellar cortex.  These tumors grow rapidly.
  9. 9. Cont.. Fig. Medulloblastoma in calf showing Pseudorosettes (A) and detailed in (B) as circular grouping of dark tumor cell around central pale area containing neurofibrils.
  10. 10. Neuroblastomas  These tumors are rare and occur in any part of the CNS.  They are thought to arise from primitive neuroepithelial cells with differentiation towards postmitotic neuroblasts.  The histologic appearances consisting of masses of small rounded cells that resemble lymphocytes, with hyperchromatic nuclei and scant cytoplasm. Fig. The histologic appearance of Spinal nephroblastoma showing glandular areas intermingling with cellular areas. The glandular areas consist of rosettes and tubules, the latter tortuous, branching and papilliferous, with infoldings reminiscent of embryonic glomerular capsules
  11. 11. Astrocytoma Fig. (B) Astrocytoma in piriform lobe in dog. Note lack of definition but displacement of internal capsule (arrow) by the hemogenous tumour. (E) Hemorrhagic astrocytoma of left frontal lobe in dog  Astrocytoma is the most common primary intracranial tumor.  Astrocytomas are found most commonly in dogs.  More prevalent in cerebrum, thalamus, hypothalamus, and midbrain.  Astrocytomas have no age predilection but are more prevalent in middle- aged or older dogs.
  12. 12.  Histologically, these tumors are very diverse and are classified as  Low-grade astrocytoma (well differentiated)  Medium-grade astrocytoma (anaplastic)  High-grade astrocytoma (glioblastoma)  Low-grade astrocytoma appears as an unencapsulated expansile and subtly invasive mass that replaces pre-existing tissues and has low to moderate numbers of bland round to oval cells. It appears as an increased population of fibrous astrocytes. It include  Fibrillary astrocytoma (neoplastic cells have scant cytoplasm but abundant fibrillary processes and filaments)  Protoplasmic astrocytoma (neoplastic cells have scant cytoplasm and few short processes and filaments)  Gemistocytic astrocytoma (neoplastic cells have abundant acidophilic cytoplasm and eccentric oval to round nuclei)  Pilocytic astrocytoma (neoplastic cells are bipolar, elongated (piloid or hair-like) astrocytes and have few Rosenthal fibers)  Medium-grade astrocytoma, the population is denser; the nuclei are a little larger and darker and show slight but definite variations in size and shape but no mitoses.  High-grade astrocytoma, or glioblastoma multiforme, hemorrhage and necrosis are expected and the adventitial and endothelial cells of the vessels proliferate forming glomeruloid blood vessels. Neoplastic cells have a tendency for pseudopalisading around necrotic areas. Pleomorphism, giant nuclei, and multinucleated giant cells are common. Mitotic figures are common and atypical. Cont..
  13. 13. Cont.. Fig. (A) Fibrous astrocytoma in dog (C) Gemistocytic astrocytoma in dog
  14. 14. Oligodendroglioma Fig. Oligodendroglioma involving right side of brain stem and piriform lobe in dog  This is the easiest of the glial tumors to recognize even when growing rapidly.  This tumor is reported in dogs especially in brachycephalic breeds and rarely in cats.  It usually appears well demarcated, being gray, soft, and almost fluctuating some time hemorrhage and necrosis occur but are unusual.
  15. 15. Cont.. Fig. Oligodendroglioma showing densely cellular with no stroma and nuclei are remarkably uniform and like those of normal oligodendroglia in size and shape. The cytoplasm does not stain, but its membrane does, so that the nucleus seems to lie in a clear polyhedral or rounded halo
  16. 16. Oligodendroglioma This glial neoplasm is composed of both neoplastic astrocytes and oligodendroglia. Gliosarcoma This rare glial tumor is composed of highly anaplastic glial cells with abundant sarcomatous components.
  17. 17. Ependymoma  Ependymomas are neuroglial tumors derived from the lining epithelium of the ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord.  Most arise about the third ventricle.  They are gray and fleshy but may be dark from hemorrhage if they project into a ventricle.  They are more prevalent in dogs and cats, but are reported in horses and cattle. Fig. Tpical Braching papillary structure in an ependymoma in a dog, the nuclei are small, dark and regular and cytoplasm has not distinct boundries.
  18. 18. Pineal tumors  The benign variant is called pineocytoma  the malignant variant is called pineoblastoma.  They are described in horses, cattle, and dogs.  The diagnosis is based on the site of the tumor and its replacement of the pineal body.  Other positive identifying characteristics are absent.  Microscopically, there is a resemblance to medulloblastoma.  The tumor may extend into midbrain and thalamus.  Teratomatous tumors with characteristics of the gonadal teratomas are not described in the pineal gland of animals.
  19. 19. Choroid plexus tumors  These are rare, reported in cats, horses, and cattle, and occur with higher frequency in dogs.  They may be papillomas or carcinomas.  They are vascular papillary growths that implant widely on the meninges.  The cells retain recognizable choroidal character .  According to cellular atypia and invasiveness, these tumors can be classified as papilloma or carcinoma.  Internal or communicating hydrocephalus is a complication.
  20. 20. Cont.. Fig. Choroid pexus papilloma in dog Fig. Invasion into the periventricular white matter of a dog by a Choroid pexus carcinoma.
  21. 21. Meningioma  Meningioma is the most common type of intracranial tumor in the cat and it is one of the commonest of the intracranial and intraspinal tumors in man, and is relatively common in dogs and rare in cattle.  These tumors are otherwise known as arachnoid-fibroblastomas as they arise from the arachnoid fibroblasts of the brain and spinal chord.  Meningioma occurs singly and by expanasion causes presure on brain.  Grossly the tumor appears as white lobulated and encapsulated.  Histologically, meningioma consist of spindle shaped cells of uniform size and shape. They have elongated oval nuclei and the cells are arranged in whorls.
  22. 22. Histologic Varieties of Meningiomas 1. Epitheloid form:- In this type, cell resembling epithelial cells (polyhedral cells) are found in sheets or pseudo alveoli amidst vascular connective tissue. 2. Psammoma form :- In this form of growth, bluish calcified bodies, calicospherules suggestive of grains of sand are dispersed in the substance of the tumor. 3. Fibrous form :- In this variety dense fibro-collagenous tissue with or without whorl formation or sand grains is found. 4. Ossified form :- In some part of tumor , ossification with haematopoietic marrow may be seen. 5. Angiomatoid form :- In these tumors, a rich supply of blood vessels are there and these blood vessels are thin walled. 6. Sacomatous form :- It is highly cellular and anaplastic without whorl formation.
  23. 23. Cont.. Fig.Meningioma attached to dura and calvaria (left) and leaving an indentation in left parietal cerebral cortex of a cat. Fig. Pasammomatous meningioma showing arrangement of cells in whorls. In the center of a whorl, lamellar hyaline tissue forms, derived possibly from cells, stroma, or a blood vessel.
  24. 24. Lymphoma/ Lymphosarcoma  Primary CNS lymphomas are reported mainly in dogs and cats and sporadically in ruminants.  They are mostly intraparenchymal and have an angiocentric (perivascular) pattern in contrast to lymphosarcomas metastatic from extraneural areas that are usually arranged diffusely in the meninges.  Most primary CNS lymphomas are of T-cell type. Plasma cell tumor  A primary intracerebral intraparenchymal plasma cell tumor has been reported in a dog.
  25. 25. Malignant histiocytosis  Primary neural malignant histiocytosis was reported in the right parieto-occipital lobe of a miniature Schnauzer as a poorly demarcated mass composed microscopically of histiocytic cells with many binucleate and multinucleate giant cells. Microgliomatosis  The histogenic origin of the neoplastic cell in this rare neoplasm is controversial.  The neoplasm diffusely infiltrates the cerebral white matter and brain stem with cells reminiscent of microglial cells.  The infiltration in some cases can be limited to meninges or can be perivascular.
  26. 26.  Epidermoid cysts in the brain are confined to the fourth ventricle and environs.  They are rare, probably represent surface ectoderm misplaced at the period of closure of the neural groove, and are described only in humans, dogs, and a horse.  The cystic structure is lined by squamous epithelium, and the cavities contain keratinaceous debris.  They occur in young dogs and may develop to several centimeters in diameter.  The clinical signs are determined by the location of the tumor. Epidermoid cysts
  27. 27.  Hamartoma or meningio-angiomatosis is a rare benign lesion, best regarded as a malformation or hamartoma producing circumscribed plaques on the surface of the brain.  Blood vessels are in excess in the lesions and are cuffed by proliferating cells that are considered to be meningothelial.  The lesion does extend into the underlying neural substance, which shows mixed degenerative and reactive changes. Hemartoma or meningio-angiomatosis
  28. 28. Ganglioneuroma  These rare tumors originate from the cranial and spinal ganglia and from sympathetic ganglia of the autonomic nervous system.  They have been reported in cats, pigs, cattle, dogs, and horses.  They can be solitary or multicentric.  Ganglioneuroma is composed of ganglion cells and glial cells.  Ganglioneuroblastoma is composed of poorly to fairly well differentiated ganglion cells with more atypia and high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio.  The degree of differentiation of these tumors varies considerably, and they are a mixture of ganglion cells, Schwann cells, and nerve fibers.  The ganglion cells show different degrees of differentiation from primitive neuroblasts to some that are remarkably mature.  The adrenal medullary ganglioneuromas and ganglioblastomas are probably better regarded as hamartomatous malformations rather than as neoplasms.
  29. 29. Paraganglioma This rare neuroendocrine tumor originates from extra-adrenal paraganglion chief cells associated with autonomic nervous system ganglia.
  30. 30. Peripheral nerve sheath tumor  These include the benign form (schwannoma, neurofibroma) or the malignant form (malignant schwannoma, neurofibrosarcoma) Schwannoma  Sehwannomas may be largely solitary infiltrating lesions at any site on a nerve trunk.  Those distant from the CNS are not encapsulated or well defined, are difficult to dissect cleanly, and have an ordinary fibrous appearance and texture.  Schwannomas of nerve roots tend to be well-defined fusiform tumors.  They probably arise from a single nerve and extend proximally and distally in conjunction with the nerve but external to it.  In this way they may extend through the intervertebral foraminae and extend also to involve other nerves that have a plexus arrangement such as the brachial plexus.  They may arise within and remain within the dura mater, and such tumors may be globose rather than fusiform and soft and discolored from hemorrhage.  Expansive intradural growth may be slow and compress the brain or cord, but some of these tumors are malignant and invasive and metastasize particularly to the lung.
  31. 31. Cont.. Fig. Acostic schwannoma at cerebellopontine angle and filling the fourth ventricle of a dog . Fig. Acostic schwannoma showing closely packed cells with oval or elongate nuclei.
  32. 32. Neurofibromatosis  Neurofibromatosis of cattle is a well-recognized Schwannoma.  It is common in abattoir material from old animals but has been observed in very young calves.  The skin may be affected, but the lesions are usually restricted to deeper nerves of the thoracic wall and viscera.  The brachial plexus, intercostal nerves, hepatic autonomic plexus, epicardial plexus, and autonomic nerves of the mediastinum are those most frequently affected in various collective patterns.  Sympathetic ganglia, especially the stellate and others of the thorax, are also frequently involved.  Affected nerves are thickened, firm, and gray, and may bear yellow-gray nodules.  Affected ganglia may be enlarged to several centimeters and appear lobulated on section.
  33. 33. Secondary Neoplasm or Metastatic Tumors of Central Nervous System  Secondary tumors can metastasize from extraneural tissue to the CNS.  They are mostly observed in the cerebral hemispreres and are multiple which indicates their metastatic nature.  The majority of this metastatic tumors have their primary site in the lung.  The most common examples include canine hemangiosarcoma, malignant histiocytosis, lymphosarcoma, and malignant melanoma of dogs and rarely other species.
  34. 34. Early detection is the key!
  35. 35. Cancer diagnosis comprises of .involves evaluation of the patient’s history,  clinical examinations paraneoplastic disorder  review of laboratory test results  radiological data, (X-ray.CT scan ,MRI. Ultrasound imaging)  Biopsy  Cancer staging Molecular marker.(PCR and RT PCR based technique.) Diagnostic approaches of tumor.
  36. 36. IMAGING  Malignancy is based on imaging information ,later confirmed on histology  Ultrasound (kondyo et al.,2008) Computed topography,(Drosot et al.,1996) Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)(kaiser et al 1992) Metabolic and functional Imaging Molecular imaging with magnetic resonance spectroscopy.(MRS) Position emission topography,(PET)(Grahek D et al 2004)
  37. 37. • computed tomography (CT)-scans • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). • Neoplasms will often show as differently colored masses (also referred to as processes) in CT or MRI results. IMAGING
  38. 38. Benign brain tumors often show up as hypodense (darker than brain tissue) mass lesions on cranial CT- scans. On MRI, they appear either hypo- (darker than brain tissue) or isointense (same intensity as brain tissue) on T1-weighted scans, or hyperintense (brighter than brain tissue) on T2-weighted MRI, although the appearance is variable. Cont..
  39. 39. Cytology and Histopathological Technique 1. Still a gold standard for diagnosis of tumour. Recent technique  Imaging IHC PCR Flow cytometary  FISH MICROARRAY NANOTECHNOLOGY
  40. 40. The definitive diagnosis of brain tumor can only be confirmed by  Histological examination of tumor tissue samples obtained either by means of brain biopsy or open surgery.  This examination, performed by a pathologist, typically has three stages:  Interoperative examination of fresh tissue,  Preliminary microscopic examination of prepared tissues,  Follow up examination of prepared tissues after immuno histochemical staining or genetic analysis.
  41. 41. • What is tumor marker?  Tumor markers are glycoproteins produced by tumor cells or by other body cells in response to cancer or other conditions.  As tumor cells multiply, spreads & tissue is damaged TMs increase in concentration. • How it produced? Tumor Markers • Where do the TMs found?  These substances can be found in the blood (plasma, serum), urine, saliva, tissue fluid, in the tumor tissue or in other tissues.
  42. 42. • Ag –Ab based Techniques : i) ELISA ii) Radio-immunoassay iii) Flow Cytometry iv) Immunohistochemistry • Molecular Genetic Techniques : i) PCR / RT PCR ii) Fluorescence in situ Hybridization ((FISH) iii) Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) • Other Techniques : i) Spectophotometry Tumor Markers detection Methods
  43. 43. According to the US National Cancer Institute (OTIR, 2006) “Nanotechnology willchange the very foundations of cancer diagnosis, treatment, and prevention” NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CANCER
  44. 44. . Nanotechnology will make possible to run test without physically altering the cells or tissue
  45. 45. Cancer nanotechnology is emerging as a new field of interdisciplinary research, cutting across the disciplines of biology, chemistry, engineering, and medicine, and is expected to lead to major advances in cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment .(Menon U, Jacobs IJ. 2000, Ferrari M. 2005.) Schematic diagram showing nanotechnology applications in cancer through molecular tumor imaging, early detection, molecular diagnosis, targeted therapy, and cancer bioinformatics
  46. 46. Nanodevices Are Small Enough to Enter Cells Cell White blood cell Water molecule Nanodevices Nanodevices
  47. 47. Nanodevices Can Improve Cancer Detection and Diagnosis ImagingNanotechnology Physical Exam, Symptoms
  48. 48. Nanodevices Can Improve Sensitivity and determine which cells are cancerous or precancerous. Precancerous cells Normal cells Nanodevices could potentially enter cells Precancerous cells Normal cells
  49. 49. Nanodevices Can Preserve Patients’ Samples Cells from patient Cells preserved Active state preserved Cells altered Active state lost Additional tests Cells from patient Nanotechnology Tests Traditional Tests
  50. 50. Nanodevices Can Make Cancer Tests Faster and More Efficient Patient A Patient B
  51. 51. Cancer prevention
  52. 52. Conclusion 1.Histopathology remains the standard conventional method. 2. Recent technique such as imaging ,ICH ,PCR ,flow cytometry ,FISH, CSH ,and microarry, nanotechnalogy contribute a major break through in diagnosis prognosis of cancer. 3.In future a multimodal imaging approach will evolve, enhancing diagnostic accuracy thus minimizing loss of lives due to cancer.

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