• Since mid 20th century Architecture has
experience great change.
• The increasing interest in urban planning
– not only involves the construction of the buildings
– it also asked for its inclusion in an area and in
consonance with deep studies of their physical, social
and economic impact.
• The development of new and revolutionary
materials has made possible the creation of
some buildings that in a recent past would have
• It combines the imagination of
the architects and engineers
with the aesthetic impact of
materials such as reinforced
• Structural solutions are
revolutionary and, in addition to
use industrial materials
– they created sophisticates
spaces through the distribution of
– the use of materials not frequent
in architecture, underlining their
• The pioneer of this architecture would be Alvar
Aalto. Other architects working in this way are
Eero Saarinen, Nervi, Utzon or Kahn.
• Their sign of identity is the use of industrial
material to solve difficult structural problems.
• It has its roots in the works of the
Bauhaus and it developed in the
US thanks to the influence of
Mies van der Rohe and his
• It is well suited to large
metropolitan apartment and office
• These building proved to have a
commercial potential and were
extremely efficient for large-scale
construction in which the module
could be repeated indefinitely.
• Inner spaces became
standardized, predictable, and
profitable and exterior reflected
the monotony of the interiors.
• The blank glass box became
• These buildings are considered
examples of an austere
classicism, but also coldly
• Architects working in this style
are Stirling, Kenzo Tange, or
• Between about 1965 and 1980 architects
and critics began to espouse tendencies
resulting in a style that is not cohesive but
that has a distinct set of principles.
• Postmodernists value
– complexity and
– occasionally even humour.
• Some architects, such as
Venturi, defended an
architecture that can
produce any kind of
buildings, ( filling stations
or fast-food restaurants).
• Some works have
references to old style and
can use vivid colours.
• Other architects of this
movement are Graves,
Meier, Jahn or Moore.
• The High-Tech style came to prominence in the 1970s and 1980s.
• Representatives of this movement are the architects Richard
Rogers, Renzo Piano and Norman Foster.
• Its origins lie in the 19th century when new industrial techniques and
materials, previously used on engineering projects such as bridges,
began to be applied to architecture.
• High-Tech buildings
– are typically constructed of
steel and glass,
– make innovative use of
technology and are often
likened in appearance to the
– draw attention to structural
and functional elements.
• Postmodernism is not the major
strand in the most recent avant-
• High-Tech makes expressive use
of the constructional and
operational aspects of a building,
with features such as supporting
members or heating pipes fully
exposed to view.
• Deconstructivism is the term used to characterize
buildings in which elements such as
– fractured forms or
– warped planes
undermine conventional notions of stability and harmony.
• The works of Frank
Gehry or Zaha Hadid
can be considered
good examples of this