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Personal Selling: Preparation and Process


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Personal Selling:
Preparation and Process

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Personal Selling: Preparation and Process

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Personal Selling: Preparation and Process SDM-Ch.2 1
  2. 2. Learning Objectives • To understand psychology in selling, buying decision process and buying situations • To learn communication skills, sales knowledge, and sales related marketing policies • To understand personal selling process • To learn about negotiation SDM-Ch.2 2
  3. 3. Psychology in Selling Stimulus (Sales Presentation) Buyer’s decision making process Response (buy or no buy) • If a sales person makes a presentation, the prospect may or may not buy • The above “buyer behaviour model” does not tell us the reasons of buying or not buying • To understand the psychological aspects of selling or buying, salespeople should study consumer or buyer behaviour, including buying process and situations SDM-Ch.2 3
  4. 4. Buying Process of Consumers and Business Buyers Five – stage model for household customers Eight – stage model for business buyers 1. Problem / need recognition 1. Problem / need recognition 2. Characteristics and quantity determination 3. Specification development 2. Information search / collection 4. Supplier search and qualification 5. Obtain and analyse supplier proposals 3. Evaluate alternatives 6. Evaluation and selection of suppliers 4. Purchase decision 7. Selection of purchase order routine 5. Post – purchase behaviour 8. Performance feedback and postpurchase evaluation SDM-Ch.2 4
  5. 5. Buying Situations Faced By Household customers Business Buyers • Routine decision-making • New task / New purchase • Limited decision-making • Modified rebuy / change in supplier • Extensive decision-making • Straight rebuy / Repeat purchase • Buying process and situations differ for household consumers and business buyers. • Consumers / Buyers may skip or reverse some stages in buying process. E.G. A consumer buying toothpaste SDM-Ch.2 5
  6. 6. Knowledge of Sales and Sales-related Marketing Policies Sales Knowledge Marketing Policies • Company knowledge • Pricing and Payment policies • Product knowledge • Product policies • Customer knowledge • Distribution policies • Competitor knowledge • Promotional policies Major reasons for giving above information / knowledge through training programmes to salespeople are: • increase their self-confidence • Meet customers’ expectations • Increase sales • Overcome competition SDM-Ch.2 6
  7. 7. The Sales Process As a part of selling activities, if salespeople follow the steps or phases shown below, their chances of success are far better. Prospecting & Qualifying Preapproach / Precall planning Approach Presentation & Demonstration Follow-up & Service Trail close / Closing the sale Overcoming Objections • The sequence of above steps may change to meet the sales situation in hand. • Some of the above steps may not be applicable for selling to the trade • We now discuss application of above steps to industrial selling SDM-Ch.2 7
  8. 8. Prospecting • It is identifying or finding prospects i.e. prospective or potential customers. • Methods of prospecting or sales lead generation are: (1) referrals from existing customers, (2) company sources (website, ads., tradeshow, teleprospecting), (3) external sources (suppliers, intermediaries, trade associations), (4) salespersons’ networking, (5) industrial directories, (6) cold canvassing Qualifying • Companies qualify sales leads by contacting them by mail or phone to find their interests (or needs) and financial capacity. • Leads are categorized as: Hot, Warm, and Cool SDM-Ch.2 8
  9. 9. Preapproac h • Information gathering about the prospect. Sources of information: the Internet, industrial directories, government publications, intermediaries, etc. • Precall planning • Setting call objectives • Tentative planning of sales strategy: which products, features and benefits may meet the customer needs SDM-Ch.2 9
  10. 10. Approac h • Make an appointment to meet the prospect • Make favourable first impression • Select an approach technique: • Introductory • Customer benefit • Product • Question • Praise • The approach takes a few minutes of a call, but it can make or break a sale SDM-Ch.2 10
  11. 11. Presentation and Demonstration There are four components: • • • • Understanding the buyer’s needs Knowing sales presentation methods / strategies Developing an effective presentation Using demonstration as a tool for selling We will examine each of the above points SDM-Ch.2 11
  12. 12. Understanding the buyer’s needs • Firms and consumers buy products / services to satisfy needs • To understand buyer’s needs, ask questions and listen • In business situations, problem identification and impact questions are important E.G. • Have you experienced any problems on quality and delivery from the existing supplies? • What impact the quality and delivery problems will have on your costs and customer satisfaction? SDM-Ch.2 12
  13. 13. Knowing Sales Presentation Methods/Strategies Firms have developed different methods / styles / strategies of sales presentation • Stimulus response method / canned approach. • It is a memorised sales talk or a prepared sales presentation. • The sales person talks without knowing the prospect’s needs. E.G. Used by tele-marketing people • Formula method / formulated approach. • It is also based on stimulus response thinking that all prospects are similar. • The salesperson uses a standard formula – AIDA (attention, interest, desire, and action). • It is used if time is short and prospects are similar. • Shortcomings are: prospects’ needs are not uncovered and uses same standard formula for different prospects. SDM-Ch.2 13
  14. 14. Sales Presentation Methods (Continued) • Need – satisfaction method • Interactive sales presentation • First find prospect’s needs, by asking questions and listening • Use FAB approach: Features, Advantages, Benefits • Effective method, as it focuses on customers • Consultative selling method / Problem-solving approach • Salespeople use cross-functional expertise • Firms adopt team selling approach • It is used by software / consulting firms SDM-Ch.2 14
  15. 15. Developing an Effective Presentation Some of the guidelines are: • • • • Plan the sales call Adopt presentation to the situation and person Communicate the benefits of the purchase Present relevant and limited information at a time • Use the prospect’s language • Make the presentation convincing – give evidence • Use technology like multi-media presentation SDM-Ch.2 15
  16. 16. Using Demonstration • Sales presentation can be improved by demonstration • Demonstration is one of the important selling tools EGs: Test drive of cars; demonstration of industrial products in use • Benefits of using demonstration for selling are: • • • • Buyers’ objections are cleared Improves the buyer’s purchasing interest Helps to find specific benefits of the prospect The prospect can experience the benefit SDM-Ch.2 16
  17. 17. Overcoming Sales Objections / Resistances • Objections take place during presentations / when the order is asked • Two types of sales objections: • Psychological / hidden • Logical (real or practical) • Methods for handling and overcoming objections: (a) ask questions, (b) turn an objection into a benefit, (c) deny objections tactfully, (d) third-party certificate, (e) compensation SDM-Ch.2 17
  18. 18. Trial close and Closing the sale • Trial close checks the attitude or opinion of the prospect, before closing the sale (or asking for the order) • If the response to trial close question is favourable, then the salesperson should close the sale • Some of the techniques used for closing the sale are: (a) alternative-choice, (b) minor points, (c) assumptive, (d) summary-of-benefits, (e) Taccount, (f) special-offer, (g) probability, and (h) negotiation SDM-Ch.2 18
  19. 19. Follow-up and Service • Necessary for customer satisfaction • Successful salespeople follow-up in different ways: For example, • • • • • Check order details Follow through delivery schedule Visit when the product is delivered Build long-term relationship Arrange warranty service SDM-Ch.2 19
  20. 20. Negotiatio n • Salespeople, particularly in business to business selling, need negotiating skills • When to negotiate? (a) When the buyer puts certain conditions for buying to the seller, (b) When agreement between the buyer and the seller is needed on several factors, (c) When the product is customised, (d) When the final price is to be decided • How to prepare for negotiation? (a) planning, (b) building relationship, (c) purpose • Styles of negotiation (a) I win, you lose, (b) Both of us win (or win-win style), (c) You win, I lose, and (d) Both of us lose SDM-Ch.2 20
  21. 21. Key Learnings • For understanding psychology in selling, study consumer or buyer behaviour, buying process and situations • Salespeople are given knowledge of sales and relevant marketing policies in order to increase their selfconfidence and sales, and meet customers’ expectations • Typical steps in the sales process include prospecting and qualifying, preapproach, approach, presentation and demonstration, overcoming objections, trial close / closing the sale, follow-up and service • Salespeople should know when to negotiate, how to prepare for negotiation and which style of negotiation to use SDM-Ch.2 21