Physical Evidence and the servicescape Physical Evidence. Strategic roles of the servicescape. Guidelines for Physical Evidence Strategy.
Physical Evidence Is defines as the environment in which the service is delivered and in which the firm and the customer interest, and any tangible commodities that facilitate performance or communication of the service.
Physical Evidence THE PHYSICAL EVEIDENCE OF A SERVICE IS A TANGIBLE CLUE,WHICH CREATES AN IMPRESSION ABOUT THE SERVICE OR THE SETTING OF A SERVICE OR PROVIDES THE PROOF OF SERVICE DELIVERY. IT CONTRIBUTERS TO THE PECEPTION OF THE QUALITY AND THE PRICE OF THE SERVICE.
Servicescape-the design of service facility The physical surrounding or the physical facility where the service is produced, delivered and consumed. Service create mood, an attraction or a desire to visit service in the context of service purchase. E.g. student canteen in college.
Roles of the servicescape• Package - conveys expectations - influences perception• Facilitator - facilitates the flow of the service delivery process • Provides information (how am I to act?) • Facilitates the ordering process (how does this work?) • Facilitates service delivery• Socializer - facilitates interaction between: • customers and employees • Customers and fellow customers• Differentiator - sets provider apart from competition in the mind of the consumer
PackageThe servicescape and other elements of physical evidence essentially ”wrap” the service and convey the consumer an external image of what is “inside". The physical setting perform the role of packaging for service.
Facilitator How the service is designed can enhance or inhibit the efficient flow of activities in the service setting, making it easier or harder for consumer and employees to accomplish their goals. For example an international air traveler who finds himself in a poorly designed airport with few signs, poor ventilation and few places to sit or eat will find the experience quit dissatisfying. The same international traveler will appreciate seats on the airplane that are conducive to work and sleep. The seating itself, part of physical surroundings.
Socialiazer The design of the servicescape aids in the socialization of both employee and customer in the sense that it help in convey expected roles, behavior and relationship. For example a new employee in a professional services firm would come to understand her position in the hierarchy through nothing her office assignment, the quality of her office furnishing, and her location relative to others in the organisation. The design of the facility can also suggest customers what their role is relative to employees what part of the servicescape they are welcome in and which are for employees only.
Differentiator The design of the physical facility can differentiate a firm from its competitor. For example the sitting arrangement in multiplex theatre.
Servicescape Servicescape can be classified in to three types- Self service Interpersonal service Remote service
Self-service Customer performs most of the activities and very few employees are involved. Example- -ATMs -Fast food centers
Interpersonal serviceBoth employees and customers will be given adequate importance. Examples- -Hospital -Educational institution
Remote serviceCustomer’s physical involvement in the service scape may be very little or even absent. Example- -Mail order services -consultancy
Elements of Physical EvidenceServicescape Other tangiblesFacility exterior Business cards Exterior design Stationery Signage Billing statements Parking Reports Landscape Employee dress Surrounding environment Uniforms BrochuresFacility interior Internet/Web pages Interior design Equipment Signage Layout Air quality/temperature
Examples of Physical Evidence from the Customer’s point of View Physical EvidenceService Servicescape Other TangiblesInsurance Not applicable Policy itself Billing statements Periodic updates Company brochure Letters/cards WebsiteHospital Building exterior Uniforms Parking Reports/stationery Signs Billing statements Waiting areas Website Admissions office Patient care room Medical equipment Recovery roomAirline Airline gate area Tickets Airplane exterior Food Airplane interior(decore,seates,air quality) Uniforms Website Not applicableExpress mail Packaging Trucks Uniforms Computers Website ParkingSporting event Stadium exterior Signs Ticketing area Tickets Entrance Programs Seating Uniforms Restrooms website Concession areas Playing field
Guidelines for Physical EvidenceStrategy Recognize the strategic impact of physical evidence. Blueprint the physical evidence of service. Clarify strategic roles of the servicescape. Assess and identify physical evidence opportunities. Be prepared to update and modernize the evidence. Work cross- functionally.
Recognize the strategoc impact of Physical evidence Basic service concept must be defined. The target market must be identified. The firm broad, vision must be known
Blueprint the physical evidence of service This is the step to map the service. Everyone should be able to see the service process and the existing elements of service evidence-blueprint. People process and physical evidence can all be seen in the blue print.
Clarify strategic roles of the servicescape Already disscused
Assess and identify physical evidence opportunities Once the role of evidence and the roles of the servicescape are understood, possible changes and improvements can be identified. Question must be asked Are there any missed opportunities to provide service evidence? Whether the current physical evidence of service suits the needs and preference of the target segment. Be prepared to update and modernize the evidence.
Work cross-functionally The P.E decision are made by various function in the organization for e.g. HR decide dress for employee Facility management group may decide Servicescape. Marketing department-advertising and pricing decision Therefore multifunction team approach is required to be consistent in providing P.E.