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Future trends and challenges in engine lubricants icis-lor kuala lumpur 2008


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Future trends and challenges in engine lubricants icis-lor kuala lumpur 2008

  1. 1. Future Trends and Challenges in Engine Lubricants Dr. Jai G. Bansal Global Technology Advisor - Crankcase Lubricants Infineum International Limited Reproduction of any material whether by photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means or otherwise is prohibited without prior written consent of Infineum International Limited. © Copyright INFINEUM INTERNATIONAL LIMITED 2007. All rights reserved See the legal disclaimer notice on "INFINEUM", "DOBANAX", "PARATAC", "SYNACTO", "VEKTRON", and the corporate mark comprising the interlocking ripple device are trademarks of Infineum International Ltd. “VISTONE” is a trademark of Exxon Mobil Corporation used under licence by Infineum International Limited.
  2. 2. Introduction The automotive and heavy duty diesel industries are going through a period of rapid change More hardware changes in the pipeline than in last 50 years The lubricant industry is changing accordingly The purpose of this presentation is to discuss: The key drivers behind this change Resulting challenges for the lubricant/additive industry How the lubricant/additive industry is responding to these challenges
  3. 3. Outline Introduction Industry Drivers and Consequences Key Trends and Challenges in Lubricant Formulations
  4. 4. Industry Drivers and Consequences Environment Cost of Ownership Shortage of Natural Resources Competition at OEMs Alternate Fuels Emission Regulations Globalization Tougher HSE Regulations Customer Satisfaction Fuel Economy Extended Drain
  5. 5. …Industry Drivers and Consequences On-board oil monitoring Catalyst Converter Durability Downsizing Gasoline Direct Injection Advanced materials and surface treatments Diesel commonrail ACERT TM Turbo charging Variable valve actuation Retarded timing SCR Rapidly Changing Lubricant Requirements EGR DPF
  6. 6. Key Trends and Challenges in Lubricant Formulations 1. 2. 3. 4. Emissions Extended Drain Fuel Economy Alternate Fuels
  7. 7. 1. Emissions Diesel Emission Standards Source: Purem
  8. 8. Emission Control Strategies Approaches vary with OEMs but involve some combination of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) – without or with external cooling Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) Caterpillar use proprietary ACERTTM system Different approaches lead to specific and fragmented lubricant needs Nevertheless certain trends are common to most diesel engine lubricants: Higher soot loading in the oil due to EGR Restrictions on SAPS (Sulphated Ash, Phosphorus and Sulphur) to protect after-treatment devices
  9. 9. Evolution of Soot Requirements in NA ~6 lb of soot in typical oil sump! Soot in Oil, wt% 6.0 5.0 Less surface active soot from cooled EGR 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 1988 API CE 1991 CF-4 1994 CG-4 Retarded Timing 1998 CH-4 2003 CI-4 Plus 2007 CJ-4 Externally cooled EGR
  10. 10. Soot from Cooled EGR engines is unresponsive to conventional dispersants…step-out technologies required 2X Normal Dosage Vis Increase Normal Dosage New Technology Conventional Dispersant 0 2 4 6 Soot in Oil, Wt% 8 10
  11. 11. Restricted SAPS Environment Sources of SAPS Sulphated Ash – Metal detergents, ZDDP antiwear additives Phosphorus – ZDDP antiwear additives Sulphur – ZDDP, certain metal detergents, additive diluents, basestock Phosphorus – The industry is fully cognizant of the impact of “P” loading on catalyst efficiency in gasoline powered vehicles Long term trend is to reduced ZDDP in the oil Extent of reduction will be determined by engine durability Significant reductions beyond current levels will require development of new phos-free anti-wear technologies Sulphur – With “S” largely eliminated from diesel fuel in developed markets, and the widespread use of Group II and III basestocks, focus on sulphur content is now on the additive systems
  12. 12. Role of Metal Detergents in SAPS Constrained Environment Metal detergents are metallic salts of organic materials such as sulphonate, phenate and salicylate Some also contain metallic carbonate core to impart basicity or acid neutralization capability to the oil Common metals are calcium and magnesium Detergents play an important role in providing essential piston cleanliness and acid neutralization capability Correct choice can also play a role in reducing ash and sulphur
  13. 13. Detergent Comparison Sulphonate Piston Cleanliness Top Bottom Rust Control Antioxidancy Sulphur - Free Phenate Salicylate No Yes Yes No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Specially tailored salicylates for crankcase lubricants can offer significant advantages, especially in extended drain and SAPS constrained applications
  14. 14. ASH, wt% The Struggle to Reduce Ash : Calcium versus Magnesium Calcium Detergent Magnesium Detergent Lower Ash at equal TBN TBN Contribution • • Existing magnesium detergents can play an important role in reducing ash content in the oil However, large step-change reductions in ash from the current levels will require development of non-metallic detergent and TBN systems
  15. 15. 2. Extended Drain Extended drain oils have broad appeal to the lubricant industry Optimum use of natural resources Cost of ownership - reduced downtime for fleet operators, reduced cost of disposal Marketing feature for OEMs Drain intervals are in part constrained by Emission control systems – soot loading in EGR engines, DPF Concerns about engine durability Key enablers High quality basestocks – Group III, conventional as well as very high VI Group III’s (eg, from GTL) Advanced additive technologies such as salicylate detergents, enhanced low S/P anti-wear and new antioxidant technologies Interestingly, viscosity modifiers also play key role – a fact generally not well understood in the industry
  16. 16. Role of Viscosity Modifiers Basic rule of lubrication: If the engine starts, Oil must pump Not just when the oil is fresh but all through its life in the engine Oils formulated with certain viscosity modifiers can experience serious loss of pumpability at low temperatures due to ageing in the engine For such oils, extending the time between oil changes can dramatically increase the risk of lubrication failure Careful selection of VM is critically important in extended drain applications
  17. 17. Oil A (VM ”A”, Premium additive system, Group III) After 10K Miles Oil Pressure, KPa Fresh 400 300 Little change after 10K miles of service 200 100 0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Time from Start, Min 2.5 3.0
  18. 18. Oil B (VM “B”, Premium additive system, Group III) Oil Pressure, KPa Fresh 400 300 Catastrophic loss of performance with age 200 100 After 8K Miles 0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Time from Start, Min 2.5 3.0
  19. 19. 3. Fuel Economy Fuel efficiency has been an important consideration for the vehicle manufactures for quite some time Escalating fuel costs in recent times have further raised the profile of FE in the automotive as well as the heavy duty diesel engine industry Large share of the FE gains will accrue from innovations in hardware designs However, lubricants can also play an important role in minimizing energy losses in the engine and, indeed the entire drive train
  20. 20. Fuel Economy Triangle Boundary Friction Rheological Losses In-Service Retention Real FE gains in engine lubricants will involve all three corners of the triangle
  21. 21. Coefficient of Friction Step-out Reduction in Boundary Friction is Achievable with Advanced Additive Technologies Conventional Moly Technologies 0.14 0.12 0.10 Advanced Moly Technology 0.08 0 100 200 Moly in Oil, ppm 300
  22. 22. However, evolving engine designs pose new challenges Low Friction Engines Advanced Surface Treatment / Coatings Reduced impact of friction modifiers on fuel economy Compatibility between friction modifiers and surface coatings?
  23. 23. Rheology - Low Viscosity Lubricants Low viscosity lubricants are becoming an increasingly important element in the race for higher FE Growth of Light Viscosity Grades 400 For gasoline engines, SAE 0W-20 are not far away Million Gallons 350 SAE 10W-30 300 250 For HD diesel engines, SAE 5W-30 and 5W-40 synthetic oils are starting to gain market acceptance 200 SAE 5W-30 150 SAE 5W-20 100 50 0 5 98 1 5 99 1 Source: NPRA 4 00 2 6 00 2 * Infineum estimate * 12 20
  24. 24. Viscosity Mixed Lubrication Boundary Lubrication Friction Potential Implications of Low Viscosity Hydrodynamic Lubrication Viscosity * Speed Contact Pressure Wear, friction, evaporation
  25. 25. Low Viscosity Lubes - Challenges and Opportunities To date, formulation challenges associated with wear in lighter viscosity grades have been overcome Further reductions in viscosity will need careful attention both from engine designers and oil formulators Conventional ZDDP anti-wear technology are unlikely to offer much help Treat rate limited by phosphorus constraints More aggressive ZDDP higher friction  reduced FE Low/zero phosphorus antiwear technologies are likely emerge in near future Such technologies will be expensive but will provide very high value if the can protect engines while minimizing friction at the hardware interface
  26. 26. …Challenges and Opportunities Careful attention will be required from engine designers to ensure that FE gains from the reduced viscosity are not wiped out by the resulting increase in friction Opportunity for friction modifiers such as the advanced moly additive systems to play a bigger role? Higher volatility will result in oil thickening over time, leading to reduced FE Narrow cut, high VI basestocks will play an important role in minimizing the evaporative losses
  27. 27. Fuel Economy Retention Lubricants have to deliver FE performance throughout their life in the engine, not just when they are fresh Formulation levers Durable friction modifiers Antiwear system Low volatility Antioxidants Dispersants – particularly for soot induced viscosity control in HD diesel engine oils Group III basestocks will play a major role in FE retention due to their low volatility superior antioxidant response high viscosity index
  28. 28. 4. Alternate Fuels Use of biomass derived fuels to extend conventional fuels is gaining momentum Renewable energy source Security of energy supply Often price supported through government incentives Gasoline – Use of ethanol is growing, particularly in NA 10% ethanol has been used as oxygenate in gasoline for long time Recently E85 (85% ethanol) has been gathering momentum Some Brazil experience suggests that E85 will require oil formulators to address issues such as rust and emulsion Diesel – Issues are much bigger here compared to gasoline because of the wide chemical and physical variety of alternatives being proposed
  29. 29. Bio-Diesel Derived from renewable resources, the use of FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) in diesel engines has been spreading across the globe FAME is generally blended with petroleum diesel Designated “BX”, X = % of FAME in blend EG, B5 = 5% FAME, 95% petroleum based diesel Positions of HD diesel engine OEMs vary widely B5 is generally accepted provided the FAME meets US or EU fuels specs Some OEMs allow B20 and B30 for specific engines but may require additional monitoring Use of B100 is rare but does exist – mainly in captive fleets
  30. 30. What’s in a FAME? FAME is manufactured from a variety of vegetable and animal sources RME - Rapeseed methyl ester SME - Soybean methyl ester PME - Palm oil methyl ester etc... etc... The use of bio-diesel has a number of potential issues Diversity of sources  Variable quality Unsaturation in the backbone oxidation Presence of wax or wax-like structures  low temperature fluidity Boiling range is typical higher than petroleum diesel accumulation of unburnt or partially burnt FAME in the oil Diversion of food crops to fuel Renewable but may be not sustainable
  31. 31. Effect on Lubricant Performance Two oil quality levels, standard and top tier, were tested with varying levels of bio-diesel contamination for corrosion (Cummins HTCBT test) oxidation (GFC oxidation test) deposits (TEOST MHT-4 test) Low temperature fluidity
  32. 32. Copper and Lead Corrosion (HTCBT) Copper 1500 Standard 100 Lead, ppm Copper, ppm Lead 2000 150 50 Standard 1000 500 Top Tier 1 0 Top Tier 1 0 Neat 10% B0 10% B50 10% B100 Neat 10% B0 10% B50 10% B100 Standard quality lubricants may be unsuitable for bio-diesel; some top tier oils appear to be OK
  33. 33. Oxidation Stability (GFC) Viscosity Increase Vis Increase, cSt 40 30 Standard 20 10 Top Tier 2 Total Acid Number, mg KOH/g Total Acid Number 8 6 Standard 4 Top Tier 2 2 0 0 Neat 10% B0 10% B50 10% B100 Neat 10% B0 10% B50 10% B100 More potent antioxidants in top tier lubricants are able to compensate for the oxidative weakness of bio-diesel
  34. 34. Deposits (MHT-4) 30 Deposit, mg Standard 20 10 Top Tier 2 0 Neat 10% B0 10% B50 10% B100 Again, top tier lubricants fair much better than standard quality lubricants
  35. 35. Low Temperature Fluidity Two oils based on a top tier SAE 5W-40 technology formulated with a Group III basestock Oils similar in all respects except viscosity modifiers, A and B Oils were doped with bio-diesels from different sources Low temperature pumpability measured with the MRVTP1 test Yield stress is one of the two parameters measured in this test Yield stress  formation of network structures = “congealed oil” Presence of yield stress indicates risk of lubrication failure due “air binding” - higher the yield stress, greater the risk
  36. 36. Risk of Lubrication Failure RAPESEED RISK OF LUBRICATION FAILURE* Neat Lube 10% B50 10% B100 PALM 10% B50 10% B100 10% B50 B MEDIUM B B A B A LOW BA 10% B100 B B SEVERE NIL SOY BEAN A A A A * As measured by the yield stress in the MRV-TP1 test Some VMs may be incompatible with bio-diesel
  37. 37. Summary and Conclusions As the needs and expectations of the engine OEMs and the lubrication industry are changing, the additive industry is rapidly adapting to the changes around it. Evolutionary approaches will continue to play a role in lubricant formulations of the future However, real step-out changes in the additive technologies are taking place to address the longer term needs of the industry Such changes will affect not just one or two classes of additives, they will affect almost every major type of additive component used in oil formulations
  38. 38. …Summary and Conclusions To use the orchestra analogy – we are not just changing the string or the brass section, we are slowly but surely changing the entire orchestra! These are challenging times for everyone in the value chain – OEMs, oil marketers and additive suppliers Passion for innovation and perseverance will be key assets in this environment