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PhD Research Project. Sustainable Manufacturing


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Third year presentation.

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PhD Research Project. Sustainable Manufacturing

  1. 1. Sustainable Manufacturing: turning waste into co-products Donotwasteyourcash,cashyourwaste! CO-PRODUCT WASTE Samuel Bautista Lazo Supervisors: Dr. Tim Short and Prof. KKB Hon. Manufacturing and Laser Engineering SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING Third year presentation 06 July 2011
  2. 2. Presentation Layout 1. Sustainability and the landfill challenge 2. State of the art solutions 3. Proposed approach 4. Plans for testing and validation 5. Summary
  3. 3. 1. SUSTAINABILITY AND THE LANDFILL CHALLENGE Figure 1. Accumulation of economic value and environmental impact along the supply chain, source: (Clift and Wright 2000) R. Clift and L. Wright, “Relationships Between Environmental Impacts and Added Value Along the Supply Chain,” Technological Forecasting and Social Change, vol. 65, no. 3, 2000, pp. 281-295.
  4. 4. Commercial and industrial waste •25% C&I Waste reduction from the 2004 baseline, current levels are estimated to reach 62 million tonnes. Figure 2. Estimated waste outputs by sector in the United Kingdom. Source: DEFRA. DEFRA. Key facts about: Waste and Recycling.
  5. 5. 1970 – Industrial symbiosis appears in the literature. Industrial symbiosis “engages traditionally separate industries in a collective approach to competitive advantage involving physical exchange of materials, energy, water, and or by-products”. (Chertow, 2000) Chertow, M.R., Industrial symbiosis: Literature and taxonomy, in Annual Review of Energy and Environment. 2000. p. 313-337. Industrial symbiosis
  6. 6. Figure 2. An example of industrial symbiosis. Source: (Jacobsen 2006) Jacobsen, N. B. (2006). "Industrial Symbiosis in Kalundborg, Denmark: A Quantitative Assessment of Economic and Environmental Aspects." Journal of Industrial Ecology 10(1-2): 239-255.
  7. 7. Table 1. NISP achievements 2005-2010. Data source:
  8. 8. 3. PROPOSED APPROACH + Profit - Loss + Product - Non Product Figure 3. The all seeing eye of business. Source: (Bautista-Lazo and Short 2011) Bautista-Lazo, S. and T.D. Short, “Introducing the all seeing eye of business: a model for understanding the nature, impact and potential uses of waste”. Unpublished, 2011.
  9. 9. A general framework for waste elimination  1. Waste identification  2. Waste analysis  Analyse the origins of waste: cause and type.  Description and characterization of waste.  Analyse the implications of generating waste (true cost, environmental impact, corporate social responsibility issues).  3. Waste elimination  Design a waste elimination strategy for each level of action (Prevent, minimize, remediate)  Devise and implement an action plan to eliminate waste in each level of action  4. Waste monitoring  5. Continuous improvement 
  10. 10. Introducing the ATM of waste (Analyse, Transform and Market) T A M IMPROVEMENT INVEST? A model based on the Deming cycle for continuous improvement: Plan, Do, Study. (Deming, 1986) Deming, W. Edwards (1986). Out of the Crisis. MIT Center for Advanced Engineering Study. ISBN 0-911379- 01-0. Bautista-Lazo, S. and T.D. Short, “Introducing the ATM methodology for sustainable manufacturing: How to analyze, transform and market unavoidable industrial waste”. Unpublished, 2011. Figure 4. A model for the ATM of waste. Source: (Bautista-Lazo and Short, 2011)
  11. 11. ATM methodology Analyze: Analyze the waste in order to identify a value adding capability as a co-product. What purpose or function can the waste provide given its state and structure? What would be the performance of this function, given the waste’s state and structure? Can the waste’s state/structure be improved? Transform: Design a production process to transform waste input into the desired co-product output. Is the transformation process (waste to co-product) technically and economically feasible? Is the estimated production price competitive in the market place? Is there a business case for investment? Market: Identify and analyze the market potential for the desired co-product. Is there a market need for a co-product with such function? Who are the customers and possible competitors? What are the customer needs, requirement s and expectations? Is there a market opportunity for such a co-product?
  12. 12. Tools for the ATM of waste Store Combine ExtractReplace Function Incorporate Structure State Perfor- mance Purpose A tool based on the PSSP language introduced by Pohjola (2002) into the literature of waste management. Pohjola, V.J. and E. Pongrácz, An approach to the formal theory of waste management. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 2002. 35(1-2): p. 17. Bautista-Lazo, S. and T.D. Short, “Introducing the ATM methodology for sustainable manufacturing: How to analyze, transform and market unavoidable industrial waste”. Unpublished, 2011. Figure 5. Roulette of the fundamental uses of waste. Source: (Bautista-Lazo and Short, 2011)
  13. 13. 4. PLANS FOR METHODOLOGY TESTING AND VALIDATION A framework for the methodological rigor for case study research is provided by Yin (2009)  Internal validity: Research framework based on the all seeing eye of business.  Construct validity: Data triangulation. Interview managers and shop floor employees. Archival data.  External validity. Purposeful selection of multiple case studies, approximately 5.  Reliability: Case study protocol R.K. Yin, Case study: design and methods, Sage Publications 2009.
  14. 14. 5. SUMMARY TESTING AND VALIDATION: Case study research
  15. 15. THANK YOU.