Developmental Coordination Disorder

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This presentation gives an overview of developmental coordination disorder or dyspraxia as it is commonly known

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Developmental Coordination Disorder

  1. 1. DCD:Developmental Coordination Disorder Dr S Sen Specialist Registrar Paediatrics North Western Deanery
  2. 2. What is it? <ul><li>Also referred to as; </li></ul><ul><li>Clumsy, perceptual-motor difficulties, motor learning deficit, minimal brain dysfunction, (DAMP), dyspraxia, </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Outcomes : <ul><li>Define DCD and identify common characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the types of problems these children can have </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the effect that DCD might have on the child’s development </li></ul><ul><li>Justify the principles of intervention </li></ul>
  4. 4. DSM-lV <ul><li>Marked impairment of the development of motor co-ordination </li></ul><ul><li>Impairment significantly interferes with academic achievement of activities if daily living </li></ul><ul><li>Problem not due to a recognised medical condition </li></ul><ul><li>Not a pervasive developmental delay </li></ul>
  5. 5. ICD (international classification of Disorders 10, 1992) <ul><li>Specific developmental disorders of motor function </li></ul><ul><li>A serious impairment of motor </li></ul><ul><li>co-ordination </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly associated with visuo-spatial impairment </li></ul>
  6. 6. Prevalence : <ul><li>Up to 4-5 children /100 will have DCD </li></ul><ul><li>Boy: Girl ratio of 2:1 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Aetiology <ul><li>No clear aetiology, no single cause but.. </li></ul><ul><li>Heredity plays an undoubted part </li></ul><ul><li>Form a heterogeneous group </li></ul><ul><li>Neurological disorder- central processing disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Normal intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Normal appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the normal distribution? </li></ul><ul><li>Hidden handicap </li></ul>
  8. 8. Why a child might be referred <ul><li>Delayed motor skills and poor co-ordination </li></ul><ul><li>Always falling over </li></ul><ul><li>Notably slower at doing practical tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Untidy / disorganised handwriting </li></ul><ul><li>Unwilling to draw / limited written output </li></ul><ul><li>Easily distractible </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour problems </li></ul>
  9. 9. Some possible general signs of DCD: <ul><li>Motor issues : </li></ul><ul><li>Gross motor & co-ordination difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Fine motor & co-ordination difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Delay in practical skill development </li></ul><ul><li>May be low in tone </li></ul><ul><li>Requires huge effort to do motor task </li></ul><ul><li>Left right confusion </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertain laterality </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Some possible signs associated with DCD: <ul><li>Communication Problems : </li></ul><ul><li>commonly associated </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed receptive – expressive language disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Short term memory problems </li></ul><ul><li>Articulation problems </li></ul><ul><li>Misses out words or jumbles them </li></ul><ul><li>Quiet or un-modulated chatter </li></ul>
  11. 11. Some possible signs associated with DCD <ul><li>Play : </li></ul><ul><li>May avoid outdoor play </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty amusing themselves / Poor imaginative play </li></ul><ul><li>Flits from one activity to another </li></ul><ul><li>Often last to be picked for a team at school </li></ul>
  12. 12. Some possible signs associated with DCD <ul><li>Social and emotional : </li></ul><ul><li>May be very active or </li></ul><ul><li>May be timid and submissive </li></ul><ul><li>May well be marginalised, teased or bullied </li></ul><ul><li>Be a loner </li></ul><ul><li>Learns the art of avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>May find it difficult to cope with changes </li></ul><ul><li>May prefer to play with younger children </li></ul>
  13. 13. Some possible signs associated with DCD <ul><li>Health: </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing- often a history of middle ear infections </li></ul><ul><li>Vision- may have problems with control of eye muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivities to food and chemicals </li></ul>
  14. 14. Significant co-morbidity Dyslexia ADHD Asperger’s syndrome DCD
  15. 15. Prognosis <ul><li>Without intervention - many children’s difficulties will persist into later life- with long-term impact on social, emotional and educational well-being </li></ul><ul><li>May have learnt to compensate for their difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Self esteem building a key element in any intervention plan </li></ul>
  16. 16. Thank you

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