INTRODUCTION• 45000 medicinal plant species in India.• About 2000 species appear in theliterature.• 500 species commonly used inindigenous system.• 90% of species available for screening.• 4000 species screened for activity.• Phyto-therapy (Herbal medicine), thenatural therapies, by contrast, aims notto ‘cure’ disease by a technological fix.• Only 15% of estimated plant species onearth have been investigated for possiblemedicinal uses
Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum)• Ocimum tenuiflorum, also known as Holy Basil, tulsi,or tulasī, is an aromatic plant in the family Lamiaceaewhich is native throughout the Eastern World tropicsand widespread as a cultivated plant. It is an erect, muchbranched subshrub, 30–60 cm tall with hairy stems andsimple, opposite, green leaves that are strongly scented.Leaves have petioles, and are ovate, up to 5 cm long,usually slightly toothed. The flowers are purplish inelongate racemes in close whorls. The two mainmorphotypes cultivated in India and Nepal are green-leaved (Sri or Lakshmi tulsi) and purple-leaved(Krishna tulsi).Kingdom: Plantae(unranked): AsteridsOrder: LamialesFamily: LamiaceaeGenus: OcimumSpecies: O. tenuiflorum
Common cold, inflammation, malaria,heart disease, headaches, stomachdisorders, kidney stones, heart disorders. In the purification of atmosphere.To cure sore throat.Remove stones via the urinary tract.Itching of the skin over the abdomen andthe breasts of a pregnant woman isrelieved by the application paste of Tulsi.Breast milk will improve in quality if thewoman is given a mixture of 20 gms ofTulsi juice, 20 gms of the juice of maizeleaves, 10 gms of the juice-or extract-ofasgandh (ashwagandha), and 10 gms ofhoney, for seven days following delivery.MEDICINAL USE
Aloe vera(Aloe barbadensis )Kingdom: PlantaeClade: AngiospermsClade: MonocotsOrder: AsparagalesFamily: XanthorrhoeaceaeSubfamily: AsphodeloideaeGenus: AloeSpecies: A. vera• Aloe vera is a succulent plant species that probablyoriginated in northern Africa. The species does not haveany naturally occurring populations, although closelyrelated aloes do occur in northern Africa. The species isfrequently cited as being used in herbal medicine sincethe beginning of the first century AD. Extracts from A.vera are widely used in the cosmetics andalternative medicine industries, being marketed asvariously having rejuvenating, healing or soothingproperties.
Difficult urination - Continuousdiluted aloe juices should be takentime to time to alleviate thiscondition.In wounds - Boil aloe leaves andtake the fleshy part of the leavesover wounds. As a cosmetic - Aloe is one of thebest known moisturizers and usedin creams and shampoos.Jaundice - A few drops of aloe juiceis installed in the nostrils to controljaundice.Aloe vera gel has anti-fungal, anti-bacterial and anti-viral effects andhelps to heal minor wounds.MEDICINAL USE
Hibiscus (rosa-sinensis).Hibiscus is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family,Malvaceae. It is quite large, containing several hundredspecies that are native to warm-temperate, subtropical andtropical regions throughout the world. Member species areoften noted for their showy flowers and are commonly knownsimply as hibiscus, or less widely known as rose mallow.The genus includes both annual and perennialherbaceous plants, as well as woody shrubs and small trees.Kingdom: PlantaeDivision: AngiospermsClass: EudicotsOrder: MalvalesFamily: MalvaceaeSubfamily: MalvoideaeTribe: HibisceaeGenus: Hibiscus L.
Hair care: curd + powder of amla +3-4 cursed petals flower keep it overnight and apply on hair.It is used to make gulkand i.e layersof petals +sugar (khadi sakar) &kept in sunlight for 1-2Tea: petals of Hibiscus flowers +boiled water + cinnamon + lemonyflavor and a very attractiveburgundy color.Traditional use of the flowers:leaves + burning them in ghee toproduce a black dye which was usedto blacken eyes and eyebrows.MEDICINAL USE
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)Ginger is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale,consumed as a delicacy, medicine, or spice. It lends its name toits genus and family (Zingiberaceae). Other notable members ofthis plant family are turmeric, cardamom, and galangal.Ginger cultivation began in South Asia and has since spread toEast Africa and the Caribbean.Ginger produces clusters ofwhite and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers.Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant towarm climates, ginger is often used in cooking.Kingdom: PlantaeClade: AngiospermsClade: MonocotsOrder: ZingiberalesFamily: ZingiberaceaeGenus: ZingiberSpecies: Z. officinale
Ginger is stimulating to the heart,helping to regulate its function.Ginger is excellent in reducingnausea caused by pregnancy.Drink ginger tea with or withouthoney three to four times a day torelieve sore throat.Eating a little powder of dry gingermixed with sesame seed oil ishelpful in getting rid of foul smell ofperspiration.Take a teaspoon of ginger root juicewith honey for lowering yourcholesterol. This also prevents theformation of blood clots.MEDICINAL USE
Neem (Azadirachta indica)• The NEEM tree (Azadirachta indica) is a tropical evergreentree native to India and is also found in other southeastcountries. In India, neem is known as “the village pharmacy”because of its healing versatility, and it has been used inAyurvedic medicine for more than 4,000 years due to itsmedicinal properties. Neem is also called ‘arista’ in Sanskrit-a word that means ‘perfect, complete and imperishable’. Theseeds, bark and leaves contain compounds with provenantiseptic, antiviral, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcerand antifungal uses. The Sanskrit name ‘nimba’ comes fromthe term ‘nimbati syasthyamdadati’ which means ‘to givegood health’.Kingdom: PlantaeDivision: MagnoliophytaOrder: SapindalesFamily: MeliaceaeGenus: AzadirachtaSpecies: A. indica
Neem seeds are useful in treatingtuberculosis .The timber of neem tree is very durableand is used for house building andcarpentry work.Dried leaves are placed among clothes tokeep moths away.It is usually rubbed directly on theinfected skinIt kills germs and cleanses theatmosphere.The neem leaves can help to reduceswelling and purify blood.Neem should not be taken by anyonewho is pregnant or trying to conceive.MEDICINAL USE
Turmeric (Curcuma longa)• Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatousherbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family,Zingiberaceae. It is native to tropicalSouth Asia andneeds temperatures between 20°C and 30°C (68°F and86°F) and a considerable amount of annual rainfall tothrive.Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes,and propagated from some of those rhizomes in thefollowing season.Kingdom: Plantae(unranked): Angiosperms(unranked): Monocots(unranked): CommelinidsOrder: ZingiberalesFamily: ZingiberaceaeGenus: CurcumaSpecies: C. longa
Uses of turmeric acts as a powerfulmedicine in jaundice, menstrualdifficulties, bloody urine,haemorrhage, toothache, chest pain.Scientific researches confirm thatregular use of turmeric can cure hostof chronic diseases. Taken internally or used externally,turmeric acts as an anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-parasitic.Turmeric is a powerful anti-inflammatory and antiseptic, usefulfor bronchial asthma, chronic cough.Turmeric has an anti-coagulantaction, keeping the blood thin.It acts as an anti-aging agent.MEDICINAL USE
Shatavari(Asparagus racemosus)Asparagus racemosus (Satavar, Shatavari, or Shatamull) is a species of asparagus common throughout Sri Lanka, India and the Himalayas. It grows one to two metres tall and prefers to take root in gravelly, rocky soils high up in piedmont plains, at 1,300–1,400 metres elevation).It was botanically described in 1799.Due to its multiple uses, the demand for Asparagusracemosus is constantly on the rise. Due to destructive harvesting, combined with habitat destruction, and deforestation, the plant is now considered endangered in its natural habitat.Kingdom: PlantaeClade: AngiospermsClade: MonocotsOrder: AsparagalesFamily: AsparagaceaeSubfamily: AsparagoideaeGenus: AsparagusSpecies: A. racemosus
Shatavari supports normal function ofthe immune and digestive system.It is useful for infertility, threatenedmiscarriage, menopause and has theability to balance pH in the cervical area.Shatavari is also quite effective forstomach ulcers, hyperacidity diarrheaand bronchial infections.It has the ability to balance pH in thecervical area.Shatavari supports reproductive healthby toning and nourishing the femalereproductive organs. Shatavari can enhance production ofbreast milk in nursing females.. MEDICINAL USE
Green Tea ( Camellia sinensis)• Green tea is made from the leaves from Camellia sinensis thathave undergone minimal oxidation during processing. Green teaoriginates in China, but it has become associated with manycultures throughout Asia. Green tea has recently become morewidespread in the West, where black tea has been thetraditionally consumed tea. Green tea has become the rawmaterial for extracts which are used in various beverages,health foods, dietary supplements, and cosmetic items. Manyvarieties of green tea have been created in the countries whereit is grown. These varieties can differ substantially due tovariable growing conditions, horticulture, productionprocessing, and harvesting time.Botanical name: Camellia sinensisFamily: Theaceae, the tea family Two varieties are recognised: Camellia sinensis var. sinensis (China tea).Camellia sinensis var. assamica (Assam tea, Indian tea).
A common use of green tea as adisinfectant is for gargling. Garglingwith green tea helps to prevent illness.The variety of health benefits,including cancer prevention,promotion of oral health, easingrheumatoid arthritis and antibacterialactivityIt can help to promote the burning offat in the body, as well as help toregulate blood sugar and insulin levels.Green teas many beneficial actions areconsidered to be anti-viral, antioxidant,diuretic, expectorant, caridiotonic etc.Green tea contain catechin which helpsin weight loss.Tea and skin care: The tannins in teaare great for your skin, add a fewteabags to your bathwater, or addloose leaf green tea to your favoriteherbal bath blend.MEDICINAL USE
Peppermint (Mentha piperita)• Peppermint (Mentha × piperita, also known as M.balsamea Willd) is a hybrid mint, a cross betweenwatermint and spearmint. The plant, indigenous toEurope, is now widespread in cultivation throughout allregions of the world.It is found wild occasionally with itsparent species.• Peppermint was first described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeusfrom specimens that had been collected in England; hetreated it as a species, but it is now universally agreed tobe a hybrid.Kingdom: Plantae(unranked): Angiosperms(unranked): Eudicots(unranked): AsteridsOrder: LamialesFamily: LamiaceaeGenus: Mentha
Peppermint can provide relief from thecommon cold, congestion, and to reducepain.Peppermint is often used to soothe anupset stomach or to aid in digestion.Peppermint gives a subtle numbingeffect that is why it often used to treatmany pains from headaches, menstrualcramps.It is also used to treat skin irritations,nausea, and diarrhea.Peppermint can be used for cold, fever,indigestion, gas, stomachache,headache, morning sickness (anti-nauseant), nervous tension andinsomniaMEDICINAL USE
CONCLUSIONUse nature in apositive way.Proven effective.Do not containcontaminants..
Certificate of approvalCentral Board of Secondary EducationThis is to certify that Samarpita saha of class XIIScience bearing Roll nos_______ ,havesuccessfully completed the physics Project undermy supervision and guidance and have given asatisfactory account in this report.This project will fulfill the requirement of AISCCECBSE PHYSICS PRACTICAL EXAMINATION.I wish her success in future.___________ ____________Head of institute External examiner__________Signature ofthe subjectteacherPRIYADARSHINI PUBLIC SCHOOL
I am very to our principal Mrs. RanjanaChowdhury who has encouraged us throughclass XII. She has our chief source of inspirationin this aspect.I am very grateful to our teacher Saraswati dasunder whose guidance we have completed ourproject work.I am thankful to our lab assistant of physicsdepartment who has provided us with requiredmaterials.I extended my heart felt thanks to my parentswithout whose help I wont have been what Iam today.Date:Signature: