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Chap1 basic


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about IT having details about the various things used in IT

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Chap1 basic

  1. 1. Course Assessment• Class Participation : 10%• Test /Assignment/IT Quiz : 10%• Presentation : 10%• Mid - Term Exam : 10%• End -Term Exam : 60% TOTAL : 100% 1
  2. 2. CHAPTER 1 Basics of Computing1.1 Computer Applications1.2 What is a Computer?1.3 Computer Generations1.4 Classification of Computers 2
  3. 3. Computer Application • Education • Banking System • Science/Aerospace • Business & Marketing • Government • Entertainment 3
  4. 4. Applications• At Home – Mostly to check mails – Small documentation – Gaming – Music and Video – To solve homework – Photo Printouts using Good Printers
  5. 5. Applications..• In Education – Schools to Universities – To Educate necessary skills demanded by Industries – To give a demo or training – Server the purpose of Teaching Aids – To convey messages using Internet
  6. 6. Applications…• In Science – To analyze large data acquired over a period of time – To do complex floating point arithmetic – Image Processing – Research
  7. 7. Applications….• In Industry – To develop software, mostly to automate the manual work – To provide necessary solution to clients’ needs – Software is developed for the needs of networking, banking, business, retail etc
  8. 8. Applications…..• Entertainment – Music Industry – Games – Movies – to watch and create – 200 Linux Machines in parallel to create visualization in Titanic, the movie – Cartoons, special effects – Nowadays to promote theirs productions
  9. 9. Business• Banking – To store, access and modify huge amounts of data – Online business called e-business is becoming popular with a small amount of limitations – Paying bills become easy and time saving – online promotions
  10. 10. Applications……• Government – “Biometrics Attendance Monitoring” – Weather Forecasting and military applications – Online payment of taxes, Insurances
  11. 11. What is a Computer? System UnitA computer is an electronic machine that can be programmed to acceptdata (input), process it into useful information (output), and store it in astorage media for future use 11
  12. 12. Computer Generation1. 1st Generation2. 2nd Generation3. 3rd Generation4. 4th Generation5. 5th Generation 12
  13. 13. First Generation of Computers1. Vacuum tubes 1946-1958
  14. 14. Second Generation of Computers1. Vacuum tubes2. Transistors 1946-1958 1959-1964
  15. 15. Third Generation of Computers1. Vacuum tubes2. Transistors3. Integrated circuits 1946-1958 1959-1964 1964-1970
  16. 16. Fourth Generation of Computers1. Vacuum tubes2. Transistors3. Integrated circuits4. VLSI (very-large-scale integrated) circuits 1946-1958 1959-1964 1964-1970 1971 - present
  17. 17. Fifth Generation of Computers 1. Vacuum tubes 2. Transistors 3. Integrated circuits 4. VLSI (very-large-scale integrated) circuits 5. Artificial Intelligence1944-1958 1959-1964 1964-1970 1971 - present Present & Beyond
  18. 18. 1st Generation (1944 - 1958) : Vacuum TubesMemory was made upof hundreds of vacuumtubesGave off so muchheatInput and output IBM Punched Card (input)media were punchedcards and magnetictapesVery large in size,taking up entire rooms. Magnetic Tapes (output) Vacuum Tubes (memory) 18
  19. 19. UNIVAC UNIVersal Automatic Computer ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer 19
  20. 20. 2nd Generation (1959 - 1964) : Transistor•Vacuum tubes were replaced with transistors•An electronic switch that alternately allow or disallowelectronic signal to pass, replaces vacuum tubes•These transistors were made of solid material, some ofwhich is silicon, therefore they were very cheap to produce•Much smaller than vacuum tubes, draw less power, andgenerate less heat, conduct electricity faster. 20
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  22. 22. 3rd Generation (1964 - 1970) : Integrated Circuit An electronic circuit that packages transistors and other electronic components into one small silicon chip called semiconductor. The number of transistors that is placed on a single chip has increased, shrinking both the size and cost of computers. Keyboards and monitors were used. Magnetic disks were used widely as secondary storage 22
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  24. 24. 4th Generation (1971-Present) : Microprocessor •A silicon chip on which transistors are integrated onto it. •Microprocessor can do all the processing of a full-scale computer – smaller in size , faster in speed. •These circuit integrations are known as Large- scale integrated (LSI) and Very Large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits Microprocessors led to the invention of personal computers. 24
  25. 25. 5th Generation (Present & Beyond) : ArtificialIntelligence•Fifth generation computing devices,based on Artificial Intelligence, are stillin development, though there are someapplications. such as voice recognition,that are being used today•Artificial Intelligence (AI) concerns withmaking computers behave and think likehumans.•AI studies include robotics, expertsystems, games, etc.. 25
  26. 26. Questions• List the 5 generations of computers.• Magnetic tapes and vacuum tubes were used in which generation?• We are now in the _____ generation.• Processor = microprocessor = CPU ( T/F?) 26
  27. 27. Classification of Computers (1) Supercomputers•The Fastest computer•Used for intensive numerical Computation•The most expensive.•process billions of instructions in a second•Can have hundreds of processors.•Speed is measured in nanoseconds•used by some exclusive group only•Main memory around >64 GB & Secondary Storage In TeraByte•scientific research, weather forecasting, climate research (global warming), 27
  28. 28. (2)Mainframes•1 to 16 CPUs (modern machines more)•Organizations such as banks & insurance companies which process large number of transactions on-line.•Process data at very high speed•Less expensive than Supercomputer•used for processing large amount of data•user work with terminal e.g. IBM Mainframe 28
  29. 29. (3)Workstations•Powerful desktop computers•Used by engineers and scientists forengineering applications,software development, applicationthat require a high amount ofcomputing power 29
  30. 30. (4)Servers •designed to support a computer network that allows you to share files, application software, hardware, such as printers and other network resources. •Mainframes, personal computers can be used as a server. •Server computers usually have following characteristics: •Designed to be connected to one or more networks •The most powerful CPUs available •Multiple CPUs to share the processing tasks •Large memory and disk storage •High-speed communications capabilities 30
  31. 31. (5)Microcomputers / PC• The most common for home users , computers that can fit on a desktop or in ones briefcase.• Can perform all of its input, processing, output and storage activities by itself. 31
  32. 32. Why are COMPUTERS so Useful?• Storage• Reliability• Speed• Accuracy• Communication• Versatile• No Emotions 32
  33. 33. Questions• advantages of computers?• Supercomputers are used for _______• What are portable computers? 33