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Smart Cities from the
systems point of view
Alexander SAMARIN
• An enterprise architect
– from a programmer to a systems architect (systems of various
sizes: company, corporate, canton...
• Many common goals
– sustainable development
– better efficiency
– resilience
– safety and wider support for citizen’s en...
• But current implementation practices are rather disjoint
– programmes and projects are, primarily, local initiatives
– p...
Achieve synergy between
diversity and uniformity
2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 5
A
unique
A
c...
Active Assisted Living (for people with disabilities), Smart
Cities, Smart Homes, Smart Energy, IoT and Smart
Manufacturin...
• systems approach
– holistic approach to understanding a system and its elements in
the context of their behaviour and th...
• reference model
– abstract framework for understanding
concepts and relationships between them
in a particular problem s...
2. Reference
architecture
2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 9
Big picture
1. Reference
model
4. I...
• Explain to any stakeholder how future implementations
(which are based on the reference architecture) can
address his/he...
Reference architecture helps to find
unique & common parts of Smart Cities
2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point ...
• Smart Cities Reference Model
• Smart Cities Reference Architecture
• Various views and models
• Reference Solution (or S...
Reference architecture
Reference modelReference CUBE platform
S2
…S1 S3
CUBE platform in City B
S2
… B2B1
CUBE platform in...
• 5 interacting subsystems
S1 primary activities
S2 coordination of S1 and link with S3
S3 audit, exception handling S1,
p...
2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 15
Relative complexity of some Digital Systems
IoT
Smart
manufa...
2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 16
Architecture description: Viewpoints,
models kind, views and...
• motivation outline viewpoint
– stakeholders, needs, mission, vision, guiding principles
• big picture viewpoint
– illust...
• Stakeholders, their roles and their concerns
2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 18
Motivation ou...
• List of needs (or high-level requirements)
– Adequate water supply
– Assured electricity supply
– Sanitation, including ...
• Mission – a statement that describes the problem you
are setting out to solve, typically including who you are
solving i...
• The guiding principles for defining the Smart Cities
Reference Architecture are
– interoperability
– safety
– security (...
2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 22
Big picture view:
illustrative (from Descriptive framework)
• Flows handling
• Multidimensionality
• Unpredictability of growth
• Technology absorption
• Synergy
• Holistic overview
...
2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 24
Big picture view:
needs vs. essential characteristics
Needs
...
• Architecture principles
• Essential characteristics vs. architecture principles
2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems...
2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 26
Capability map view:
examples from different industries
Acce...
• Leading capabilities
– Overall city governance, management and
operations
• Core capabilities
– water, energy, waste, et...
2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 28
Capability map view:
level 1 of modularization (example)
Lea...
• capability, <systems approach>
– ability of a system or a system element to do something at a
required level of performa...
• Capability is independent from “how” we do it, “where” we
do it, “who” does it, “which tools” are used
– The concept “ca...
• How to use a capability map
– analyse a comprehensive and well-structured set of capabilities
– benchmark the particular...
2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 32
How to satisfy the “security”
requirement – big picture
Atta...
• Threats and vulnerabilities are universal
• There is a registry for publicly known information-security
vulnerabilities ...
• Architecture must know all the relationships between all
the artefacts (technical assets, services, processes, etc.)
to ...
• Any process-centric solution “knows” services, servers
and other assets used to carry out its processes. Thus
various im...
• Use business processes to invoke security and risk
controls
2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 3...
• Risk must be carefully monitored, evaluated and acted
upon with the pace of business processes
2017-06-14 Smart Cities f...
• The best, so far, privacy regulation is EU General Data
Protection Regulation (GDPR) to be applied from May
2018
• Chall...
• At present, many devices from the IoT “world” act as wild
animals thus being dangerous in the our world
• As in our worl...
– with Persons who are living in a particular household
– with a producer of this Fridge
– with a service company for main...
• The “point-to-point” pattern can be implemented by
simple processes
– master-slave processes
– co-processes
• The “major...
• Because group functioning depends on sharing data and
information (including certificates, ID, etc.) their security
must...
• Certainly, various IoT cyber-physical systems are similar
and different at the same time. Platforms can synergize
divers...
Solution 1
…
CUBE platform
Security
management
Business process
management
Operational and
analytical data
Decision
manage...
Reference architecture
Reference modelReference CUBE platform
S2
…S1 S3
CUBE platform in City B
S2
… B2B1
CUBE platform in...
• Approve this Smart Cities Reference Architecture
• Level 2 capabilities for Smart Cities
• Reference design of many buil...
• Personal website: http://www.samarin.biz
• Blog http://improving-bpm-systems.blogspot.com
• LinkedIn: http://www.linkedi...
• Architecture
– totality of fundamental concepts or properties of a system in its environment
embodied in its elements an...
2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 49
Potential question:
Achieving synergy between SDOs
Smart Cit...
• Each system element (tangible assets, intangible assets,
peoples) must be explicitly protected
– for its confidentiality...
• The system must be protected from undesirable
behavior of its system elements by the explicit definition
of their desire...
• Reference architecture description has to consider 3
groups of system elements
– some system elements are treated as bla...
• The proposed use of digital contracts, explicit process and
blockchain can make an impression that they will increase
th...
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Smart Cities from the systems point of view

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Smart Cities from the systems point of view

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Smart Cities from the systems point of view

  1. 1. Smart Cities from the systems point of view Alexander SAMARIN
  2. 2. • An enterprise architect – from a programmer to a systems architect (systems of various sizes: company, corporate, canton, city, country, continent) – have created production systems which work without me • Some of my professional roles – “cleaning lady” (usually in an IT department) – “peacemaker” (between the IT and business) – “swiss knife” (for solving any problem) – “patterns detective” (seeing commonalities in “unique” cases) – “assembler” (making unique things from commodities) – “barriers breaker” (there is always a bigger system) – “coordinator” (without any formal authority over components) 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 2 About me
  3. 3. • Many common goals – sustainable development – better efficiency – resilience – safety and wider support for citizen’s engagement and participation • Many common technologies – big data – mobile – IoT – etc. • Smart Cities are unique and common at the same time 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 3 WHY Smart City as a System is important (1)
  4. 4. • But current implementation practices are rather disjoint – programmes and projects are, primarily, local initiatives – programmes and projects are considered as technology projects – many independent Smart Cities interest groups – efforts for development of a common vision are insufficient – typical financing patterns do not promote a common vision 1. giving money to service organisations 2. giving money to technological organisations • There is a systemic problem 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 4 WHY Smart City as a System is important (2)
  5. 5. Achieve synergy between diversity and uniformity 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 5 A unique A common B unique B common T unique T common Let us 1) Find what is common 2) Develop common part once and with high quality 3) Explain how to merge unique and common parts 4) Cooperate and coordinate this work Tgether Smart Cities will gain a lot in quality, time and money
  6. 6. Active Assisted Living (for people with disabilities), Smart Cities, Smart Homes, Smart Energy, IoT and Smart Manufacturing are Digital Systems 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 6 HOW to apply the Systems Approach to Smart Cities Complexity factors • real-time • socio-technical • systems of systems • cyber-physical systems • IT systems • long life cycle • self-referential (some) It is mandatory to think about architecture to build right, good and successful Digital Systems Common characteristics • digital data and information in huge volumes • software-intensive • distributed and decentralized • great influence on our society • ability to interact with the physical world
  7. 7. • systems approach – holistic approach to understanding a system and its elements in the context of their behaviour and their relationships to one another and to their environment – Note: Use of the systems approach makes explicit the structure of a system and the rules governing the behaviour and evolution of the system • Four levels of abstraction 1. reference model 2. reference architecture 3. solution architectures 4. implementations 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 7 Definitions (1)
  8. 8. • reference model – abstract framework for understanding concepts and relationships between them in a particular problem space (or subject field) • reference architecture – template for solution architectures which realizes a predefined set of requirements • Note: A reference architecture uses its subject field reference model (as the next higher level of abstraction) and provides a common (architectural) vision, a modularization and the logic behind the architectural decisions taken • solution architecture – architecture of the system-of-interest • Note: A solution architecture (also known as a blueprint) can be a tailored version of a particular reference architecture (which is the next higher level of abstraction) 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 8 Definitions (2)
  9. 9. 2. Reference architecture 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 9 Big picture 1. Reference model 4. Implementation A2 4. Solution architecture B 3. Solution architecture A 4. Implementation A1 Reference Implementation Reference solution architecture build and test build and testdesign and experiment field feedback feasibility feedback design and engineer architect extract essentials constraints and opportunities refinement A few scenario reference architectures may be derived from the reference architecture Smart Cities: metropolis, city, village, island Scenario 2 reference architecture Scenario 1 reference architecture constraints and opportunities design and engineer Problem space Solution space Various needs - stakeholders - transversal (security, etc.) - system (life cycle) architect extract
  10. 10. • Explain to any stakeholder how future implementations (which are based on the reference architecture) can address his/her concerns and change his/her personal, professional and social life for the better – explicitly link needs (or high-level requirements) with the principles of reference architecture • Provide a common methodology for architecting digital systems in the particular system domain – different people in similar situations find similar solutions or propose innovations • Help stakeholders, programmes and projects to collaborate and coordinate their efforts – common agreements (i.e. standards) on various system elements (e.g. services, interfaces, data, etc.) 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 10 Purpose of reference architecture
  11. 11. Reference architecture helps to find unique & common parts of Smart Cities 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 11 A unique A common B unique B common T unique T common Reference architecture
  12. 12. • Smart Cities Reference Model • Smart Cities Reference Architecture • Various views and models • Reference Solution (or System) Architecture(s) • Specifications of standard components (building blocks), interfaces, services, data-structures, processes • Guidance for how to build a unique smart city from various components – common – specific – existing – innovative 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 12 WHAT are the Systems Approach deliverables
  13. 13. Reference architecture Reference modelReference CUBE platform S2 …S1 S3 CUBE platform in City B S2 … B2B1 CUBE platform in City A A2 …S1 CUBE platform in City T S2 …T1 T3 Cooperation and coordination Telecommunication providers Industries Academic and research institutes Financial organisations Standards Development Organizations Specialized consulting firms City Unified Business Execution (CUBE) platform 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 13
  14. 14. • 5 interacting subsystems S1 primary activities S2 coordination of S1 and link with S3 S3 audit, exception handling S1, performance management of S1 S4 looking outwards to the environment S5 responsible for policy decisions • All of these subsystems are necessary • All of them have a lot of in common 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 14 Smart City as a System via Viable System Model (VSM)
  15. 15. 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 15 Relative complexity of some Digital Systems IoT Smart manufacturing Smart Homes AAL Smart Cities Smart Energy
  16. 16. 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 16 Architecture description: Viewpoints, models kind, views and models Many viewpoints are possible. Each viewpoint is a set of model kinds (or model types). Each model consists of artefacts (e.g. applications, servers, etc.) and relationships between them (those applications are deployed on this servers). The view is what you see The viewpoint is where you look from
  17. 17. • motivation outline viewpoint – stakeholders, needs, mission, vision, guiding principles • big picture viewpoint – illustrations, essential characteristics, architecture principles • capability map viewpoint – level 1 modularisation, level 2 modularisation • design viewpoint – process map, services map, data flows, function map, organigramme • system viewpoint (technical components) • security framework viewpoint • platform-based implementation framework viewpoint • deployment framework viewpoint 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 17 Some essential viewpoints of the Smart Cities Reference Architecture
  18. 18. • Stakeholders, their roles and their concerns 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 18 Motivation outline view: stakeholders’ needs analysis
  19. 19. • List of needs (or high-level requirements) – Adequate water supply – Assured electricity supply – Sanitation, including solid waste management – Efficient urban mobility and public transport – Affordable housing, especially for the poor – Robust IT connectivity and digitalisation – Good governance and citizen participation – Sustainable environment – Safety and security of citizens, particularly women, children and the elderly – Affordable healthcare for everyone – Modern education for children and adults – Attractive for business 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 19 Motivation outline view: needs (example)
  20. 20. • Mission – a statement that describes the problem you are setting out to solve, typically including who you are solving it for • Vision – an idealized solution that addresses the problem you’ve articulated in your mission 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 20 Motivation outline view: mission and vision
  21. 21. • The guiding principles for defining the Smart Cities Reference Architecture are – interoperability – safety – security (including confidentiality, integrity and availability) – privacy – resilience – simplicity – low cost of operation – short time to market – combining diversity and uniformity 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 21 Motivation outline view: guiding (or transversal) principles
  22. 22. 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 22 Big picture view: illustrative (from Descriptive framework)
  23. 23. • Flows handling • Multidimensionality • Unpredictability of growth • Technology absorption • Synergy • Holistic overview • Trustworthiness 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 23 Big picture view: essential characteristics of Smart Cities
  24. 24. 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 24 Big picture view: needs vs. essential characteristics Needs Essential characteristics
  25. 25. • Architecture principles • Essential characteristics vs. architecture principles 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 25 Big picture view: other models
  26. 26. 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 26 Capability map view: examples from different industries Accept Orders Contact Customer Manage the Business Deliver Orders Support the Business Process Orders Consolidate Orders Manage Production Management Manage Licensee Outbound Operations Manage Materials Receipt and Verification Manage Facility Pre- Production Processing Manage Container & Label Strategies Manage Vehicles Manage Equipment and Equipment-Strategies Manage Facility Property Manage Relationship with Licensees Manage Asset Service Providers Manage Transport Sub-Contracts for Delivery Manage NCR-Code Configurations Define Processing Strategies Define Performance Management Manage Production Systems Strategies Design and Develop Facility Infrastructure Manage Production- Planning Strategies Manage Facility Information Manage Core Business Manage Post- Production Operations Setup for Contractor Delivery Manage Equipment Maintenance Manage Production Operations Accept from Agency Accept from Contractor Accept at Facility Accept at Customer Location Manage FinanceManage Human Resources Manage Facility Administration Manage Materials Strategies Prepare Customer Transfer Support Customer Bulk Orders Handle Customer Complaints & Inquiries Process Service Requests Fulfil Order Prepare Fulfillment Transfer Support Bulk Fulfillment Orders Handle Fulfillment Complaints & Inquiries Process Fulfillment Requests Customer OutboundInbound Support Transport Process Check and prepare vehicle Road Transport Operations Drop Off Orders & empty containers Handle vehicle incidents (breakdowns, re-fuel, etc.) Capture transport run events Drive transport vehicle between locations Pick Up Orders & empty containers Complete preparation of orders into consignments Commence carrier service Carrier staff verify consignment details & hand over consignment to contractor Lodge consignments with carrier Verify / accept consignment Visit "trans-ship" port Complete carrier service Receive & verify consignments Handle consignment exceptions Separate and store containers etc. in preparation for transport to facility Domestic Carrier Transport Operations Planning & Monitoring of Carrier Services Determine required lodgement & handover times Receive new/ updated schedules from carriers Develop & maintain carrier lodgement schedules Monitor carrier services & provide corrective action Assess disputed/ late consignments Transport Facility Management Time and Attendance Monitoring & Control Review Facility Performance & implement improvements Planning & Scheduling Staffing & Rostering Manage Stream orders into production batches Manage batch containers prior to pick up Consolidate Orders Create & Maintain Facility NCR-Code Plans Estimate Production Volumes Plan & Schedule Production Operations Staffing & Rostering Time and Attendance Monitor Order Processing Review Facility Performance & imp. improvements Corrective Action for Processing Quality Control Dock Management Production Management Corrective Action for Transport & Delivery Materials Receipt and Verification Inspection of inbound materials Process “Under Bond” Materials Process Hazardous Materials Handover Materials to Warehouse Licensee Outbound Operations Inspection of outbound product Prepare licensee consignment for despatch Capture outbound volumes and events Despatch outbound product via licensee carrier Receive Transfers at Facility Transfers Damage Check Slotting / Sequencing Interleaving Pre-Mould Verify Slippage Adjustment Batch Alignment for Moulding Pre-Production Processing at Facility Capture Processing Events Prepare Customer Transfer Plan Transfer Production Prepare Transfer Data Prepare Transfer Production Prepare Transfer Documentation Support Customer Bulk Orders Advise customer of bulk-order issues Manage Customer Order Quality Support customer bulk orders Handle Customer Complaints & Inquiries Receive & record notification of problems Investigate & resolve problems Report Status of Order Handle general inquiries Process Service Requests Process Requests Process Other Requests Process Payment for Service Consumable Tools Management Specify Tools requirements Acquire & Locate Consumable Tools Maintain inventory of Consumable Tools Manage & perform maintenance of Consumable Tools Container & Label Management Specify container requirements Acquire & Supply Containers Manage & perform maintenance of containers Maintain inventory of containers Label Policy & Design Manage Label Stock Specify vehicle requirements Vehicle Management Purchase or Lease vehicles (& accessories) Dispose of vehicles Maintain inventory of vehicles Manage contracts with fuel suppliers Monitor payments to fuel suppliers Manage allocation of vehicles to facilities Manage vehicle registration & insurance Prepare claims for diesel & alternative fuel grant Manage maintenance of vehicles Design, Specify & Evaluate New Equipment Purchase/Dispose Equipment & Spares Install & Relocate Equipment Develop Maintenance Strategies Monitor & Optimise Performance & Reliability Equipment Management Ensure Logistics & OH&S Compliance Manage Equipment Configuration Manage Technical Documents & Support Systems Manage Inventory, Repairs & Stores Infrastructure Property Management Specify Property Requirements Acquire Property Dispose of Property Manage Building Administration Establish & Maintain Relationships with Licensees Manage Relationship with Licensees Calculate Revenue due from Licensees Specify materials requirements Materials Management Acquire & Locate Materials Maintain inventory of Materials Select & Manage Asset Maintenance Service Providers Evaluate & select Asset Maintenance Service Providers Establish & maintain Asset Maintenance Contracts Monitor Service Provider performance Terminate Contract Manage Transport Sub-Contractors Maintain Contractor Service Information Evaluate & Select Transport Contractors Establish & Maintain Transport Contracts Monitor Contractor Performance Manage Payments to Contractors Terminate Contract Select & Manage Agencies Evaluate & Select Agencies Establish & Maintain Contracts with Agencies Monitor Agencies Performance Manage Payments To/From Agencies Terminate Contract with Agency NCR-Code Management NCR-Data Strategy, Policy & Procedures Maintain NCR Information Maintain Machine Configuration Data NCR Configuration Improvement Manage Machine- Specific NCR Configuration NCR Code-Sharing Management & Support Processing Policy, Procedures & Governance Processing Strategies Sorting Strategy & Design Develop Processing Plans Measurement of Service Quality Measure Financial Performance Measurement of Resource Utilisation Performance Analysis Performance Management Production Systems Initiate Project Evaluate Solutions Finalise Project Systems support & maintenance Develop / Enhance System Implement System Determine business systems strategies Systems control & Administration Specify Facility Requirements Model Proposed Solutions Select & Design Preferred Solution Plan & Schedule Facility Development Implement Facility Changes Construct Facilities & Equipment Facility / Infrastructure Design & Development Production Planning Determine prod’n strategy & direction Capacity Planning Investment Planning Determine prod’n principles & policies Legislative Compliance Develop & maintain Dangerous Goods policies & procedures Production Capability Analysis Manage Facility Information Define Costing Reference Data Maintain Prod’n Structure Information Define terminology, & codes Manage barcoding standards, formats & characteristics Manage central storage of event information Manage inventory of scanners Manage central storage of production volumes International Carrier Transport Operations Receive inbound containers at origin port Handover outbound containers at destination port Transport bond containers from origin port to destination port Manage Core Business Develop Business Strategies Manage business performance & operations Co-ordinate Projects Develop Business Plans Manage Projects Develop business perf. measures & targets Receive Container from Contractor Drop-Off Setup for Contractor Delivery Receive Misdirected Container from Contractor Deliver Container via Contractor Record errors & notify customer Store articles Verify Customer Pick-up Handle Undeliverables (including missorts) Calculate Priority Delivery Charge Capture Contractor Delivery Events Despatch Container for Contractor Pick-Up Handle delivery vehicle incidents Check & Prepare Delivery Vehicles Document Handover to Transport Driver Capture Non-Contractor Delivery Events Setup for Non-Contractor Delivery Handle Customer Returns Deliver Container to Customer Operate Vehicle for Transport Runs Drop Off / Pick Up at Facility Depot Establish Production Volumes Time and Attendance Monitor Post- Production Operations Corrective Action Review Facility Performance & Implement Improvements Manage Post- Production Operations Staffing & Rostering Plan & Schedule Operations NCR-Code Updates Capture Machine Configuration Changes Capture Tool Changes Capture Machine Changes Capture and Notify NCR-Code Changes Equipment Maintenance Plan & Schedule Equipment Maintenance Perform & Reord Equipment Maintenance Correct & Record Equipment Faults & Parts Usage Monitor & Report Maintenance Compliance Modify Equipment Optimise Equipment Performance & Reliability Handle Non-Valid Orders Machine Preparation Moulding Capture volumes & machine statistics Prepare agency consignments Prepare product for road transport Production Operations Capture production events Inward Dock Operations Initial Preparation Move Product between processing steps Order Configuration Machine Production Manual Preparation Capture Order Assemble Order Prepare order documentation Accept from Contractor Accept Agency Order Capture inbound order events Receive inbound order from agency Print & apply agency identifier labels Reconciliation of agency bills & orders Record agency order violations Handover order documentation to transport driver Receive Order Lodgement Accept at Facility Receive electronic order via internet Process electronic order via email Verify Order Preparation & Streaming Handle Rejected Orders Capture Order information Process Payment for Order Handover Order to Transport Driver Capture actual acceptance events Verify Order Accept at Customer Location Finance Provide Financial Analysis & Direction Support Business Cases Produce budgets & forecasts Manage Financial Policy & Procedures Record & monitor expenditure Human Resources Succession Planning Recruitment Maintain employee records Occupational Health & Safety Operational Training Leave Administration Staff Development Industrial Relations Facility Administration General Administration Perform & Manage Stores Function Manage Technical Documents Maintain Technical Help Desk Capture Consolidation Events Accept Inbound Requests
  27. 27. • Leading capabilities – Overall city governance, management and operations • Core capabilities – water, energy, waste, etc. • Enabling capabilities (shared among CORE capabilities) – geomatics, census, registries, etc. • Supporting capabilities – finance, legal, PMO, ICT, media, procurement, etc. 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 27 Capability map view: level 1 modularization Structural decomposition of the mission into groups or domains or value streams. All smart cities have the same capability map (and different levels of maturity)
  28. 28. 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 28 Capability map view: level 1 of modularization (example) Leading capabilities ProcurementFinance Legal Media PMO ICT … Supporting capabilities Facilities & buildings management Energy management Water management Waste management Public safety and security management Environment (nature) management Transportation management Healthcare management Education management Social side management Economic development management Culture & entertainment management Geomatics Census Registries … Enabling capabilities Core capabilities Management Operations Governance
  29. 29. • capability, <systems approach> – ability of a system or a system element to do something at a required level of performance • Capability is a concept that captures – “what” an organisation must do to achieve its mission and – “how well” (or “wow”) an organisation must doing that “what” to achieve its mission • Think football – a lot people can play football, but only some of them can play football at the level required to win EURO 2016 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 29 About the concept `capability’ (1)
  30. 30. • Capability is independent from “how” we do it, “where” we do it, “who” does it, “which tools” are used – The concept “capability” is more generic than technical components, data, interfaces, functions, services, applications, processes, roles and organisations – But to provide a capability, several technical components, data, interfaces, functions, services, applications, processes, roles and organisations are, usually, required • There are two major sides of the concept ‘capability’: – capability as a discrete-unit-of-purpose (or discrete-unit-of- mission) – capability as a measure-of-performance (maybe in respect to some maturity matrix) 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 30 About the concept `capability’ (2)
  31. 31. • How to use a capability map – analyse a comprehensive and well-structured set of capabilities – benchmark the particular organisation via the maturity levels of its capabilities (also known as “heat map”) – take an informed (and depending on the unique situation with the particular organisation) decision about each capability 1. to implement it at a particular level of maturity as one or many functions 2. to obtain it from business-to-business partners (outsource or insource) 3. to obtain it from commodity markets 4. to ignore it for now 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 31 About the concept `capability’ (3)
  32. 32. 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 32 How to satisfy the “security” requirement – big picture Attack Vulnerability Technical asset Risk can exploit causes harm Threat provokes Security define the level of undermines leads Adverse impact Likelihood Predisposing conditions Processes Services Outcomes Objectives slows down underperforming missing exposing toArchitecture Organisation occurs with Risk management
  33. 33. • Threats and vulnerabilities are universal • There is a registry for publicly known information-security vulnerabilities and exposures https://cve.mitre.org/ • The level of adverse impact from an attack depends on the architecture of the system-of-interest • Security and risk can be objectively link by architecture 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 33 Improving security (1)
  34. 34. • Architecture must know all the relationships between all the artefacts (technical assets, services, processes, etc.) to statically evaluate risks • If the implementation of a system is based on business processes then it can dynamically evaluate risks • Knowing the level of risk, one can implement a set of changes to reduce this level to acceptable one 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 34 Improving security (2) security measureResidual risk Widely acceptable risk Acceptable risk Unacceptable risk
  35. 35. • Any process-centric solution “knows” services, servers and other assets used to carry out its processes. Thus various impact to organisational goals may be objectively estimated via processes. Simulation may help. 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 35 Use of business processes (1) static risk evaluation Inter-services communication may be implemented with CORBA, web services and microservices
  36. 36. • Use business processes to invoke security and risk controls 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 36 Use of business processes (2) dynamic risk evaluation Risk monitoring and evaluation Risk mitigation Normal operations
  37. 37. • Risk must be carefully monitored, evaluated and acted upon with the pace of business processes 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 37 Use of business processes (3) integrated risk management Enterprise data warehouse Risk-related rules, logic and knowledge Risk-related events, reports, alerts, indicators, etc.        Enterprise document management and collaboration 1. Enterprise business functions should be enriched to generate the risk-related data. 2. Those risk-related data need to be collected at the enterprise data warehouse together with other business data. 3. Some business processes need to be updated to embed risk-related activities. 4. A set of risk-related rules, logic and risk- related knowledge should be able to use the risk-related and other business data to detect acceptable limits of risk as well as interdependencies and correlations between different risks. 5. Some business processes for risk mitigation maybe automatically activated. 6. A lot of risk-related indicators, alerts should be available in the form of dashboards and reports available for different staff members. 7. Staff members should be able to initiate business processes based on the observed risk-related information.
  38. 38. • The best, so far, privacy regulation is EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) to be applied from May 2018 • Challenges of the GDPR – privacy by design and by default – EU citizen is the new data owner – explicit confidentiality and sensitive data protection – very process-driven – data protection officer • In general, no problems with the GDPR compliance: – Use of explicit and machine-executable business processes – Request GDPR compliance from all partners – Use digital contracts (to be discussed later) 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 38 How to satisfy the “privacy” requirement
  39. 39. • At present, many devices from the IoT “world” act as wild animals thus being dangerous in the our world • As in our world, we follow contracts, let us consider rules / regulations / laws for IoT as cyber-physical systems to tame IoT • But we need something more simple and more concrete than the famous “The three laws of robotics” • Let us consider “digital contracts” • Each digital contract is a set of explicit and machine-executable processes between Things, Services and Persons 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 39 How to satisfy the “safety” requirement
  40. 40. – with Persons who are living in a particular household – with a producer of this Fridge – with a service company for maintenance of this Fridge – with some online shops to order various food – with some other Things within a particular household to achieve together some goals of energy consumption • Note: The in-house network Router knows that this Fridge has rights to connect only to a few external sites; any other contacts will be blocked by the Router • More info http://improving-bpm-systems.blogspot.ch/2016/07/digital-contract-as-process-enables.html 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 40 Example: Smart Fridge’s digital contracts
  41. 41. • The “point-to-point” pattern can be implemented by simple processes – master-slave processes – co-processes • The “majordomo” pattern is about interactions between one master (major-domo, castellan, concierge, chamberlain, seneschal, mayor of the palace, maître d'hôtel, head butler and chief steward) and many servants; several coordination techniques are mandatory: – shared calendars – event-processing – resource allocation, levelling and balancing – processes and cases 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 41 A couple of group functioning patterns
  42. 42. • Because group functioning depends on sharing data and information (including certificates, ID, etc.) their security must be enhanced by a solid records management • Blockchain-based implementations may be considered for more secure records management 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 42 Improving security for group functioning
  43. 43. • Certainly, various IoT cyber-physical systems are similar and different at the same time. Platforms can synergize diversity and uniformity to reduce the cost: – The platform frees up resource to focus on new opportunities – Successful agile innovations are rapidly scaled up when incorporated into the platform – An agile approach requires coordination at a system level – To minimise duplication of effort in solving the same problems, there needs to be system-wide transparency of agile initiatives – Existing elements of the platform also need periodic challenge 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 43 How to satisfy “low cost of implementation and operations”
  44. 44. Solution 1 … CUBE platform Security management Business process management Operational and analytical data Decision management Master and reference data Reporting management Analytics management Drivers for IoT … Solution 2 Smart Cities specific layer Service management Event management Implementation framework viewpoint: platform-based 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 44 City Unified Business Execution (CUBE) platform Digital flow management
  45. 45. Reference architecture Reference modelReference CUBE platform S2 …S1 S3 CUBE platform in City B S2 … B2B1 CUBE platform in City A A2 …S1 CUBE platform in City T S2 …T1 T3 Cooperation and coordination Telecommunication providers Industries Academic and research institutes Financial organisations Standards Development Organizations Specialized consulting firms City Unified Business Execution (CUBE) platform 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 45
  46. 46. • Approve this Smart Cities Reference Architecture • Level 2 capabilities for Smart Cities • Reference design of many building blocks 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 46 Next steps
  47. 47. • Personal website: http://www.samarin.biz • Blog http://improving-bpm-systems.blogspot.com • LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/alexandersamarin • E-mail: alexandre.samarine@gmail.com • Twitter: @samarin • Mobile: +41 76 573 40 61 • Book: www.samarin.biz/book 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 47 Questions?
  48. 48. • Architecture – totality of fundamental concepts or properties of a system in its environment embodied in its elements and relationships, and in the principles of its design and evolution 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 48 Definitions, again
  49. 49. 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 49 Potential question: Achieving synergy between SDOs Smart Cities Reference Architecture IEC – electrotechnical aspects ISO – other aspects JTC1 – ICT aspects
  50. 50. • Each system element (tangible assets, intangible assets, peoples) must be explicitly protected – for its confidentiality, integrity and availability – in rest, in transit and in use – throughout its life cycle (within the system-of-interest life cycle) • Relationships between system elements are used to know how changes in one system element effects other system elements – those relationships must be protected as well – ideally, those relationships are explicit and machine-executable 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 50 Systems approach to security (1)
  51. 51. • The system must be protected from undesirable behavior of its system elements by the explicit definition of their desired behavior as a contract between the system-in-interest and each its system element – contract must be explicit and machine-executable with veritable processes and rules – contracts must be protected as well • Permanent monitoring of all system elements is mandatory • Predictive analytics on all system elements is highly desirable 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 51 Systems approach to security (2)
  52. 52. • Reference architecture description has to consider 3 groups of system elements – some system elements are treated as black-boxes by defining for them required functionality, interfaces, performance, security assurance, etc. – some system elements are treated as grey-boxes by defining also their internal structure (e.g. as illustrative processes) – some system elements (which act as system-forming ones) are treated as white-boxes by defining their (reference) implementation 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 52 Systems approach to security (3)
  53. 53. • The proposed use of digital contracts, explicit process and blockchain can make an impression that they will increase the complexity of IoT. In accordance with the Cynefin framework explicit linking allows progressing – from “Complex” situation (in which the relationship between cause and effect can only be perceived in retrospect, but not in advance) – to “Complicated” situation (in which the relationship between cause and effect requires analysis or some other form of investigation and/or the application of expert knowledge) • A lot of painful standardisation and regulatory work is necessary ahead, but, in accordance with a Russian proverb “volkov boyat'sya — v les ne khodit'”, or “If you can't stand the heat, stay out of the kitchen” or no pain no gain 2017-06-14 Smart Cities from the systems point of view, v1 53 Conclusions (2)

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