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Enterprise Architecture (#EntArch) as a #systemsapproach applied management discipline

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Enterprise Architecture (#EntArch) as a #systemsapproach applied management discipline

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Enterprise Architecture (#EntArch) as a #systemsapproach applied management discipline

  1. 1. Enterprise Architecture (#EntArch) as a systems-approach applied management discipline Alexander SAMARIN
  2. 2. • An enterprise architect – from a programmer to a systems architect (systems of various sizes: company, corporate, canton, country, continent) – have created production systems which work without me • Some of my professional roles – “cleaning lady” (usually in an IT department) – “peacemaker” (between the IT and business) – “swiss knife” (for solving any problem) – “patterns detective” (seeing commonalities in “unique” cases) – “assembler” (making unique things from commodities) – “barriers breaker” (there is always a bigger system) – “coordinator” (without any formal authority over components) About me 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 2
  3. 3. • The goal of this talk show how the use of the systems approach to address typical enterprise challenges – an algorithm to generate an enterprise’s blueprint – different people in similar situations come to similar solutions and possibly bring innovations – an algorithm to build a bigger enterprise from smaller ones • Management discipline is a coherent set of governing rules for the better management of the enterprise functioning in support of the enterprise goals • Applied means that existing scientific knowledge is used to develop more practical applications, like technology or inventions #EntArch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 3
  4. 4. • system – set of interacting discrete parts organised as a whole which exhibits (as the result of interaction between the parts) some emergent characteristics indispensable to achieve one or more stated purposes • systems approach – holistic approach to understanding a system and its discrete parts in the context of their behaviour and their relationships to one another and to their environment – Note: Use of the systems approach makes explicit the structure of a system and the rules governing the behaviour and evolution of the system • Any enterprise is a socio-technical system 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 4 Systems architecting (1)
  5. 5. • Architecting is about – making essential decisions about the system-in-focus to enable the achievement of its desired emergent characteristics – understanding the relationship between structure and behaviour, between design and outcomes • An architect is a person who a) translates a customer’s requirements into a viable plan and b) guides others in its execution Systems architecting (2) 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 5
  6. 6. • Ideal (happy) path – Formalise your artefacts – syntax and semantic – Define their lifecycles – All artefacts must be versionable throughout their lifecycle – All artefacts must evolve to become externalised, virtual and cloudable – Assemble some artefacts into other artefacts – All relationships between artefacts must be modelled explicitly – thus the system’s structure is explicit – All models must be made to be machine-assisted executable – thus the system’s behaviors can be simulated in advance – Adjust the artefacts and models to achieve the optimal behaviors for emergent characteristics 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 6 Systems architecting (3)
  7. 7. • My digital manifesto – Business artefacts are available in digital formats (explicit, formal and machine-executable) – Digital is the master media for business artefacts • In systems architecting the focus is changing – FROM the thing (or the artefact) – TO how the thing changes – HOW things change together • With the required speed and scale, there is no time for human intervention and errors • “In the digital age innovation depends on process automation” Effect of digital 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 7
  8. 8. • #EntArch must coordinate people, processes, projects and products in many dimensions: 1. scope span (device, activity, …, country, market) 2. value-stream span (domain-dependent) 3. interoperability layer (business, information, apps, etc.) 4. time span (project life-cycle, solution life-cycle, etc.) 5. sector span (various industries) 6. problem space (situation-specific) 7. solution space (context, conception, …, operations - ZF rows) … Architecting enterprises as social- technical systems (1) 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 8
  9. 9. • #EntArch must coordinate people, processes, projects and products in many dimensions: … 8. social space (gender equality, consensus building, conflict resolution) 9. cultural space (multi-lingual communication, national mentality, regional mentality, corporate mentality) 10. media span (physical vs analogue vs digital vs bionic) 11. authority span (top management, …, workers) 12. person span (individual, house, personal cars, public places, etc.) 13. financial span 14. CX span (touch point, journey, storytelling, lifecycle) Architecting enterprises as social- technical systems (2) 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 9
  10. 10. • Customers • Shareholders • Corporate board • Top management • Line management • Super users • Normal users • Project managers • IT architects • Developers • Operators • … and all of them must be comfortable with the system Lots of stakeholders — many concerns and views 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 10
  11. 11. • Geometrical viewpoints of buildings are viewed side by side — as a composition From ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010 • View (system-in-focus dependent) vs viewpoint (system-in-focus dependent) • Multiple viewpoints are mandatory • Architectural viewpoints are often originated by different people — thus they must be aligned to be used together 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 11
  12. 12. • concept system or terminology or “common taxonomy” • business motivation • business outline • capability-as-discrete-unit-of-purpose • operating outline • process map & service map • capability-as-performance • events (triggers) nomenclature • macro-planning & project portfolio • application architecture • data / information architecture • technology architecture 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 12 Many viewpoints
  13. 13. 1. Creating from scratch 2. Changing business outline 3. Changing operating outline 4. Building bigger systems via incorporation of smaller ones 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 13 For scenarios for systems transformation
  14. 14. • Slide 6 from http://www.slideshare.net/TheDesignOfBusiness/introducing-the-open-group-it4it- standard • https://www.salesforce.com/blog/2016/04/how-salesforce-does-enterprise-architecture-.html • https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/design-direct-monitor-enterprise-digital-using-sarath-chandran 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 14 Examples from various sources
  15. 15. • Synonyms for “creating company” – greenfield project – top-down project – design of business • Examples – sports events – military mission – start-up • The challenge – an algorithm for creating a company by business people – everything is digital by default – automate as much as possible (80 % automatic and 20 % agile fine tuning) Scenario 1 “Creating any company from scratch” 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 15
  16. 16. – Creation every 4 years of an ad-hoc company with a 5-year lifecycle – Contracting key partners (venues, national associations, broadcasters) – Defining the services to be delivered (VIP, broadcast rights, ticketing, etc.) – Developing the organisational structure including one team per venue – Contracting people (including volunteers) and training them – Organising travel, accommodation, logistics, uniforms, etc. for staff and VIPs – Setting-up venues – Operating, i.e. executing, the event (many activities each day) – Dismantling of venues – Post-event placement of volunteers – Liquidation of the ad-hoc company Example — a sports event company 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 16
  17. 17. • Think football – a lot people can play football, but only some of them can play football at the level required to win EURO 2016 • A business capability is a concept that captures – “what” an enterprise must do to achieve its mission and – “how well” an enterprise must doing that “what” to achieve its mission • Capability is independent from “how” do we do it, “where” we do it, “who” does it, “which tools” are used • There are two major extensions of the concept ‘capability’: – capability as a discrete-unit-of-purpose – capability as a measure-of-performance 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 17 About the concept `capability’
  18. 18. Algorithm (1) — purpose of the company Purpose Business motivation viewpoint: vision, mission, stakeholders 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 18
  19. 19. Algorithm (2) — capability as discrete unit of purpose Purpose Business motivation viewpoint: vision, mission Capability A2Capability A1 Capability B1 Capability B2 Capability B3 Capability B4 Business outline viewpoint 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 19
  20. 20. Algorithm (3) — implementations of capabilities Purpose Business motivation viewpoint: vision, mission Capability A2 Function A2 Capability A1 Function A1 Capability B1 Commodity Capability B2 B2B service Capability B3 Process B3 Capability B4 COTS Business outline viewpoint - B2C for customers - B2B with key partners - shared capabilities B2C 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 20
  21. 21. Algorithm (4) — operating model Purpose Business motivation viewpoint: vision, mission Capability A2 Function A2 Capability A1 Function A1 Capability B1 Commodity Capability B2 B2B service Capability B3 Process B3 Capability B4 COTS Business outline viewpoint - B2C for customers - B2B with key partners - shared capabilities B2C Operating outline viewpoint 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 21
  22. 22. Algorithm (5) — machine-executable Purpose Business motivation viewpoint: vision, mission Capability A2 Function A2 Capability A1 Function A1 Capability B1 Commodity Capability B2 B2B service Capability B3 Process B3 Capability B4 COTS Business outline viewpoint - B2C for customers - B2B with key partners - shared capabilities B2C Operating outline viewpoint Microservices viewpoint - stateless or stateful - idempotent Composite microservice API BPM-suite formSpecific development 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 22 COTS B2B service
  23. 23. • Various industry reference models – value streams – capabilities Generating capabilities 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 23
  24. 24. Matching business functions and tools Business Functions Tools Concrete business capabilities Specific technical capabilities Generalised Technical capabilities Uniform Business capabilities Tools Implicit Implementation Business Functions Magic • Various patterns and good business practices 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 24
  25. 25. Modelling of processes on demand L1 Value- steam s L2 Clusters-of- processes L3 Coordination of fragments L4 Coordination of activities L5 Automation of activities and processes Departmental projects to implement the processes of a particular business domain with a BPM-suite tool Quick enterprise-wide “landscape” project to develop L1 and L2 processes and to establish common practices (modelling procedures, patterns, etc.) 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 25
  26. 26. Addressing B2C concerns about customer experience 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 26
  27. 27. • There are two major interpretations of the concept ‘capability’: – capability as a discrete unit-of-purpose (WHAT, “do the right things” or functional requirements) – capability as a measure-of-performance (HOW WELL, “do things right” or non-functional requirements) • Without explicit and machine-executable processes any performance estimations are qualitative • With explicit and machine-executable processes any performance estimations can be quantitative • Explicit and machine-executable processes are models to be used for predictive analytics (next best action, next best improvement, etc.) From qualitative to quantitative 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 27
  28. 28. • How can you manage efficiently many contracts? • Consider each contract is a process-centric solution (who is doing what, when, how well, etc.) • But such a contract must be “immutable”: – open-source BPMs tool – standardised and certified execution semantic – contract process definition is immutable (save it in a blockchain!) – all the audit-trails and collected data are immutable – potentially, BPM-suite tool is operated by a certified third-party – potentially, my “digital” lawyer is one of the miners in this blockchain B2B and commodities — many contracts to manage 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 28
  29. 29. • Scenario 2 “Changing operating outline” – Synonyms • modernizing, optimizing, refactoring, restructuring, rationalisation, standardisation, etc. – Examples • BPR, CPI, TQM, etc. • Scenario 3 “Changing business outline” – Synonyms • rethinking, reimagining, reinventing, innovations, etc. – Examples • disruptive strategy 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 29 Two variants of “Creating from scratch”
  30. 30. • Synonyms – bottom-up – integration • Examples – silos removal – M & A – system of systems, i.e. no control over constituting systems – supply-chain – smart-city – smart-energy – healthcare – e-government 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 30 Scenario 4 “Building bigger systems via incorporation of smaller ones”
  31. 31. • Question: What should be done to say “all the interacting discrete parts of the system-in-focus work as a whole”? • Answer: all the interacting discrete parts of the system- in-focus must be incorporated structurally and behaviorally to guarantee the desired emergent characteristics • Question: What are the system-forming factors for a particular system-in-focus? • Answer: – Determine “dimensions” which are most import for the system-in-focus – Start with “dimensions” as integration pillars – Align between “dimensions” 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 31 General considerations for this scenario
  32. 32. • Energy stream or “domains” (energy generation, energy transmission, energy delivery, energy consumption) • Operating span or “zones” (process, field, station, operation, enterprise, market) • Interoperability layers (business, functions, information, communication, components) 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 32 Example of dimensions from IEC SyC “Smart Energy”
  33. 33. • Interoperability layers business, functions, information, communication, components • Operating span or “Hierarchy Levels” (product, field device, control device, station, work-centre, enterprise, connected-world) • Value stream 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 33 Example of dimensions from Germany, Industry 4.0
  34. 34. • Proximity (aura/body, home, personal vehicle, public building, global) • Enablers (monitoring, audio-visual interaction, assistance systems, data acquisition, mechatronics and control, data aggregation and storage, defined function control and support, complex cross-function service control and support, integral service programs) • Interoperability layers (business, functions, information, communication, components) 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 34 Example of dimensions from IEC SyC “Ambient Assisted Living”
  35. 35. • Potential partners form a common governance body • A reference model (including ontology) must be created • Practically all capabilities are implemented by B2B • Capabilities of each business partners (their B2C) must be made available in a standardise form • Coordination must be use to assemble some capabilities from existing capabilities • Trust and traceability are very important – use blockchain 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 35 Bigger systems are system-of-systems
  36. 36. • Think football – a lot people can play football, but only some of them can play football at the level required to win EURO 2016 • A business capability is a concept that captures – “what” an enterprise must do to achieve its mission and – “how well” an enterprise must doing that “what” to achieve its mission • Capability is independent from “how” do we do it, “where” we do it, “who” does it, “which tools” are used • There are two major extensions of the concept ‘capability’: – capability as a discrete-unit-of-purpose – capability as a measure-of-performance 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 36 About the concept `capability’
  37. 37. Algorithm (1) — existing systems 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 37 system 1 Existing systemssystem 2
  38. 38. Algorithm (2) — existing services 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 38 service 1.1 service 2.1 service 2.2 Existing servicesservice 1.2
  39. 39. Algorithm (3) — purpose of the system Purpose 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 39 service 1.1 service 2.1 service 2.2 Existing services Business motivation viewpoint: vision, mission, stakeholders, etc. service 1.2
  40. 40. Algorithm (4) — capability as discrete unit of purpose Purpose Capability A2Capability A1 Capability B1 Capability B2 Capability B3 Capability B4 Reference model viewpoint 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 40 service 1.1 service 2.1 service 2.2 Existing services Business motivation viewpoint: vision, mission, stakeholders, etc. service 1.2
  41. 41. Algorithm (5) — reference implementation Purpose Capability A2Capability A1 Capability B1 Capability B2 Capability B3 Process B3 Capability B4 COTS Reference model viewpoint with reference implementation 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 41 service 1.1 service 2.1 service 2.2 Existing services Gap Gap Business motivation viewpoint: vision, mission, stakeholders, etc. service 1.2
  42. 42. Algorithm (6) — operating model Purpose Capability A2Capability A1 Capability B1 Capability B2 Capability B3 Process B3 Capability B4 COTS Reference model viewpoint with reference implementation Operating outline viewpoint 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 42 service 1.1 service 2.1 service 2.2 Existing services Gap Gap Business motivation viewpoint: vision, mission, stakeholders, etc. service 1.2
  43. 43. Algorithm (7) — composition of services via API Purpose Capability A2Capability A1 Capability B1 Capability B2 Capability B3 Process B3 Capability B4 COTS Reference model viewpoint with reference implementation Operating outline viewpoint Implementation viewpoint - Existing services - Commodities - etc. Composite microservice 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 43 Commodity API API API service 1.1 service 1.2 service 2.1 service 2.2 Existing services Gap Gap Gap API Business motivation viewpoint: vision, mission, stakeholders, etc.
  44. 44. • Align terminology or, even better, make an ontology – concept system • Understand concerns of all people involved – stakeholders analysis • Develop common syntax, semantic and lifecycles for all assets – data / information nomenclature • List external and internal (change lifecycle phases) events – event nomenclature • Analyse all existing parts to decompose them into services – use-cases 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 44 As much as possible common definitions
  45. 45. • Various industry reference models – value streams – capabilities Generating capabilities 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 45
  46. 46. Matching business functions and tools Business functions Tools Concrete business capabilities Specific technical capabilities Generalised technical capabilities Uniform business capabilities Tools Implicit implementation Business functions Magic • Various patterns and good business practices 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 46
  47. 47. Business function B1 Business function C3 • Implementation of business function B1 comprises business function C3 which is “smaller” than B1) and tools T1, T2, T3 & T9 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 47 Step 1 Tool T1 Tool T2 Tool T3 Tool T9 Implicit implementation
  48. 48. • Implementation of B1 requires (in addition to C3) some concrete business capabilities (as requirements described by the owners of B1) Business function B1 Concrete business capability B1ZBusiness function C3 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 48 Step 2 Tool T1 Tool T2 Tool T3 Tool T9 Concrete business capability B1B Concrete business capability B1A Implicit implementation
  49. 49. • Concrete business capabilities can be implemented by various specific technical capabilities Business function B1 Concrete business capability B1Z Specific technical capability T9A Specific technical capability T3A Specific technical capability T9B Specific technical capability T1B Specific technical capability T1A Specific technical capability T2A Business function C3 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 49 Step 3 Tool T1 Tool T2 Tool T3 Tool T9 Concrete business capability B1B Concrete business capability B1A Implicit implementation
  50. 50. • The concrete business capability B1A was agreed to match the common good-business-practice business BC10 Business function B1 Concrete business capability B1Z Specific technical capability T9A Specific technical capability T3A Specific technical capability T9B Specific technical capability T1B Specific technical capability T1A Specific technical capability T2A Uniform business capability BC10 Good business practices and business patterns Uniform business capability BC11 Business function C3 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 50 Step 4 Tool T1 Tool T2 Tool T3 Tool T9 Concrete business capability B1B Concrete business capability B1A Implicit implementation
  51. 51. • Specific technical capabilities T1B and T2A are the same generalized technical capability TC30 Business Function B1 Concrete business capability B1Z Specific technical capability T9A Specific technical capability T3A Specific technical capability T9B Specific technical capability T1B Specific technical capability T1A Specific technical capability T2A Uniform business capability BC10 Generalised technical capability TC10 Good business practices and business patterns Uniform business capability BC11 Standardized or generalised functionality “de-facto” or “de-jure” Business Function C3 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 51 Step 5 Tool T1 Tool T2 Tool T3 Tool T9 Concrete business capability B1B Concrete business capability B1A
  52. 52. • Thus tool T2 can be eliminated Business function B1 Concrete business capability B1Z Specific technical capability T9A Specific technical capability T3A Specific technical capability T9B Specific technical capability T1B Specific technical capability T1A Specific technical capability T2A Uniform business capability BC10 Generalised technical capability TC10 Good business practices and business patterns Uniform business capability BC11 Standardized or generalised functionality “de-facto” or “de-jure” Business function C3 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 52 Step 6 Tool T1 Tool T2 Tool T3 Tool T9 Concrete business capability B1B Concrete business capability B1A
  53. 53. • How can you manage efficiently many contracts? • Consider each contract is a process-centric solution (who is doing what, when, how well, etc.) • But such a contract must be “immutable”: – open-source BPMs tool – standardised and certified execution semantic – contract process definition is immutable (save it in a blockchain!) – all the audit-trails and collected data are immutable – potentially, BPM-suite tool is operated by a certified third-party – potentially, my “digital” lawyer is one of the miners in this blockchain B2B and commodities — many contracts to manage 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 54
  54. 54. Modelling of processes on demand L1 Value- steam s L2 Clusters-of- processes L3 Coordination of fragments L4 Coordination of activities L5 Automation of activities and processes Departmental projects to implement the processes of a particular business domain with a BPM-suite tool Quick enterprise-wide “landscape” project to develop L1 and L2 processes and to establish common practices (modelling procedures, patterns, etc.) 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 55
  55. 55. • Find dependencies between functions and events (e.g. function is invoked because of an event) and express them via different coordination techniques (flow-chart, schedule, decision, etc.) – various model kinds for coordination • Find implicit processes and make them explicit – process map • Find various gaps – integration points – coordination points – touch points – missing parts 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 56 Coordination is very important
  56. 56. • Orchestration-centric – temporal-based – flow-chat-based – pattern-based • State-centric – life-cycle-based • Decision-centric – rule-based – behaviour-based – managerial – instinct-based 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 57 About coordination techniques (1)
  57. 57. • Various – resource-based – goal-based – event-based 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 58 About coordination techniques (2)
  58. 58. Coordination technique Level of coordination Type of coordination Nature of coordination Horizon of coordination Intensity of coordination Scope of coordination Flexibility of coordination Orchestration strong imperative explicit future high group low State strong imperative explicit now low individual low Decision weak declarative both now low individual low Event weak declarative implicit now various individual++ high 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 59 Comparison of coordination techniques – level: weak (crowd) or strong (army) – type: imperative (working instruction) or declarative (a set of constrains) – nature: explicit (as state laws or directives) or implicit (tacit, social) – horizon: now or future – intensity: low or high or various – scope: individual or group (set) – flexibility: low or high
  59. 59. • BPM-suite tool viewpoint • Microservices application viewpoint • Microservices execution viewpoint • Platform viewpoint • Security viewpoint • Governance viewpoint • Project management viewpoint 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 60 Some transversal viewpoint
  60. 60. BPM-suite + SOA + ESB viewpoint 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 61
  61. 61. Application microservice architecture viewpoint The microservices way: - the speed of change - the safety of change - at scale - in harmony 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 62
  62. 62. Microservices execution viewpoints Error-recovery process design Microservices as scripts for universal robots Queueing jobs for robots 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 63
  63. 63. • Because of the coherent design, many components will be common and thus constitute a Corporate Uniformed Business Execution (CUBE) platform Platform viewpoint (1) 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 64
  64. 64. Platform viewpoint (2) Platforms combine: - diversity - uniformity Potential platforms: - e-government - smart-city - e-health 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 65
  65. 65. Security viewpoint — dynamic security 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 66
  66. 66. • If the “Activity_B” validates the results of “Activity_A” then no actor should be simultaneously in “Role_1” and “Role_2” Security viewpoint — process-based access control 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 67
  67. 67. Governance viewpoint — follow artefacts’ lifecycles 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 68
  68. 68. • To check that your set of processes / functions / capabilities is complete: map functions vs primary artefacts • An IT framework with “holes” • A set of typical IT value streams Governance viewpoint — is our model complete? 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 69
  69. 69. • Top-down architecting to reduce the complexity, then start agile implementations Project management — mixture of top- down & agile 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 70
  70. 70. • There are several viewpoints and model kinds which are mandatory for enterprise-as-a-system • Certainly, some viewpoints can be derived from other viewpoints • There is still lack of patterns for various viewpoints and model kinds • There is still lack of techniques to transform some models to other models (thus views to views) • Conventional EA tools offer little help 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 71 Conclusions
  71. 71. • Personal website: http://www.samarin.biz • Blog http://improving-bpm-systems.blogspot.com • LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/alexandersamarin • E-mail: alexandre.samarine@gmail.com • Twitter: @samarin • Mobile: +41 76 573 40 61 • Book: www.samarin.biz/book #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 72 Thank you 2016-07-03
  72. 72. • Add capability slides • Re-draw capability boxes • add 0 slide for bottom-up • add “eclipse” patterns to the bottom-up • Measurable, Repeatable and Predictable • Requirements are simply a projection of the descriptive system model into the problem domain, not a separate model themselves. 2016-07-03 #entarch as a systems-approach applied management discipline 73 to do

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