Blue gene


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Blue gene

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Blue gene

  1. 1. BLUE GENE Sunitha M. Jenarius
  2. 2. What is Blue GeneA massively parallel supercomputer using tens of thousands of embedded PowerPC processors supporting a large memory space With standard compilers and message passing environment
  3. 3. Why the name “Blue Gene”? “Blue”: The corporate color of IBM “Gene”: The intended use of the Blue Gene clusters – Computational biology, specifically, protein folding
  4. 4. History Dec’99, IBM Research announced $100M US effort to build a Petaflop scale supercomputer. Two goals of The Blue Gene project : – Massively parallel machine architecture and software – Bio-Molecular Simulation – advance orders of magnitude November 2001, Partnership with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and this resulted in …
  5. 5. Results Linpack Top 500 Supercomputers
  6. 6. Blue Gene Projects Four Blue Gene projects : – BlueGene/L – BlueGene/C – BlueGene/P – BlueGene/Q
  7. 7. Blue Gene/L The first computer in the Blue Gene series IBM first announced the Blue Gene/L project, Sept. 29, 2004 Final configuration was launched in October 2005
  8. 8. Blue Gene/L - UnsurpassedPerformance Designed to deliver the most performance per kilowatt of power consumed Theoretical peak performance of 360 TFLOPS Final Configuration (Oct. ‘05) scores over 280 TFLOPS sustained on the Linpack benchmark. Nov 14, ‘06, at Supercomputing 2006, Blue Gene/L was awarded the winning prize in all HPC Challenge Classes of awards.
  9. 9. Blue Gene/L Architecture Can be scaled up to 65,536 compute or I/O nodes, with 131,072 processors Each node is a single ASIC with associated DRAM memory chips Each ASIC has 2 700 MHz IBM PowerPC processors PowerPC processors – Low-frequency, low-power embedded processors, superior to todays high-frequency, high-power microprocessors by a factor of 2 or more
  10. 10. Blue Gene/L Architecture contd… – Double-pipeline-double-precision Floating Point Unit – A cache sub-system with built-in DRAM controller Node CPUs are not cache coherent with one another FPUs and CPUs are designed for low power consumption – Using transistors with low leakage current – Local clock gating – Putting the FPU or CPU/FPU pair to sleep
  11. 11. Blue Gene/L Architecture contd… 1024 nodes System Overview
  12. 12. Blue Gene/L Architecture contd…1 rack holds 1024 nodes or 2048 processors Nodes optimized for low power consumption ASIC based on System-on-a-chip technology – Large numbers of low-power system-on-a-chip technology allows it to outperform commodity clusters while saving on power – Aggressive packaging of processors, memory and interconnect – Power Efficient & Space Efficient – Allows for latencies and bandwidths that are significantly better than those for nodes typically used in ASC scale supercomputers
  13. 13. Blue Gene/L Networks Each node is attached to 3 main parallel communication networks – 3D Torus network - peer-2-peer between compute nodes – Collective network – collective & global communication – Ethernet network - I/O and management (such as access to any node for configuration, booting and diagnostics )
  14. 14. Blue Gene/L System Software System software supports efficient execution of parallel applications Compiler support for DFPU (C, C++, Fortran) Compute nodes use a minimal operating system called “BlueGene/L compute node kernel” – A lightweight, single-user operating system – Supports execution of a single dual-threaded application compute process – Kernel provides a single and static virtual address space to one running compute process – Because of single-process nature, no context switching required
  15. 15. Blue Gene/L System Software contd… To allow multiple programs to run concurrently – Blue Gene/L system can be partitioned into electronically isolated sets of nodes – The number of nodes in a partition must be a positive integer power of 2 – To run program – reserve this partition – No other program can use till partition is done with current program – With so many nodes, component failures are inevitable. The system is able to electrically isolate faulty hardware to allow the machine to continue to run
  16. 16. Blue Gene/L System Software contd… Parallel Programming model – Message Passing – supported through an implementation of MPI – Only a subset of POSIX calls are supported – Green threads are also used to simulate local concurrency
  17. 17. Blue Gene/C Sister-project to BlueGene/L Renamed to Cyclops64 Massively parallel, supercomputer-on-a-chip cellular architecture Cellular architecture gives the programmer the ability to run large numbers of concurrent threads within a single processor.
  18. 18. Blue Gene/P Architecturally similar to BlueGene/L Expected to operate around one petaflop Expected around 2008
  19. 19. Blue Gene/Q Last known supercomputer in the Blue Gene series Expected to reach 3-10 petaflops
  20. 20. Resources IBM website – ( ) ap207.pdf