Islamic banking in UK

1,075 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

Islamic banking in UK

  1. 1. Islamic Banking in the UK Professor Rodney Wilson, Durham University Institute for Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Islamic Banking and Finance Lecture Sarajevo, 8th May 2006
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Sharia compliant liquidity management </li></ul><ul><li>The Al Baraka International Bank, 1982-93 </li></ul><ul><li>The United Bank of Kuwait/Al Ahli United Bank </li></ul><ul><li>The Islamic Bank of Britain </li></ul><ul><li>HSBC Amanah </li></ul><ul><li>Lloyds TSB Islamic </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic home finance costs compared </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory issues </li></ul><ul><li>Legal issues </li></ul><ul><li>Future for Islamic finance in the UK </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sharia compliant liquidity management <ul><li>Excess liquidity of Gulf Islamic banks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to hold treasury bills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No inter-bank market in Islamic securities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Murabahah overnight deposits in London </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saudi International Bank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United Bank of Kuwait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significance of London Metal Exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute of Islamic Banking and Insurance </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Al Baraka International Bank, 1982-93 <ul><li>Initiative by Sheikh Salel Kamel of Jeddah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase of Hargrave Securities in 1982 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Licensed deposit taking via current accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two branches in London and one in Birmingham </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deposits exceeded £154 million by 1991, mostly through mudarabah investment accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Housing finance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10-20 year Islamic mortgages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monthly or quarterly repayments on fixed basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Murabahah structure </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The United Bank of Kuwait/ Al Ahli United Bank <ul><li>Islamic Investment Banking Unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded 1995 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-autonomous operation from Baker Street </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16 staff in asset and leasing management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manzil home ownership scheme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Murabahah based mortgages from 1997 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ijara based mortgages from 1999 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Around 2 per week approved by late 1990s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now distributed through West Bromwich mortgages </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Islamic Bank of Britain <ul><li>Innovative appeal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First branch opened September 2004 in Edgeware Road </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational headquarters in Birmingham with branches Leicester and Manchester </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opening generated much favourable media comment and free publicity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UK has 1.8 million Muslim residents plus many visitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Muslims in professional occupations with good salaries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stress on Islamic values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faith and trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also aim s at value and convenience </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Islamic Bank of Britain accounts <ul><li>Current account </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No interest payments or receipts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chequebook and multi-functional bank card provided </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Savings account </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operates on mudarabah basis with £1 minimum balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profits calculated monthly: 3% since October 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Term deposit savings account </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum deposit £5,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One, three or six months earns 3.25%, 3.50% & 3.75% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treasury deposit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum £100,000 for 1, 3 or 6 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Murabahah operation with funds invested on in London Metal Exchange </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Islamic Bank of Britain finance <ul><li>Personal finance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>£1,000 to £20,000 for 12 to 36 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operates through tawarruq with bank buying shariah compliant commodities that are sold to client on a cost plus profit basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Client’s agent sells commodities and proceeds credited to client’s account </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Client repays bank through deferred payments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secured funding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Car finance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home finance coming soon </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Critique of Islamic Bank of Britain <ul><li>Clear mission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision and values well expressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress on positive and not simply prohibitions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Publicity material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All in English, but some clients may prefer Urdu or Arabic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limited product range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily a savings institution that cannot meet all customer need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tawarruq difficult to market in UK as client scepticism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At fringe of market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very small bank competing with conventional banks offering Islamic windows such as HSBC Amanah and Lloyds TSB </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. HSBC Amanah <ul><li>Dedicated Islamic finance subsidiary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established 1998 in London, but headquartered in Dubai </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global network with focus on UAE, UK, US and Malaysia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amanah Home Finance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Launched in 2004 following abolition of double stamp duty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Islamic current account </li></ul><ul><ul><li>£1,000 minimum balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No interest payments or charges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-functional cards, standing orders and direct debits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Islamic pensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment screening </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Lloyds TSB <ul><li>Islamic current accounts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No minimum deposit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-functional cards, standing orders and direct debits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Islamic home finance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diminishing musharakah structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rental calculated as LIBOR plus 1.09% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compares with HSBC Amanah rate of 5.99% </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Costs of Islamic home finance, £ Note: Monthly payments for a loan of £135,000 over 25 years 21 883 781 Lloyds TSB 34 857 849 HSBC Amanah Buildings insurance Islamic Conventional Mortgage provider
  13. 13. Regulatory issues <ul><li>Financial Services Authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability of banking system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoting public financial awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combating financial crime including money laundering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FSA Islamic Finance Concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital adequacy, liquidity, reputation of directors and management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insistence on shariah endorsement for designated Islamic financial products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deposit protection provided problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participates as observer on IFSB and IOSCO taskforce on Islamic finance </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Legal issues <ul><li>Flexibility of English law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages for Islamic financial contracts over civil law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No separate Islamic banking law required in the UK </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Position of English courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shamil Bank of Bahrain versus Beximco Pharmaceuticals of Bangladesh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure of the latter to make a payment under a murabahah agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judgement of the High Court and the Court of Appeal </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Future for Islamic finance in the UK <ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A few dominant players in Islamic home finance market </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New product development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takaful Islamic insurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shariah compliant pension schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shariah compliant open and closed end funds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope for Islamic private equity, real estate investment trusts (REITS) and possibly hedge funds </li></ul></ul>

×