A form of instruction by means of questions and answers.
Lec. 4 the classifying system of tipitaka in thailand
The classifying system of Tipitaka in Thailand Dr. Jutamas Vareesangthip
The classifying system of Tipitaka in Thailand and its brief contents, the classification ofVinayapitaka, Suttantapitaka, Abhidhammapitakaits and theirs contents
Tipitaka Texts• "In the Tipitaka one finds milk for the babe and meat for the strong," says Narada Thera. Here is how these canonical text collections came about: Buddha left no written records of His Teachings; disciples preserved them by committing to memory and transmitting them orally from generation to generation. During the reign of the Sinhala King Vattagamani Abhaya, about 83 B.C., the Tipitaka was committed to writing on palm leaves (ola) in Ceylon.
Tipitaka Texts• This voluminous Tipitaka, which contains the essence of Buddhas Teaching, is estimated to be about eleven times the size of the Bible. The Tipitaka consists of the Basket of Discipline (Vinaya Pitaka), the Basket of Discourses (Sutta Pitaka), and the Basket of Ultimate Doctrine (Abhidhamma Pitaka).
Tipitaka Texts• The texts of the Pali canon of Theraveda Buddhism form a vast body of literature that is called Tipitaka ("The Three Baskets"; Sanskrit: Tripitaka). Tipitaka contains what is considered the most authentic texts of what Buddha stood for, despite many additions and modifications. – 1 Vinayapitaka deals with rules of conduct for the congregations (sangha); some of which may help spiritual communities of today also. – 2 Suttapitaka brings Buddhas sermons and dialogues; they are the dominant teachings of Theraveda Buddhism. – 3 Abhidhammapitaka deals with expositions of theories.
Tipitaka Texts• The texts of the three baskets (Tipitaka) are distinguished from the commentaries on many of them.• 1. Regulations for monks and nuns, Vinayapitaka• The Vinayapitaka, where large sections have fallen into disuse, is divided into five major parts grouped into three divisions. The five parts (books, Vibhanga) are: – 1 Parajika Pali - Major Offenses – 2 Pacittiya Pali - Minor Offenses (Khandaka): – 3 Mahavagga Pali - Greater Section – 4 Cullavagga Pali - Shorter Section – 5 Parivara Pali – Epitome(brief summary) of the Vinaya
A Brief Elucidation( explanation) of the Constituents of Vinaya Pitaka:• The Vinaya Pitaka contains the monastic rules of the Order of Buddhist monks. It consists of the following parts: 1. Suttavibhanga 2. Khandhaka 3. Parivara
A Brief Elucidation of the Constituents of Vinaya Pitaka:• Suttavibhanga again has two sub- divisions. They are: – A. Bhikkhu Vibhanga – B. Bhikkhuni Vibhanga• Khandhaka has two sub-divisions. They are: – A. Mahavagga Pali – B. Cullavagga Pali
1. Regulations for monks and nuns, Vinayapitaka• The three divisions are: Sutta-vibhanga ("Division of Rules"); Khandhakas ("Sections"); and Parivara ("Accessory"):• 1.1 The Sutta-vibhanga is a commentary on the Patimokkha-sutta ("Obligatory Rules"), which forms the nucleus of the Vinayapitaka. It is one of the oldest parts of the Pali canon and utilizes an archaic language. It consists of two parts, (1.1.1) the Bhikkhu-patimokkha ("Rules for Monks") and the (1.1.2) Bhikkhuni-patimokkha ("Rules for Nuns").• The commentary(sub-divisions) on the Patimokkha is divided into the Maha-vibhanga(Bhikkhu Vibhanga ) of 227 rules for monks and the Bhikkhuni-vibhanga of additional rules and regulations for nuns.
1. Regulations for monks and nuns, Vinayapitaka• 1.2 The Khandhaka section of the Vinaya consists of two parts, the (1.2.1) Mahavagga ("Great Grouping") and the (1.2.2) Cullavagga ("Small Grouping"). These two sections lack logical sequence. They contain rules for ordination; descriptions of rainy-season retreats, instruction of nuns; and so forth. The Cullavagga supplements the details of the Mahavagga to make an authoritative compilation of Buddhas sayings of discipline.
1.2.1 Mahavagga• The Mahavagga being the first and great division of the second main complement of Vinaya Pitaka called Khandhaka, gives us a precise account of the Buddha’s supreme Enlightenment or Buddha-hood through insight meditation discovering unique and fundamental tenets of His teachings.
1.2.1 Mahavagga• It also explains his first sermon Dhammacakkapavattana Sutta which contains the Fourfold Noble Truth, the Eightfold Noble Path; the second sermon Anattalakkhana Sutta, discourse on Non-self; how he for the first time formed the Order of monks and commenced his missionary of disseminating his newly unveiled Dhamma. How his eminent disciples such as Sariputta, Moggallana, Maha Kassapa, Ananda, Upali, Angulimala etc joined his Order being immensely fascinated with his teaching of great profundity (intellectual depth).
1.2.2 Cullavagga• Cullavagga explaining the methods of Vinaya- Kamma, settling disputes, Buddhist synods etc. The etymological definition of cullavagga can be, culla – lesser or small and vagga – division or group; the lesser division. Cullavagga contains 12 divisions short in size.• 1.Kammakhandhaka: Formal acts such as Tajjiniya kamma, Ukkhepaniya kamma, Pakasamika kamma, are mentioned in this division.• 2.Parivasakhandhaka: The probationary period for those monks who have sanghadisesa offence is dealt with in this division.• 3.Samucchayakhandhaka: What this division deals with is manatta and actually about the probation too.
1.2.2 Cullavagga• 4.Samathakhandhaka: The different ways of settling the legal questions is dealt in this division.• 5.Khuddhaka: Minor matters or offences such as cutting hair etc. are dealt in this division.• 6.Senasanakhandhaka: it deals with the accommodation or residence for monks in their monastic life.• 7. Sanghabhedakhandhaka : This division deals with the schisms among the monks or the fraternity based certain discord.
1.2.2 Cullavagga• 8.Vattakhandhaka: it deals with the duties and responsibilities of a resident monk towards the guest or new comer monks both locality and in the forest.• 9.Patimokkhatthapanakhandhaka: This chapter is concerned with the suspensions or exclusion of the Patimokkha introduced by the eight similes of the great ocean.
1.2.2 Cullavagga the eight similes of the great ocean.• The simile method of teaching in the Dhamma is one of the most influential methods of communicating the Dhamma adopted by the Buddha. This method has been used in many discourses. The discourse of the simile of the Ocean ( A. N. ii.47.Paharada Sutta)is one such a discourse. Here the Buddha expounded eight characteristics in the Order which are parallel with the Ocean. According to the Sutta once Paharada, a chief of the Asura (demi-gods "titans" who are hostile towards the gods and often engage in battle with them) came to the Buddha and having saluted the Buddha sat down at aside. After their courteous greetings the Buddha inquired about how many excellent and wonderful things do they perceive in the great Ocean. So Paharada pointed out eight excellent and wonderful things in the great Ocean. He said " There are ,Ven. Sir, eight excellent and wonderful things which we again and again perceive in the great Ocean and therefore take delight in it."
• These are the eight:• 1 The great Ocean, slopes away gradually, falls gradually, inclines gradually, and not in an abrupt way like a precipice.• 2 The great Ocean is stable and does not overflow its boundaries.• 3 The great Ocean does not tolerate a dead body, a corpse. If there is a dead body in it the great Ocean will quickly carry it to the shore cast it on to the land.• 4 When these mighty rivers, like the Ganga, the Yamuna, the Aciravati and the Sarabhu etc reach the great Ocean, they lose their former names and designations, and are reckoned just as the great Ocean.• 5 Though all the streams of the world flow into the great Ocean and rains falls into it from the sky, yet there appears neither a decrease nor an increase in the great Ocean.• 6 The great Ocean has only one taste, that of salt.• 7 In the great Ocean there are many and variegated precious things: There are pearls, gems, lapis, lazuli, shells, quartz, corals, silver, gold, rubies and cats-eyes.• 8 The great Ocean is the abode of vast creatures, the timi, the timingala, the timirapingala, Asuras, Nagas and Gandhabba. There are, in the great Ocean beings one hundred yojanas long or two ,three, four, five hundred yojanas long.
• When the chief of Asura, Paharada said so, explaining the nature of the Order the Buddha said that there were eight excellent and wonderful things in the Order(Teaching and discipline) which the monks again and again perceive and therefore find delight in it. They are as follows:• The Buddha said• 1 " Just as the great Ocean slopes away gradually, falls gradually, inclines gradually, and not in an abrupt way like a precipice, even so Paharada, is this teaching and discipline: there is a gradual training (anupubbasikkha), gradual practice(anupubbakiriya), gradual progress (anupubbapatipada); there is no penetration to highest knowledge in an abrupt way. (It means that taking a leap like a frog, without practicing from the very beginning i.e. the fulfillment of morality(sila) concentration(samadhi) and wisdom(panna) respectively, there is no attainment of Arahantship. One has to practise the Dhamma in due order, No concentration can be gained without morality and there is no cultivation of wisdom without concentration of mind).
2 Just as the great Ocean is stable and does not overflow itsboundaries, even so when I have made known a rule of training to mydisciples ,they will not transgress it even for lifes sake.3 Just as the great Ocean will not tolerate a dead body, a corpse, butquickly carries it to the shore and casts it on to the land; even so theOrder will not tolerate a person who is immoral, of bad character, ofimpure and suspicious conduct, secretive in his actions, not a truerecluse but rather a sham-recluse, not chaste but pretending chastity,rotten to the core , lustful and of vile behaviour. (in such a case) ,theOrder quickly assembles and expels such a person. Even if seated inthe midst of monks assembly, yet he is far from the assembly, yet he isfar from the Order and the order is far from him. (Regarding this, inthis period of decadence of the Sasana we all can see, and have toaccept that there are certain bad elements in the order today. Theyreally are impediments to the Order. They commit even grave offences.But there is no immediate assemble of the community of monks andexpulsion. Undoubtedly stern actions are to be taken by the Head ofthe monks and the regime in power in order to purify the Sasana).
• 4 Just as the might rivers like Ganga and yamuna, on reaching the great Ocean lose their former names and designations and are just reckoned as the great ocean; even so when members of the four castes -nobles, brahmins, burghers, and menials go forth from home into homelessness life in this teaching and discipline proclaimed by the Buddha, they lose their former names and lineage and are reckoned only as recluses of the Son of the Sakyas (samana sakyaputtiya).• 5 Just as in the great ocean neither a decrease nor an increase will appear thought all the streams of the world flow into it and rains fall into it from the sky; even so in the Nibbana element that is without a remainder of substrata of existence; there is no decrease nor increase even if many monks enter it.• 6 Just as the great ocean has only one taste, that of salt ; even so has this teaching and discipline only one taste, the taste of liberation.
• 7 Just as in the great ocean there are many and variegated precious things as pearls, gems, etc, even so there is in this teaching and discipline much that is precious; and there are the precious things init; the four foundations of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the five spiritual powers, the seven factors of enlightenment, the noble Eightfold Path.• 8 Just as the great ocean is the abode of vast creatures the timingala... etc; even so is this teaching and discipline the domain of great beings; the stream-enterer (sotapanna),and he who practises for the realization of the fruition of stream entry(sotapattiphala),the once- returner (sakadagami),and he who practises for the realization of the fruition of once returner(sakadagamiphala),the Non—returner (Anagami) and he who practises for the realization of the fruition of Non—return (Anagamiphala); the Arahant and he who practises for Arahantship.• According to this discourse in the Dhamma, it is crystal clear that there is a gradual training, gradual practice and gradual progress in the Sasana. This is very important in the context of practicing the Dhamma. One should be wise enough to understand the nature of the Dhamma. It is impossible to realize the Dhamma in a hasty manner.• There are three aspects to be followed namely Sila (morality) samadhi(concentration) and wisdom (panna). In keeping with the practical side of them, the Buddha had explained the significance of practicing all three simultaneously, which means that all three mutually support each other. There is little or no possible of reaching the goal (Nibbana) by developing only one aspect of the triad. Therefore let us strive to understand the Dhamma properly and practise it gradually in our daily life.
1.2.2 Cullavagga• 10.Bhikkhunikhandhaka: This chapter deals with the Order of bhikkhunis. It also gives an account of how the order of bhikkhunis came into being and their duties.• 11.Pancasatikakhandhaka: It provides an account of historical event of the first council held at Rajagaha soon after Buddha’s Parinibbana in details. This first synod attended by five hundred Arahant- monks produced a compilation of Tipitaka in oral tradition.• 12.Sattasatikakhandhaka: This division deals with the second synod held at Vesali, attended by 700 monks. It gives an account of how the unified sangha had split into groups as the schools based on ten points of controversy.
1. Regulations for monks and nuns, Vinayapitaka• 1.3 The Parivara contains summaries and classifications of the disciplinary rules. It is a later supplement.
1.3 Parivara• Parivara Pali is the last book of Vinaya Pitaka. It serves as the manual of the instruction in the Vinaya Pitaka.(B C Law, A History of Pali Literature, P. 78) U Ko Lay explicates about it thus, it is compiled in the form of a catechism enabling the reader to make an analytical survey of this Pitaka. All the rules, official acts and other matters of the Vinaya are classified under separate categories according to subjects dealt with.
1.3 Parivara• It provides general principles and guidance for the administrative affairs of the Order. The procedures for settling of disputes and handling matters forming a Sangha court or committee with a body of well-qualified learned Vinayadharas.(U Ko Lay, Guide to Tipitaka, P.14,15)
2. Buddha Discourses and Sermons, Sutta• 2.1 Suttanta Pitaka, is said to be the compilation of the utterances of the Master himself (Dr. C Sharma, A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, P. 71) or the discourses delivered by the Buddha on various occasions in accordance of the situation as well as temperaments of the audience and the main source of the doctrine of the Buddha as expounded in the argument and dialogues.(B C Law, A History of Pali Literature, P. 79) There are also a few discourses delivered by some of his better known disciples such as Sariputta, Ananda, and Moggallana in it. There may be seemingly contradictory statements.
Suttanta Pitaka• In the sutttanta Pitaka are found not only the fundamentals of the Dhamma but also pragmatic guidelines to make the Dhamma meaningful and applicable to daily life.(U Ko Lay, Guide to Tipitaka, P. 16) The systematic practical method of practices as a Noble Path of Eight factors to achieve the goal of Supreme bliss of Nibbana is advocated to us for the spiritual development through threefold training (tisikkha). The threefold training are,
• a) The Training of morality (Sila sikkha) observing the precepts such as five, eight, ten forlaity, 227 for bhikkhus etc is the development of wholesome conducts formoral purity• b) The training of concentration (Samadhi Sikkha) is the purity of mind through tranquility meditation (Samatha bhavana),• c) The training of wisdom (Panna sikkha) is the purity of Insight throughVipassana meditation.• Morals, ethics, discipline, duties, responsibilities, obligat ion, human qualities, cosmology, origin of life, the world beyond are some of the significant subject matters found in this Pitaka.
2. Buddha Discourses and Sermons, Sutta• Most of the sermons were intended mainly for the benefit of Bhikkhus [ascetic monks]. There are several other discourses which deal with both the material and moral progress of His lay followers.• Interspersed are stanzas to illustrate or sum up particular points. Many of the discourses seem drawn out and repetitive, but they were actually made to serve oral transmission and - yes - propaganda. Also, they are hints on how to meditate, with illustrations by excellent similies.
2. Buddha Discourses and Sermons, Sutta• All the sayings of these discourses hardly represent the exact words of Buddha, although some phrases may have been accurately remembered. They can reveal glimpses of the personality and soaring spirit of Buddha.• The grouping of the discourses into collections (nikayas) has no topical basis. The third and fourth nikayas (Samyutta and Anguttara) seem to reflect a later development, they serve to rearrange the topics dealt with in the Digha and Majjhima Nikayas
2. Buddha Discourses and Sermons, Sutta• The five nikayas or collections are: – 1 Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses). – 2 Majjhima Nikaya (Collection of Middle-Length Discourses). – 3 Samyutta Nikaya (Collection of Kindred ( Related )Sayings). – 4 Anguttara Nikaya (Collection of Discourses arranged in accordance with numbers). – 5 Khuddaka Nikaya (Smaller Collection).
2. Buddha Discourses and Sermons, Sutta• 2.1.1 The Digha Nikaya ("Collection of Long Discourses") contains 34 suttas, some of considerable length, presenting a vivid picture of the different aspects of life and thought at Buddhas time. Divided into three books, it contrasts superstitious beliefs, various doctrinal and philosophical speculations, and ascetic practices with Buddhist ethical ideas, which are elucidated with the help of similes and examples taken from the everyday life of the people. One of the most interesting suttantas ("discourses") is the Mahaparinibbana Sutta, which gives an account of the last days of Buddha and stresses the importance of striving for emancipation. (freeing someone from the control of another)
Digha Nikaya• being the first book of Suttanta Pitaka and a collection of long discourses has thirty four suttas. All these suttas are again dividedinto three groups (vaggas) as follows:• (A) Silakkhandha Vagga:The division concerning morality• (B) Maha vagga:The great division• (C) Patika vagga: The Patika division
A) Silakkhandha vagga:• This division is formed with thirteen important suttas which are mostly connected with morality of various types practised basically by the recluses. It also provides explanation about the contemporary wrong views, Hindu view of sacrifice, caste system and the practices considered extremes in Buddhism. Some of the important suttas in this vagga are Brahmajala Sutta, Samannaphala sutta, Kutadanda Sutta, Mahasihanada Sutta, Kevatta Sutta, Tevijja Sutta and so on.
Brahmajala Sutta:• This is the first sutta of Silakkhandha vagga. The wanderer Suppiya speaks ill of the Triple Gem but the Buddha advises monks not to be affected by either praise or blame of the teaching because the ‘worldling’ will praise him for superficial reasons, not for the essence of his teachings. Sixty two different types of wrong view are mentioned here, all of which are based on contact of the six sense-bases and their objects.57 Sassata ditthi, Antananta ditthi, Amaravikkhepavada, Adhiccasamuppannavada, Ditthadhamma nibbanavada are some of those wrong views which are ensnared in Buddha’s in the supreme net.
B) Mahavagga:• This division is comprised another ten long suttas which are some of the most important ones in Tipitaka, dealing with historicaland biographical as well as the doctrinal aspects of Buddhism.(U Ko Lay, Guide to Tipitaka, P. 30) Some of the important suttas in this vagga are Mahaparinibbana Sutta, Mahapadana Sutta, Mahanidana Sutta, Mahasatipatthana Sutta, Payasi,etc.
Mahaparinibbana sutta:• This is one of the longest and more important suttas. It gives narrative accounts of last days of the Buddha. With Ananda, he visits a series of places and gives discourses to monks and laity. Vajjian republican system is praised by Buddha to see as an example for the sangha. He gets ailed having eaten Cunda’s sukara-maddava at Pava. He passes away after giving last instructive words “strive on untiringly-appamadena sampadetha” . (Maurice Walshe, DN, P.59)
C) Pathikavagga:• This section starts with Pathika Sutta and consists of eleven suttas. It mainly deals with rejection of wrong views, futile ascetic practices, Buddhist cosmology, ven.Sariputta’s eulogy to Buddha, universal monarch, thirty two body marks of a great man, social responsibilities etc. some of the important suttas in this vagga are PathikaSutta, Cakkavatti sihanada Sutta, Agganna Sutta, Pasadika sutta,lakkhana sutta, Singala sutta, Sangiti sutta etc.
Pathika sutta:• The name of this division seems to have been named for this sutta. The sutta is about a foolish disciple of the Buddha called Sunakkhatta who leaves the Order having been fascinated some dubious‘holy man’. The Pathikaputta challenges the Buddha to a contest of miracles but he can not even rise from his seat to meet him as the Buddha prophesied. (Maurice Walshe, DN, P.61)
2. Buddha Discourses and Sermons, Sutta• 2.1.2 The Majjhima Nikaya ("Collection of the Middle Length Sayings") contains 152 suttas in its present version, while the Chinese one, preserving the lost Sarvastivada collection, has 222, some of which are also found in other nikayas (collections) of the Pali canon. Like the Digha, the suttas in the Majjhima present Buddhist ideas and ideals, illustrating them by profound similes of beauty.
The Majjhima Nikaya• These suttas of 152 are divided into three divisions (vaggas)as follows:• A) Mulapannasa Pali – The first batch of 50 B) Majjhimapannsa Pali – The middle batch of 50 C) Uparipannasa Pali – The last batch of 52
2. Buddha Discourses and Sermons, Sutta• 2.1.3 The Samyutta Nikaya ("Collection of Kindred Discourses") has altogether 7,762 suttas (P.A.Payutto,2010), classed in 56 divisions (called samyutta) grouped in five parts (vaggas). – 184.108.40.206 The first vagga (part) has suttas that contain stanzas. The suttas begin with a description of the particular occasion when the stanzas were spoken; the stanzas themselves represent a kind of questioning and answering. Sagathavagga (11 Samyuttas) : The book with verses of dialogue
About Tipitaka• According to another classification, mentioned by the Buddha Himself, the whole teaching is ninefold in terms of components, namely-1. Sutta(Discourse) 2. Geyya (Poem) 3. Veyyakarana (Explanation) 4. Gatha(Stanza) 5. Udana (Emotional Utterance) 6. Itivittaka (Thus- saiddiscourses) 7. Jataka (Birth story) 8. Abhutadhamma (Wonder, marvel) 9.Vedalla (Catechism).• (.Dr. K Sri. Dhammananda, What Buddhist Believe, P. 103)
The Samyutta Nikaya– 220.127.116.11 The second vagga deals with the important principle of dependent origination - the chain of cause and effect affecting all things. (Nidanavagga (10 Samyuttas): The book of Causation)– 18.104.22.168 The third vagga presents the anatman (no-self) doctrine, which is the rejection of an abiding principle that could be termed a self or a pure ego.(Khandhavagga (13 Samyuttas): The book of the Aggregates
The Samyutta Nikaya• 22.214.171.124 The fourth vagga is very similar to the previous one, but here it is not the philosophical principle underlying the analysis that is stressed but the transitoriness of the elements constituting reality. (Salayatanavagga (10 Samyuttas): The book of the Six Sense Bases)
The Samyutta Nikaya• 126.96.36.199 The fifth vagga is devoted to a discussion of the basic principles of Buddhist philosophy, religion, and culture. (Mahavagga (12 Samyuttas): The Great Book on 37 Bodhipakkhiya Dhamma. )
2.1.4 The Anguttara Nikaya• 2.1.4 The Anguttara Nikaya ("Collection of the Gradual Sayings") contains as many as 9557 short suttas arranged according to the number of topics discussed, ranging from one to eleven divisions known as Nipatas. (U Ko Lay, guide to Tipitaka, P.107) Each Nipata has sub-chapters containing Suttas arranged in progressive numerical Order. There are three areas in which training is needed: in conduct, concentration, and insight - and [at least] eight worldly concerns: gain, loss, fame, blame, rebuke, praise, pleasure, and pain. Here, too, similes enliven the presentation.
The Khuddaka Nikaya• 2.1.5 The Khuddaka Nikaya ("Collection of Small Texts") is subdivided into fifteen books: -1 Khuddaka-patha ("Small Reading", or Shorter Texts). This is the smallest book in the entire Tipitaka. Compiled for use by primary trainees, its contents are used on various occasions. Two suttas have been borrowed from the Suttanipata , and their recitation is regarded as very auspicious fortunate .
The Khuddaka Nikaya-2 Dhammapada (Way of Truth), also called"Verses on the Dhamma" - This work contains423 verses. Presenting maxims of Buddhistethics, it not only occupies an eminent placein the religious life of the peoples in Buddhistcountries but is also of universal appeal, as itrecommends a life of peace and nonviolenceand declares that enmity can never beovercome by enmity, only by kindness.
The Khuddaka Nikaya– 3 Udana (Paeans of Joy), or "Utterances". This contains 80 utterances attributed to Buddha or his chief disciples, when they had achieved the bliss of their emancipation or spoke in appreciation of a sublime state.– 4 Iti Vuttaka ("Thus said" Discourses), or "Thus Said" - This contains 112 short pieces dealing with ethical principles, such as generosity, good and evil, greed, passion, and malice.
The Khuddaka Nikaya– 5 Sutta Nipata (Collected Discourses), or "Collection of 71 suttas" - This is one of the oldest Buddhist texts in existence today. It is partly in verse, partly in a mixed style of prose and verse. The verse part is of high poetic quality.– 6 Vimana Vatthu (Stories of Celestial Mansions), or “85 Tales of Heavenly Mansions" - This book describes the different abodes of deities, male and female, who are born in the heavens as a result of their former meritorious
The Khuddaka Nikaya– 7 Peta Vatthu (51Stories of Petas), or "Tales of Ghosts" - This work gives an account of the various purgatories and the woes of the beings reborn there as a result of their wicked deeds.– 8 Theragatha (Psalms of the Brethren), or "Hymns of the Elders" - This collection contains songs attributed to 264 personal disciples of Buddha. The songs are said to have been composed when their authors experienced the bliss of emancipation.
The Khuddaka Nikaya– 9 Therigatha (Psalms of the Sisters), or "Hymns of the Senior Bhikkunis" - These are the songs attributed to about 73 female disciples of Buddha. They provide rich material for the study of the position of women at the time of Buddha. Their merit consists in their revealing the deep impression Buddhas teaching made upon their life. A personal tone is unmistakable.
The Khuddaka Nikaya– 10 Jataka (Birth Stories), or "Lives [of Buddha]" - Only the verses are considered to be canonical, while the 525 tales of Buddhas previous lives are considered a later addition. The prose stories contain legends, fables, humorous anecdotes, and short sayings, as well as lengthy romances.– 11 Niddesa (Expositions), or "Exposition" - This work, consisting of two parts, Mahaniddesa(16 Suttas) and Cullaniddesa(16Suttas), actually belongs to the group of commentaries. The last two chapters comment on the Suttanipata.
The Khuddaka Nikaya– 12Patisambhida Magga (Analytical Knowledge), or "The Way of Analysis" - This is a kind of encyclopaedia of the philosophical ideas in the Sutta Pitaka. It is primarily meant for reference and intensive study. (The Sartputta’s explanation)
The Khuddaka Nikaya• 13Apadana (Lives of Arahants), or "Stories" - This is a collection of stories of the previous lives of Buddha, the pratyeka buddhas (who attain enlightenment by themselves and are unconcerned about the enlightenment of others), and the arhats of the early Buddhist sangha, whose Theragatha and Therigatha songs are incorporated and embellished with rich biographical detail. The concluding sentence of each apadana in the collection is intended to show that even the smallest meritorious act has the potentiality of giving vast positive results even after a long time. All the stories are in verse.
The Khuddaka Nikaya– 14 Buddhavamsa (The History of Buddha), or "Lineage of Buddha" - This work relates the lives of 24 previous buddhas, of Gotama (the historical Buddha), and of Metteyya (Sanskrit: Maitreya; the future buddha). According to the text, the stories are told by the historical Buddha himself.– 15 Cariya Pitaka (Modes of Conduct), or "Basket of Conduct" - This collection retells 35 Jatakas (stories of Buddhas previous lives) in verse form, illustrating the bodhisattvas practice of the 10 perfections (paramitas) necessary for the attainment of Buddhahood.
3. Abhidhamma Pitaka of Scholasticism• The Abhidhamma Pitaka ("Basket of Scholasticism") is the third of the three "baskets". It comprises seven works that are based on the contents of Buddhas discourses and deal with selected and specific topics that form the basis for the later philosophical interpretations. The Pali version is a strictly Theravada collection and has little in common with the Abhidhamma works recognized by other schools.
3. Abhidhamma Pitaka of Scholasticism• The Abhidhamma Pitaka contains the profound philosophy of Buddhas teaching in contrast to the illuminating and simpler discourses in the Sutta Pitaka. Narada Thera says, "In the Sutta Pitaka is found the conventional teaching (vohara desana) while in the Abhidhamma Pitaka is found the ultimate teaching (paramattha- desana)."
3. Abhidhamma Pitaka of Scholasticism• In Abhidhamma, consciousness is defined. Thoughts are analyzed and classified from an ethical standpoint mainly. Mental states are enumerated. Mind and matter are discussed, an ethical system is evolved, with the aim of realizing Nibbana.
3. Abhidhamma Pitaka of Scholasticism• The seven books of the Abhidhamma Pitaka in the Pali canon are:• 3.1 Dhammasangani ("Summary of Dhamma" or "Classification of Dhammas), an enumeration of the entities constituting reality.• 3.2 Vibhanga ("Division", or "The book of Divisions), a definition of these entities from various points of view.
3. Abhidhamma Pitaka of Scholasticism• 3.3 Kathavatthu ("Points of Controversy", or "Points of Controversy), a later work discussing the controversial doctrinal points among the various ancient schools.• 3.4 Puggalapannatti ("Designation of Person", or "Descriptions of Individuals), an interesting psychological typology in which people are classified according to their intellectual acumen and spiritual attainments.
3. Abhidhamma Pitaka of Scholasticism• 3.5 Dhatukatha ("Discussion of Elements", or "Discussion with reference to elements), a classification of the elements of reality according to various levels of organization.• 3.6 Yamaka ("Pairs", or "The Book of Pairs), dealing with basic sets of categories arranged in pairs of questions.• 3.7 Patthana ("Activations", or "The Book of Relations), a voluminous work discussing 24 kinds of causal relations.
Conclusion• Buddha teachings consist of Dhamma and Vinaya are categorized into three divisions. Vinaya Pitaka, the division of discipline; Suttanta Pitaka, the division of discourses; Abhidhamma Pitaka, the division of higher teachings or Buddhist psychology.
Conclusion• Vinaya Pitaka contains the rules and regulations for the Community of those who have gone forth from home to homelessness in seek of true liberation from the burden of Samsara called defilements (Kilesa). It has three main complements, namely, (1) Sutta Vibhanga (2) Khandhaka (3)Parivara. Sutta Vibhnaga is divided into two books, Bhikkhu Vibhanga containing 227 rules for bhikkhus and Bhikkhuni Vibhanga containing 311 rules for bhikkhunis.
Conclusion• And Khandhaka is also divided into two books, Mahavagga giving accounts of Buddha’s enlightenment, regulations for monks in various matters and Cullavagga explaining the methods of Vinaya-Kamma, settling disputes, Buddhist synods etc.
Conclusion• Suttanta Pitaka is the collection of Buddha’s discourses preserved in thePali Canon (Bhikkhu Bodhi, In the Buddha’s Words (Anthology of Discourses from the Pali Canon), P. 9,Wisdom containing various aspects of life Publication, USA. ) such as social, economic,educational, secular life, moral, spiritual, humanitarian, psycholog ical, cosmological, universal and so on. It comprises Five major divisions called Nikayas, namely, Digha Nikaya, Majjhima Nikaya, SamyuttaNikaya, Anguttara Nikaya, and Khuddhaka Nikaya.
Conclusion• Digha Nikaya has 34 Suttas divided into three sub- divisions, namely, (1)Silakkhandha Vagga (2) Maha Vagga (3) Pathika Vagga.
Conclusion• MajjhimaNikaya has 152 Suttas divided into three sub- divisions, namely, (1)Mulapannasa (2) Majjhimapannasa and (3) Uparipannasa.
Conclusion• SamyuttaNikaya has 7762 Suttas divided into five sub-divisions, namely, (1)Sagatha Vagga (2) Nidana Vagga (3) Khandha Vagga (4) SalayatanaVagga (5) Maha Vagga.
Conclusion• Anguttara Nikaya has 9557 Suttas divided into eleven Nipatas namely, Ekaka Nipata, Dukaka Nipata, Tika Nipata etc up to Ekadasa Nipata.
Conclusion• Khuddhaka Nikaya, even though literally ‘small’, is the important collection of 15 books of different subject matters. They are (1)Khuddhakapatha (2) Dhammapada (3) Udana (4) Itivuttaka (5)Suttanipata (6) Vimana Vatthu (7) Pet Vatthu (8) Theragatha (9)Therigatha (10) Jataka (11) Niddesa (12) Patisambhidamagga (13)Apadana (14) Buddhavamsa (15) Cariya Pitaka.
Conclusion• Abhidhamma Pitaka is the higher teachings in the sense that it goes beyond the “Conventional Level” of teaching and elaborates the so-called“World of Senses” into “Ultimate Realities”. Whole world with its beings is described into only two categories namely, Mind (Nama) and physicality (Rupa) and this complex happening of mentality and materiality has three phases of time – genesis or birth, cessation or death and a static interval between. (Maha Thera Ladi Sayadaw, The Manuals of Buddhism (The Expositions of the Buddha-Dhamma),P. 61, Mother Ayeyarwaddy Publishing House, Yangon, Myanmar. )
Conclusion• This Pitaka is consists of the seven books namely, (1) Dhammasanghani (2) Vibhanga (3) Dhatukatha (4)Puggalapannati (5) Kathavatthu (6) Yamaka (7) Patthana. Dhammasanghani explains different categories of Kusala, Akusala and Abykatha dhammas. Puggalapannati talks about various temperaments of individuals. Patthana expresses how the happenings take place always “Being Conditioned” by something else under the under the five fold Cosmic Laws.