Essentials of arabic grammar essentials of arabic grammar by brid. zahoor


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Essentials of arabic grammar essentials of arabic grammar by brid. zahoor

  1. 1. ‫إ أ ْ َ ْ َ ُ ُ ْ ً َ َ ِ َ َ ُ ْ َ ْ ُِ ن‬ َ َ ِ Essentials of Arabic Grammar for Learning Quranic Language Brig.(R) Zahoor Ahmed (M.A, M.Sc) This material may be freely used by any one for learning the Holy Qur’an.
  2. 2. “This material may be used freely by any one for learning the Holy Qur’an.” Name of Book : Essentials of Arabic Grammar for Learning Quranic Language By : Brig. (R) Zahoor Ahmed 593 – Chaklala-III, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Tel:+92-51-5766197, Cell:+92-334-5380322 E-mail: Composed by : Muhammad Irshad Tel:+92-51-2875371, Cell:+92-333-5252533 First-Edition : 2008 ISBN : 978-969-9221-00-1 Available at: ISLAMABAD RAWALPINDI LAHORE KARACHI DARUSSALAM Publishers & Distributors Shawaiz Center, F-8 Markaz, Islamabad, Pakistan. Tel/Fax:+92-51-2281513, Cell:+92-321-5370378 E-mail: DAR-UL-ILM Publishers, Booksellers & Translators 699 – Aabpara Market, Islamabad, Pakistan. Tel/Fax:+92-51-2875371, Cell:+92-321-5175371 E-mail: STUDENT BOOKS Shop M-44/F, Bank Road, Saddar, Rawalpindi,Pakistan Tel:+92-51-5516918, Cell:+92-321-5161772 E-mail: Mr. MOHSIN MANZOOR BHATTI 148 – Chaklala-III, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Tel:+92-51-5598658, Cell:+92-321-5181937 E-mail: DARUSSALAM Publishers & Distributors 36 – Lower Mall, Secretariat Stop, Lahore, Pakistan. Tel:+92-42-7240024, Fax:+92-42-7354072 E-mail: DARUSSALAM Publishers & Distributors Z110 (DCHS), Main Tariq Road, Karachi, Pakistan. Tel:+92-21-4393936, Fax:+92-21-4393937 E-mail: edition: Price of printed edition: 200/10/In Pakistan Rs. 200/- Abroad US$ 10/-
  3. 3. Official website of the author, Brig. (R) Zahoor Ahmed where some more free Arabic learning resources are available is: Important Abbreviations: SWT = Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aala SAW = SallAllaahu `alaihi wa sallam RA = RadiyAllaahu `anhu Note: Some pages in the original hard copy were blank, since new chapters started from the right page and if the previous chapter ended in a right page, the next left page was omitted and the next chapter was started from the right page. (Left Page) (Right page) So these blank pages which have been omitted from the online version to save file size and allow quicker download include pages numbered: 6, 28, 38, 44, 52, 74, 86, 94, 128, 140, 144, 148, 158 and 176. Insha’Allah!, soon, even more additional supplements for this book will be available at the official website of the author. Spread this book as much as possible!
  4. 4. Acknowledgement ACKNOWLEDGEMENT All the praises and thanks be to Allah (SWT) with Whose help, guidance and blessings have I been able to accomplish this work. My sincere thanks and prayers for my parents who afforded me the understanding of true Islamic values. ﴾‫א‬ ‫ א‬ª ﴿ I whole- heartedly thank Muhammad Irshad for the laborious work of typesetting, and extend my sincere thanks to Ubaid-ur-Rahman for carrying out the strenuous work of vetting the book. I am grateful to Zeenat Ullah Khan for proof reading of the book, as also Mohsin Manzoor Bhatti for his forthcoming assistance. I acknowledge with appreciation and thanks the contribution made by my wife, Tahira Ahmed, in her own domain. And finally I am most grateful to my Arabic teachers, including Dr. Idrees Zubair (Al-Huda International), Professor Abu Masood Hassan Alvi (Islamic Research Academy), Ubaid-ur-Rahman (Vice Principal, Institute of Arabic Language), Professor Abdus-Sattar (Allama Iqbal Open University), and Professor Asma Nadeem (National University of Modern Languages), who taught me the language of the Glorious Quran. May Allah (SWT) reward them all with the highest reward. Ħ ‫ א‬ª ğ‫و د א ن א‬  I
  5. 5. Contents CONTENTS Lesson– Lesson–1: Lesson– Lesson–2: Lesson– Lesson–3: Lesson–4: Lesson– ..................................... ................................ ..... Preface – Parts of Speech – ‫................... م א‬ The Noun ............................................ The Verb.............................................. The Harf .............................................. The Vowels.......................................... The Verbal Noun ................................. The Gender of Noun – Ğ‫................. א‬ Real Gender......................................... Formal Gender..................................... Exceptional Cases ................................ Common Gender ................................. The Number of Nouns – Ú ‫......... د א‬ Wahid or Mufrad ................................. Tathniyah............................................. The Plural of Nouns and Adjectives...... The Sound Plural in Arabic................... The Broken Plural ................................ The Pronouns – ‫.......................... א‬ Pronouns Attached to a Verb................ Possessive Pronouns ............................ Demonstrative Pronouns...................... The Relative Pronouns ......................... Interrogative Pronouns ......................... 1 7 7 8 8 9 10 13 13 13 14 16 17 17 17 17 18 19 21 23 25 26 26 27 I
  6. 6. Contents Lesson–5: The Irab of Nouns – ª‫א‬ Lesson– ‫92 ..................... א‬ ğ ª‫03 ..................................... א א‬ ú‫ و‬ğ‫ א‬ª‫23 ....................................... א א‬ Declinable ........................................... 34 Indeclinable......................................... 36 Lesson– Lesson–6: The Adjective Phrase – ...... 39 .......................................... 39 ‫م‬ .............................................. 39 Lesson– Lesson–7: The Relative Phrase – .......... 45 Lesson– Phrase– Lesson–8: The Demonstrative Phrase– ... 49 Lesson– Lesson–9: The Genitive Phrase – ........... 53 Inseparable Prepositions....................... 53 Separable Prepositions ......................... 55 Lesson 10: Lesson–10: The Sentence – Ğ‫95 ............................ א‬ The Nominal Sentence......................... 59 The Verbal Sentence ............................ 59 Types of the Mubtada........................... 61 The Omission of the Mubtada/ the Khabar................................................. 65 Types of the Khabar ............................. 65 Lesson–11: Lesson–11: Some Particles of Various Origin ............. 69 Lesson–12: Tense Lesson–12: The Verb – Perfect Tense – ‫א‬ ‫57 .... א‬ The Active and Passive of Madi............ 82 Lesson–13: Lesson–13: The Verbal Sentence – ‫ א‬Ğ‫78 ........ א‬ The Nominal Sentence......................... 87 The Verbal Sentence ............................ 87 The Object .......................................... 88 Lesson–14: Lesson–14: The Imperfect Tense - ‫א ع‬ ‫59 ........... א‬ Six Groups of Triliteral Verbs ............... 101 Moods of Verb..................................... 104 II
  7. 7. Contents The Imperative Tense – ‫511 .............. א‬ FormThe Derived Verbal Form-I– ... 121 FormThe Derived Verbal Form-II – ْ ª ...... 129 FormThe Derived Verbal Form-III – ª ..... 133 FormThe Derived Verbal Form-IV – ª .... 137 FormThe Derived Verbal Form-V – ª .... 141 FormThe Derived Verbal Form-VI – ‫ א‬ª ... 145 FormThe Derived Verbal Form-VII – ْ ‫ א‬ª ... 149 Derived FormThe Derived Verbal Form-VIII – ْ ‫ א‬ª ... 153 FormThe Derived Verbal Form-IX – ْ ‫ א‬ª . 155 The Unsound Verbs – ‫951 ..................... א‬ The Sound Verbs.................................. 159 The Weak Verbs .................................. 159 The Mahmuz ....................................... 160 The Muda’af ........................................ 160 Lesson–26: Duplicated Lesson–26: The Hamzated and Duplicated Radical Verbs – ‫771 ............................ א ز وא‬ The Mahmuz ....................................... 177 The Muda’af ........................................ 179 Lesson–27: The Numerals – ‫581 ............................. א د‬ Lesson–27: Lesson–28: Lesson–28: The Nouns in Accusative – ª ‫391 ........ א‬ ........................................... Conclusion ................................ ........... 203 Lesson–15: Lesson–15: Lesson–16: Lesson–16: Lesson–17: Lesson–17: Lesson–18: Lesson–18: Lesson 19: son– Lesson–19: Lesson–20: Lesson–20: Lesson–21: Lesson–21: Lesson–22: Lesson–22: Lesson–23: Lesson–23: Lesson–24: Lesson–24: Lesson–25: Lesson–25:  III
  8. 8. Preface ‫א‬ ‫א א‬ (In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful) Islam is the divine system of guidance for all human being on the earth, and the Prophet, Muhammad (SAW) is the universal messenger of Allah (SWT), as revealed in chapter 34,verse 28 of the Holy Quran. ﴾‫ن‬ ‫س‬ ً ¯ ْ ‫﴿و‬ ‫ْ א س‬ ‫אو אو‬ ً ً “And We (Allah) have not sent you (O Muhammad (SAW)) except as a giver of glad tidings and a warner (against sin) to all mankind. But most of people know not” Likewise, the book of guidance, al-Quran is a divine treasure of knowledge and a universal code of conduct in Arabic for salvation of the entire humanity, as revealed in the following two verses of the Holy Quran: ﴾‫ن‬ ً ْ ﴿ “Verily, We (Allah) have sent it down as an Arabic Quran in order that you may learn wisdom”. [12/1] ﴾‫ن‬ ْ ‫وא‬ ‫ل‬ ْ‫א‬ ‫نא‬ ª ‫سو‬ ﴿ ‫אْ ن‬ “Ramadan is the month in which was sent down the Quran, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs 1
  9. 9. Preface for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong)”. [2/185] We can derive benefits from this divine source of knowledge and guidance only if we learn the Quranic language. It must be clearly understood that reading of translation of the Book is, at best, a poor substitute to learning the Quranic language. One cannot understand the exact meaning and the spirit of the divine revelation without understanding the text of the Book. Infact, Allah (SWT) has repeatedly stressed on the ponderability of His message, which is not possible without having an insight knowledge of the language. The following two verses necessitate the understanding of the divine message directly from the Arabic text. ﴾ª ْ ‫و א‬ ‫و‬ ‫وא‬ ¯ ْ ª ﴿ “(This is) a Book (the Quran) which we have sent down to you, full of blessings that they may ponder over its message, and that men of understanding may receive admonition.” [38/29] ﴾ ْ ª ‫ون א ْ ن م‬ ﴿ “Do they not then think deeply in the Quran, or are their hearts locked up (from understanding it).” [47/24] In truth, it is the ‘Haq’ (right) of the divine message to be recited in the best possible manner, and be understood in the right perspective, as has been highlighted in the following verse: 2
  10. 10. Preface ‫و‬ ْ‫א‬ ﴾‫ون‬ ª ْ‫א‬ ‫و‬ ْ ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ ‫﴿א‬ ‫و‬ “Those to whom we have sent the Book recite it (obey its orders and follow its teachings) as it should be recited they are the ones who believe therein. And those who disbelieve in it (the Quran) those are they who are the loosers.” [2/121] In this verse the Arabic verb ‘yatlu’, in fact, cannot be translated in one word in any other language, which implies ‘recitation, understanding and obeying’. This verse has emphasized the understanding of the text of the Book by the believers, and further added that ‫ن‬ ‫و‬ ‘they are the ones who (really) believe therein’, implying thereby that, those who do not recite it as it deserves to be recited, they do not have sincere faith in the Holy Quran. Unfortunately, most of the non-Arab believers, particularly the Pakistanis, do not understand the Arabic text of the Book. It is important for the learner to know that the Arabic is very easy to learn as it is a highly sophisticated language based on very refined and systematic set of rules and patterns. This fact is confirmed by Allah (SWT) in the following verse: ﴾ ْ ‫אْ ن‬ ‫﴿و‬ “And we have indeed made the Quran easy to understand and remember, then is there any that will remember (and receive admonition)”. [54/17] 3
  11. 11. Preface It is an open challenge for all those who are in search of truth. Nevertheless, it does require consistent effort, with a sense of purpose and commitment, to attain this most important treasure of knowledge for the mankind, and the following tradition of the prophet (SAW) rightly accords a very high status to the learner of the Holy Quran. EE? W‫ن ل‬ ‫אْ ن و‬ ‫ن‬ FF ?W ‫لא‬ ‫ل‬ Uthman ibn ‘Affan (RA) relates that the messenger (SAW) of Allah said: “The best among you are those who have learnt the Quran and teach it (to others)“. [Al-Bukhari] The aim of this book is to enable the learner to acquire an insight knowledge of the Quranic language with a view to understanding the text of the Holy Quran. In all, this book has 28 lessons. I have tried to make it as simple as I could. During the course of study the learner should acquire the vocabulary right from the start of the book. All the words and phrases used in the lessons should be understood and remembered so that he or she can muster sufficient vocabulary to enable him or her to construct simple phrases and sentences from an early stage of the study. Besides, the learner should recite a page or two from the Holy Quran regularly, and try to apply the grammatical aspects of the language to the verses of the Quran as an exercise. 4
  12. 12. Preface The verbal forms and pronouns of Arabic grammar are generally considered difficult to understand or remember. The learners are advised to concentrate in the beginning only on the third person masculine singular and plural forms, the second person masculine singular and plural forms and both the first person forms in the given tables, and skip over the verbal forms and pronouns of the feminine gender (except the singular forms) and the dual forms E F, as these forms are not frequently used in the Holy Quran. In the given tables of conjugation I have included all the forms of the verbs and the pronouns, essentially as ready reckoners for the learners. And finally the most important advice to the learner is that he or she should seek the guidance and help of Almighty Allah through supplications such as: ﴾ ‫و‬K ª ‫א‬ª ﴿ “O my Lord! Expand for me my chest (grant me selfconfidence, contentment, and boldness). And ease my task for me”. [20/25-26]  5
  13. 13. ‫س א ول‬ ‫ א‬Lesson 1 ْ‫ْ م א‬ PARTS OF SPEECH We start the Arabic lessons from the very beginning. A meaningful word in Arabic is called Kalimah ( ). It has only three parts. In other words there are only three parts of speech in Arabic. These are; ‫( א‬Noun, literally ‘name’): It is that word which does not need the help of another word to explain its meaning. It is the name of a person, a place or a thing, and the term Ism includes the ‫ א‬as well, e.g. ‘Muhammad’, ْ ‫‘ و‬William’, ‫ج‬ ‘George’, ‫ز‬ adjective nouns ‘Ahmad’, ‘Zenab’, ‫ن‬ ‘Aishah’, ‘Pakistan’, ‫ن‬ ‘the house’, book’, leaf’, ‫م‬ ‘Maryam’, ‘London’, ‫‘ א‬the Mosque’, Ğ‫‘ א‬the garden’, ‘Tahirah’, ‘France’, ‘a pen’, ª ْ‫א‬ ْ ‫‘ א‬the ‘Kaba’, ‫‘ א ْ ق‬the paper/ Ğ‫‘ א‬the body’, ‘a hand’, ‘a shirt’, ‫‘ א‬the cave’, ‫‘ א‬the chair’, ‫‘ م‬a foot’, ‫‘ א‬the girl’, ‫‘ و‬a boy’, ‘a student’, ‘a man’, ‫‘ س‬a horse’, ‫‘ א‬the eye’, ‫‘ ذن‬an ear’, ‫‘ א‬the Muslim’, ‫‘ א‬the non-believer of Islam’, ‫א‬ ‘a Christian’, ‫د‬ ‘a Jew’. ‘food’, ‘a shade’, 7
  14. 14. Parts of Speech ‫א‬ ‘the pious/ disobedient’, Knowledgeable’, ‫‘ א‬the old’, righteous person’, ‘a helper’, ‘a poet’, ‘a ‫‘ א‬the Ğ‫‘ א‬the Ignorant’, Ğ‫‘ א‬the new’, ‫‘ א‬The All Hearing’, ‫‘ א‬The All Knowing’, etc. (Verb): It is that word by which we understand some work or action being done. It is of three kinds/ tenses: 1 The perfect tense, the Madi E ‫א‬F is used for an action which is completed, e.g. ‘he wrote’, ‫‘ د‬he entered’. 2 The imperfect tenses the Madari E‫ع‬ an action is not completed, e.g. is doing or he will do’, will write’, ‘he did’, ‫א‬F used when ْ ‘he does or he ْ ‘he writes/is writing/ ‘he enters/is entering/will enter’. 3 The imperative tense or the Amr E ‫א‬F which signifies command, request or supplication, e.g. ْ ‫א‬ ‘do’, ْ ‫‘ א‬write’, ‫‘ אد‬enter’. ú (Harf): The particle, preposition and conjunction are called harf. It is that word which is used with noun or verb to complete the meaning of the sentence; its meaning will depend on the word with which it is used, e.g. ‘in’, etc. 8 ‘regarding’, ‘yes’, ‘no’, ‘on’, ‘that/ what’,
  15. 15. Parts of Speech (Meaningful Word) ú ‫א‬ Particle, Preposition, Conjunction (Verb) (Noun) Further explanation and information about the Ism, the Fail and the Harf will follow in the subsequent lessons. Vowels (ª –Harkaat): Harkaat): The vowels used in Arabic are called ª are explained below: 1 ğ‫ א‬which (Fathah): Signed as ‫ ﹷ‬on top of a letter and pronounced as ‘a’ in ‘above’. 2 (Kasrah): Signed as ‫ﹻ‬ under a letter and pronounced as ‘i' in ‘if’. 3 (Dammah): Signed as ‫ ﹹ‬on top of a letter and pronounced as ‘u’ in “put”. 4 ‫ن‬ (Sukun): Signed as ‫ ﹿ‬on top of a letter as ‘stop’ or ‘stress’; it indicates that the consonant is vowelless, e.g, (kun), ª (abb), (mun). 5 (‘N’ sound): Signed as double vowel ‫– ,– ,ﹱ‬ ٍ ٌ as indicated is called tanwin, e.g. ً (kitaban), ª (kitabin), ª (kitabun). Remember that a word with tanwin is always a noun E ‫א‬F, also a word having (al) ‫ אل‬in the beginning is an indication of its being a noun, however, it does not necessarily 9
  16. 16. Parts of Speech mean that a word without ‘al’ or tanwin will not be a noun ‫ .א‬This is evident from the examples of nouns mentioned above where certain words have neither tanwin nor ‘al’, yet they are nouns. It should be noted that the tanwin and ‘al’ never come together on a noun. If ‘al’ comes in the beginning of a noun then its case-ending will be single vowel, not tanwin, e.g.. it may be ª (a book) or ª ْ ‫א‬ (the book). It is incorrect to say ª ‫.א‬ The Verbal Noun E ‫א‬F ‫א‬F: The verbal noun or noun of action may also be used as ‫ ,א‬e.g. ‘help’ (literally helping), ª ‘a blow’ (literally striking), ‫د‬ ‘prayer’ (literally praying), ‘order’ (literally ordering). The Arabic definite article ‘‫( ’אل‬al) corresponds to the English definite article ‘the’. The Arabic indefinite article tanwin is dropped when the definite article ‘al’ is prefixed to a noun, e.g. (baitun) ‘a house’ becomes ‫( א‬albaitu) ‘the house’, (jamalun) ‘a camel’ to Ğ‫א‬ (aljamalu) ‘the ‘camel’. Arabic has 28 alphabets or letters; of these, 14 are called the Sun Letters E ‫ א‬ú‫ و‬ğ‫א‬F and the other 14 are called the Moon Letters E ‫ א‬ú‫ و‬ğ‫א‬F. In the moon letters the lam E‫ل‬F of al is pronounced, e.g. ‫( א‬al-qamaru’). While in the sun letters the lam of al is assimilated to the first letter of the noun, e.g. ‫( א‬ash-shamsu). The assimilation is indicated by (shadda, –) on the first letter ّ 10
  17. 17. Parts of Speech of the noun. A table showing the moon letters and the sun letters is given below. Lunar Letters The mother The door The garden The donkey The bread The eye The lunch The mouth The moon The dog The water The boy The air The hand ‫ א‬ú‫ و‬ğ‫א‬ al-ummu – ‫א م‬ al-baabu – ª ْ ‫א‬ al-Jannatu – Ğ‫א‬ al-himaru – ğ‫א‬ al-khubzu – Ġ‫א‬ al-ainu – ‫א‬ al-ghadau – ‫א א‬ al-famu – ‫א‬ al-qamaru – ‫א‬ al-kalbu – ْ ‫א‬ al-maau – ‫א‬ al-waladu – ‫א‬ al-hawau – ‫א א‬ al-yadu – ‫א‬ Solar Letters The trader ath-thoubu – ª The house ‫א‬ ad-daaru – ‫א א‬ The gold ad-dahbu – The man ar-rajulu – The flower az-zahratu – The fish as-samaku – ‫ع‬ ‫غ‬ ú ‫ق‬ ¯ ‫م‬ ‫و‬ J J J J J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 J J J J J J J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ‫ א‬ú‫ و‬ğ‫א‬ at-taajiru – The clothing ª ‫ج‬ ª J J J J J J J J J ‫א‬ ª ‫א‬ ‫د‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ز‬ ‫س‬ 11
  18. 18. Parts of Speech The sun The chest The guest The student The injustice The meat The star ash-shamsu – ‫א‬ ad-daifu – ‫א‬ at-talibu – ‫א‬ az-zulmu – ْ ‫א‬ al-lahmu – ‫א‬ an-najmu – ‫א‬ as-sadru –  12 ‫א‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ن‬ J 8 J 9 J 10 J 11 J 12 J 13 J 14
  19. 19. ‫سא‬ ‫ א‬Lesson 2 ْ‫א‬ THE GENDER OF NOUNS This lesson explains the different categories of gender used for Arabic nouns. According to the Arabic grammar the gender is classified into the following four categories: ْ‫א‬ Ğ‫( א‬Real Gender): The words related to the male sex are (♂) masculine, and those related to the female sex are (female ♀), e.g. ‘man’ is a real masculine and ‘woman’ is a real feminine, ‫‘ د‬cock’, ‫‘ د‬hen’, ‘boy’, ‘girl’, ª ‘father’, ‫‘ م‬mother’, ‘brother’, ‘sister’, etc. ‫ز‬ ْ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫و‬ Ğ‫( א‬Formal Gender): The nouns which do not have the ‘concept of pair’ are termed as feminine or masculine by form Ğ‫א‬F E ‫ ز‬Ó‫ .א‬The identification of gender for such noun is that the words ending with ‘round-ta’ E F are generally feminine, and those ending with some other letter are assumed as masculine gender, e.g. ‘watch’, ‫و‬ ‘fan’, ‘tree’, ‘car’, ‘garden’, ‘sign’, ‘life’, ‘window’ are 13
  20. 20. The Gender of Nouns feminine gender by form, and ‫א‬ ‘wall’, ª ‘book’, ‘pen’, ‫אط‬ ‘path’, ‘mosque’, ‘house’, ‘chair’, ‘canal’, ª ‘door’, etc. are considered masculine gender by form. It may also be understood that feminine gender is often formed from the masculine by suffixing ‘ ’, e.g. ‘Muslim’ (♂), ‘Muslim’ (♀), ‘disbeliever’ (♀), ‫دق‬ (♂), ‘truthful’ (♀), ‘student’ (♀), (♂), ‘new’ (♂), ‘old’ (♀), ‘many’ (♂), ْ ‫א‬ ‫د‬ ‘truthful’ (♂), ‘pious’ (♂), ‫‘ א‬daughter’ (♀), ‘son’ (♂), ‘disbeliever’ ‘pious’ (♀), ‫א‬ ‘student’ (♂), ‘new’ (♀), ‘long’ (♂), ‘old’ ‘long’ (♀), ‘many’ (♀), etc. ْ ‫( א‬Exceptional Cases): The nouns which do not fall under the abovementioned two categories are termed as exceptional cases. The following nouns are feminine by usage even though they have no ‘ ’ (ta) ending nor have they ‘pairconcept’. 1 ‘sky’, ª ‘war, battle’, ‘sun’, ‘fire’, ‘hell’, ‘wind’, ‘wine’, ْ ‘soul, person, self’, ‫‘ دא‬house’, ‘well’, ‫‘ ْس‬cup’, ً ‘staff’, ª ‘an idol, a tyrant, devil’, ‘dream’, ‫‘ ض‬earth’, ‘path’, ْ ‫‘ د‬bucket’. 2 Proper names of countries and towns are feminine by signification, e.g. ‘Egypt’, ‫ن‬ 14
  21. 21. The Gender of Nouns ‘Pakistan’, ‘Lahore city’, ‫‘ وא‬Washington’, ‫‘ א אق‬Iraq’, etc. ‘America’, 3 Many parts of the body, especially those that are in pair, are termed as feminine, e.g. ‘hand’, ‘eye’, ‫‘ م‬foot’, ‘leg’, ‫‘ ق‬shin’, ‫‘ ذن‬ear’, ‘cheek’. 4 The nouns ending in ‘ ’, ‘ ’ called (short alif) or ‫ _א‬called ‫ود‬ are also feminine, e.g. ‘great’, ‘desert’, ‫א‬ ‫א‬ (lengthened alif) ‘good, beautiful’, ‘small’, ‫א‬ ‘good news’, ‘harm’, ‫‘ ز א‬blooming’, ‘green’, ْ ‘white’, ‫‘ ز‬blue’, etc. 5 All Arabic letters of alphabet are considered as feminine. 6 Some broken plurals, e.g. ‫د‬ ‫‘ א‬the Jews’, ‫‘ א‬the messengers’, ‫‘ א‬the Christians’ are treated as feminine. 7 Some collective nouns, e.g. ‫‘ م‬people’, ‘tribe’ are used as feminine. However, ‘family’, ‫ل‬ ‘progeny’ are masculine. 8 Exceptional Masculine: Some nouns have ta ‘ ’ ending but they are used as masculine, e.g. ‘caliph’, ‘learned’, ‘a male name’, ‘a male name’. Some parts of body (single), e.g. ‫ْس‬ ‘head’, ‘tooth’, ْ ‘belly’, ‘chest’, etc. are also considered exceptional masculine. 15
  22. 22. The Gender of Nouns ْ‫א‬ Gender): ‫( א‬Common Gender): Some nouns are used as masculine as well as feminine. These are termed as ْ ‫ ,א א‬e.g. ª ‘clouds’, ‘cattle’, ‫‘ אد‬locust’, ‫‘ ذ‬gold’, ‘bees’, ‘trees’. These are masculine by form, feminine by signification. An Explanation Regarding Exceptional Cases: Here, I would like to clarify an important point regarding the exceptional cases in the grammatical rules. The learner should be mindful of the fact that the languages have not come into being through an academic process based on some predetermined sets of grammatical rules and forms but, on the contrary, the languages are spoken by the natives of the region long before the grammarians form the grammatical rules applicable to them. And the object of framing grammatical rules is essentially to facilitate the learning and better understanding of the languages by the non-natives or the foreigners. But, where they fail to apply uniform sets of grammatical rules, they categorize that as exceptional case. Hence, the exception-rule is a common feature to all the languages. Having said that, I must hasten to emphasis that the grammarians of Arabic language have contributed tremendously in facilitating the learning process of the language. In fact, they have developed an easy and effective method of learning the classic Arabic of the Holy Quran. Hence, their efforts cannot be undermined in any way.  16
  23. 23. ‫سא‬ ‫ א‬Lesson 3 Ú ‫دא‬ THE NUMBER OF NOUNS Unlike English, Arabic has three numbers: singular is termed wahid E ‫وא‬F or Mufrad E‫ ْ د‬F, the dual or two of anything is termed tathniyah E F, and more than two is plural called Jam E F. Wahid E ‫وא‬F ‫وא‬F or Mufrad E‫ ْ د‬F: ‫و‬ Examples of Wahid E ‫,א‬ ‫,א‬ ‫, د ق ,و‬ Tathniyah E , ‫,א‬ ‫وא‬F or Mufrad E‫ ْ د‬F are: ª ‫,א‬ , , , ‫,א‬ ‫,א‬ ‫,א‬ , ‫,א‬ ‫ ,א‬etc. F: The dual form ends in aani E‫ ن‬F, e.g. ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫אن‬ ‫ن ,א‬ , ‫ن , אن , ن‬ ‫ن , د ن ,و אن ,א‬ ‫ ,א‬etc. , ‫ن‬ ‫ن ,א‬ ‫ن ,א‬ ‫ن ,א‬ , ‫ن‬ ‫,א‬ ‫,א‬ ‫,א‬ The Plurals of Nouns and Adjectives: In English, adjectives have no plural form. We say “good man” and “good men”. But in Arabic even adjectives have dual and plural form. In English we have two kinds of plural form: 17
  24. 24. The Number of Nouns 1 Sound Plural: In sound plural the word retains its original form, e.g. book books, pen pens. 2 Broken Plural: The original form of the word is changed to a great extent, e.g. Man men, woman women. In Arabic too, we have these two kinds of plural forms; Sound and Broken. The Sound Plural in Arabic E ‫א‬ ‫א‬F ْ ‫א‬F: 1 The masculine plural of nouns are formed by adding ‫ _ون‬to the singular form e.g. ‫ن‬ , ‫א‬ ‫‘ ق ,א ن‬thief’ ‫ن‬ , ‘ignorant’ ‫ن‬ , ‘wise’ ‫ن‬ , ‫ن‬ , ‫א‬ ‘patient’ ‫ون‬ ‫‘ א دق ,א‬truthful’ ‫ ,א د ن‬etc. 2 The feminine plural of nouns which end in _, are formed by changing ‘ ’ (ta) into ‘ª ’ (aat) as, ª ‘♀ thief’ ª‫א‬ , ‘watch’ ‘protector’ ª , ª ‫, و‬ ª ‫.د‬ ª (plural), ª ª , , ‘window’ ‘evil’ ª , , ª , ‘word’ ª , ª‫‘ و , א‬fan’ ‫‘ د‬step/status’ The ♀ plural of nouns which do not end in _ are also formed by adding ‘ª‫ ’א‬to the singular as in (name) 18 ª , ‘sky’ ª‫وא‬ .
  25. 25. The Number of Nouns The Broken Plural E ْ ‫א‬ F: Unlike English, the broken plural is very widely used in Arabic. It is formed from the singular by the addition or elision of consonants, e.g. from ‫ل‬ ‫ل‬ , from , or by the change of vowels, e.g. . There are many patterns of the broken plural. The following are commonly used patterns: No 1 Bab ª ‫ل‬ ‫د‬ as from 2 3 4 5 Singular as from ‫ل‬ ‫ْ ل‬ ْ Ù ‘star’ ª ْ 7 ‫م‬ ‫ א‬ ‘book’ as from ‘man’ as from ‘pen’ as from ‘poor’ as from ‘rich’ ‫ل‬ ‫ْ م‬ ‘eye’ as from 6 Broken Plural ‫ن‬ 8 as from 9 as from ‘building’ as from ‘country’ as from ْ ‘brother’ as from ‫א‬ ‘trader’ 10 ‫ن‬ 11 12 ‫ل‬ ‘Satan’ ‫زل‬ ‫ْ אن‬ Note: It is quite common for a noun in Arabic to have more than one broken plurals, e.g. the plural of ‘brother’ are ‫, אن‬ , ‫, אن‬ , or in some cases to have 19
  26. 26. The Number of Nouns both the sound plural and broken plural e.g. in the case of (prophet), its sound plural is ‫ن‬ and broken plural is .  20
  27. 27. ‫سא א‬ ‫ א‬Lesson 4 ‫א‬ THE PRONOUNS The pronoun is a word used in place of a noun, e.g. ‘he’, ‘they’, ¯ ‘your’, ‘she’, ‘you’, ‘we’, ‘his’, ‘her’, ‘my’, etc. They are of two kinds; the Detached Pronouns, called , e.g. ‘he’ ‘he is a student’ and the Attached Pronouns, called , e.g. ‘his’ ‘his book’, etc. For detailed conjugation of the detached pronouns see Table-1. The attached pronouns are either attached to a noun or a verb, as shown in tables 2 3. Table – 1 Detached Personal Pronouns SINGULAR Person 3rd Person (♂) ) Person 3rd Person (♀) ) DUAL ‫ن‬ PLURAL ª he is a they are they are student students students ‫ن‬ ª she is a they are they are student students students 21
  28. 28. The Pronouns Person 2nd Person (♂) ) Person 2nd Person (♀) ) Person 1st Person (♂♀) ) ‫ن‬ you are a student ª you are students you are students ‫ن‬ you are a student L ª you are students L‫ن‬ I am a student you are students Lª ª ‫ن‬ we are students we are students Note: Concentrate on the underlined forms only in the beginning, and skip over the remaining forms as these are not frequently used in the Holy Quran. Table – 2 Pronouns attached to a noun with E ‫א‬FPossessive Relations SINGULAR DUAL PLURAL Person 3rd Person (♂) ) his book their book their book Person 3rd Person (♀) ) her book their book their book your book your book your book your book your book my book our book our book nd Person 2 Person (♂) ) nd Person 2 Person (♀) ) ¯ your book ¯ st Person 1 Person (♂♀) ) 22
  29. 29. The Pronouns Note: Concentrate on the underlined forms only in the beginning, and skip over the remaining forms as these are not frequently used in the Holy Quran. Pronouns Attached to a Verb: Pronouns attached to a verb become its Direct Object, e.g. ª means ‘he struck’, ‘he’ is a subject and ‘struck’ is a verb; with the addition of an attached pronoun ‘him’ would become the object of the verb ª . For usage of Attached Pronouns to a verb see Table 3. Table – 3 Object. Pronouns Attached to a Verb as its Direct Object. SINGULAR Person 3rd Person (♂) ) Person 3rd Person (♀) ) Person 2nd Person (♂) ) Person 2nd Person (♀) ) Person 1st Person (♂♀) ) DUAL PLURAL He struck him/it. He struck them. He struck them. He struck her/it. He struck them. He struck them. He struck you. He struck you. He struck you. He struck you. He struck you. He struck me He struck us. He struck us. ¯ He struck you.. ¯ 23
  30. 30. The Pronouns Note: Concentrate on the underlined forms only in the beginning, and skip over the remaining forms as these are not frequently used in the Holy Quran. Some other examples of frequently used Attached pronouns are given below: ‘my hand’, e.g. ª ‫‘ א‬the book is in my hand’. – ‫‘ א‬my two hands’, e.g. ْ ْ ‫א‬ ‫‘ א‬my two hands are on the table’. – literally ‘between my hands’ i.e. ‘in front of me’, e.g. ‫‘ א‬the tree is in front of me’. – ‘on me or my responsibility’, e.g. ‘his – – – – – – account is on me’. ‘with them/by them’, e.g. ‫‘ א‬the books are with them’. ‘to me or for me’, e.g. ‘my action is for me’ i.e. I am responsible for my action. ‘to you or for your’, e.g. ‫‘ و‬and your action is for you’ i.e. you are responsible for your action. ‘to him, for him’, e.g. ْ ‫‘ א ْ ْ و א‬to Him (Allah) belongs the universe and for Him is all the Praise’, ْ ‫‘ א‬he is right or he has the right’. ‘with’, e.g. ‘we have books’, ‘I have a car’. Note that in Tables 1, 2 3 the second persons ♂♀ dual and the third persons ♂♀ dual are identical. 24
  31. 31. The Pronouns Important Note: Concentrate in the beginning only on the 3rd Person masculine singular plural forms, the 2nd Person masculine singular plural forms, and both the 1st person forms, and skip over the verbal forms and pronouns of the feminine gender (except the singular forms) and the dual forms as these are not frequently used in the Holy Quran. Possessive Pronouns: The word ‫ א‬is prefixed to the Attached Pronouns. The word ‫ א‬confines the meaning to ‘only/alone’, e.g. ¯ ﴿ ﴾ ¯ ‫و‬ “You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help”[1/4]. For usage of Possessive Pronouns with see Table 4. Table – 4 Possessive Pronouns SINGULAR DUAL PLURAL Person 3 Person (♂) ) He alone Both of them They alone Person 3rd Person (♀) ) She alone Both of them They only Both of you All of you You alone Both of you All of you I alone We alone We alone rd Person 2nd Person (♂) ) Person 2nd Person (♀) ) ¯ ¯ You alone ¯ ¯ st Person 1 Person (♂♀) ) 25
  32. 32. The Pronouns Note: Concentrate on the underlined forms only in the beginning, and skip over the remaining forms as these are not frequently used in the Holy Quran. Demonstrative Pronouns ‫א‬ ‫:א‬ The demonstrative pronouns are listed below: ‫א‬ ‫א‬ Near ْ Distant ْ Singular ‫א‬ Dual Plural ♂ this ‫אن‬ ♂ these two ♀ this ‫ن‬ ♀ these two (♂♀) these ‫ ♂ ذ‬that ْ ♀that ‫ ♂ ذא‬those two ‫و‬ ♀ those two (♂♀) these Note: Concentrate on the underlined forms. The Relative Pronouns ‫ل‬ ‫א‬ ‫:א‬ ‫,א‬ ‫ ,א‬etc. are used as The relative pronouns conjunction, meaning ‘that, which, who, whom’. They serve the purpose of joining nouns/pronouns or verbs to other nouns or verbs. They have a definite form as given below: SINGULAR DUAL For Male ‫א‬ ‫אن‬ ‫א‬ For Female ‫א‬ ‫ن‬ ‫א‬ PLURAL Note: Concentrate on the underlined forms. 26 ‫א‬ ‫א‬L ‫א‬
  33. 33. The Pronouns Examples: ْ‫א‬ – ‫ج‬ ‫א‬ ْ ‫‘ א‬The boy who went out of the Mosque is a student’. – ‫ن‬ ْ ْ‫א‬ ‫א‬ the office are teachers’. ْ‫א‬ – ‫لא‬ ‫א‬ ‫‘ א‬The men who left ْ ‫‘ א‬The girl who left the house is a student’. – ﴾ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ﴿ “He is Allah, beside Whom la Ilaha illa Howa (none has the right to be worshipped but He)”. [59/293] – ﴾‫ن‬ ‫ن א‬ ْ‫א‬ ْ ﴿ “Successful indeed are the believers, those who offer their Salah (prayers) with all solemnity and full of submission”. [23/182] Interrogative Interrogative Pronouns ‫ْ م‬ ‫א‬ : These are given below: ‘who’ ‘what’ ‘where’ ‘how’ ‘when’ ‘how much, how many’, ‘which, from where’ ‘why’, ‫‘ ذא‬for what’ ‫‘ ذא‬what’  27
  34. 34. Ġ‫س א‬ ‫ א‬Lesson 5 ‫ א‬ª‫א‬ THE IRAB OF NOUN The Irab of words is a peculiar characteristic of Arabic language, which does not have an equivalent in English. Therefore, it requires particular attention to grasp the subject. The Arabic noun changes its original form or the case ending under different grammatical conditions, e.g. ‫ א‬being the original form in nominative case, called ْ ‫ ,א‬may change to ‫ ,א‬the accusative case, called ‫ א‬or ‫ ,א‬the genitive case, called ْ ‫א‬ . Likewise, , being the original form, may change to ‫א‬ ً or , e.g. in the Shahadah E ‫د‬ ‫א‬F ‘declaration of faith’ the first part is ‫א‬ ‫ א‬where ‫ א‬is the original form in nominative where ‫ א‬is in case and the second part is ‫ل א‬ the genitive case, while in the verse ٍ ‫﴿ن א‬ ﴾ , the noun ‫ א‬is in the accusative. Similarly, in the first part of the Shahadah the noun form, but in genitive form and in ‫ل א‬ is in the original ‫ א‬the noun is in ‫א‬ ً ‫ن‬ it is in the accusative. 29
  35. 35. The Irab of Noun Similarly, we use ª Holy Quran: ª ‫ن‬ ْ ‫ ,א‬ª ْ ‫ ,א‬ª ْ ‫ א‬as also we read in the ‫ ,א‬ª ‫,א‬ ْ ‫,א ْ ون ,א‬ ‫,א‬ ‫ .א‬These changes in the case-endings of the noun are called ‫ א‬ª‫( א‬Irab of noun). It is important to remember that the literal meaning of the words/nouns remain the same in all the different conditions; however, their function in a sentence changes according to the different grammatical considerations, which are explained later in the book. This change/declension in Irab is effected in two ways as explained below: ْ ª‫א‬ ‫:א‬ Case-ending with vowel marks, e.g. original form in nominative E ْ ‫א‬ change of vowels it may become ً E ‘a man’ is the F and with the in accusative ‫א‬ F or ٍ in genitive case E Ğ‫א‬ F or ‫,א‬ ‫,א‬ ‫ ; א‬and from ‘books’, which is in the original nominative form E ْ ‫א‬ F, it may become ً , or ْ ‫,א‬ ْ ‫,א‬ ْ ‫ ,א‬and from ‫‘ א‬the women’ ‫,א‬ ‫ ;א‬from ª ª (only one change is used in this case which represents both the accusative as well as genitive form). In all these cases the vowel of the last consonant is changed. Note that the original form of a noun in all such cases is always indicated with dammah E 30 _F or tanwin
  36. 36. The Irab of Noun E _F, and is called ‫א‬ (halatur-rafha), i.e. ª‫א‬ nominative case. And the declined form of (Irab bil harkah) is fathha E _F, i.e. single short vowel or tanwin E _F above the last consonant, which is called ‫א‬ (halatul nasb) i.e. accusative case, and kasrah F _F or tanwin ( –) ْ ْ‫א‬ below the last consonant, which is called (halatul-Jarr). The declension by Irab bil hakah is effected in the following three categories of noun. 1 All singular nouns, both masculine and feminine, e.g. ْ‫א‬ ْ‫א‬ ْ‫א‬ ْ‫א‬ ْ‫א‬ or ٍ ْ‫א‬ ً ً or 2 All broken plural nouns, both masculine and feminine, e.g. ‫ل‬ ٍ ,ً , ‘men’ ‫ل‬ ‘women’ or ‫ل‬ ‫ل ,א‬ or ‫,א‬ ‫ل ,א‬ ‫,א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 3 All feminine sound plural nouns, e.g. ª ª , ª ‘Muslim women’ or ª ْ ‫,א‬ ْ ‫( א‬There is only one change in this category which represents both the accusative and the genitive case.) 31
  37. 37. The Irab of Noun ú‫ ْ و‬ª‫א‬ ‫:א‬ Change of Irab with letter. The change of Irab with letter is effected in the following two categories of nouns: 1 All dual E F, both masculine and feminine are changed with letter, e.g. ‫ن‬ ‘two Muslim men’, which is the original/nominative case, is changed to , representing both the accusative and the genitive forms. In this case ‫( _ ن‬aani) is changed to _ (aini). In case of feminine gender, the dual of ‘a Muslim woman’ is ‫ن‬ ‘two Muslin women’, which is the original/nominative case, can be changed to , representing both the accusative and genitive forms. Here ‫ _ ن‬is changed to . 2 All sound masculine plural nouns EÍ F are also changed with letter, e.g. ‫ن‬ (Muslin men) is the nominative/original form, and it is changed to , representing both the conditions of accusative and genitive forms. Here ‫( _ ون‬u’-na) is changed to - (i’-na). Note that ‫( ن‬ni) (nu’n at the end with kasra) is indicative of a dual noun while ‫( ن‬na) (nun with fatha) is indicative of a sound plural noun. The different conditions of Irab are summed up in Table 5. 32
  38. 38. The Irab of Noun 1 L‫ن‬ ‫א‬L ‫ א‬L Same as CF-I Muslemaine ‫ن‬ ‫ א‬L ‫ א‬L L‫ن‬ Same as CF-I Muslemeena ْ‫ א‬L * same as CF-I Muslemataine Lª L * *ª L * ْ‫א‬ ْ‫א‬ 6 ª ْ‫א‬ ْ‫א‬ L ‫א‬ ‫א‬ Gender Dual Í ‫وא‬ Singular Dual Í Plural L L ‫א‬ 5 Lª Lً ْ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ن‬ Singular Plural 4 L‫ن‬ ‫א‬L ْ‫א‬ 3 ْ ‫א‬L ‫א‬L *ª 2 ‫א‬ ‫ن‬ ْ ‫ א‬Lً * Lª ْ‫א‬ ‫وא‬ ♂ Masc. ْ ‫א‬L ♀ Fem. ْ ‫א‬Lً * ♂ Masc. ♀ Fem. 7 Broken Plural ْ ‫א‬Lٍ * (Genitive case) (Accusative Case) (Nominative case) Changed Form II Changed Form I Original Form Ù ْ ‫א‬ ‫د‬ ‫א‬ F No. ْ‫א‬ ‫ א‬ª‫א‬ Number Table – 5 Different Conditions of Irab E Notes Notes: te (1) * — In serial (1, 4, 6, 7) the declension of Irab is effected by the vowel marks ª ْ ª‫.א א‬ (2) — In serial (2, 3, 5) the declension of Irab is effected by the letters ú‫ ْ و‬ª‫א‬ ‫.א‬ 33
  39. 39. The Irab of Noun (3) — In serial (2, 3, 5, 6) the Changed Form I II are the same. (4) — The accusative ending with tanwin (e.g. ً ً ) contains an alif. Exception to this rule being the ً and , i.e. alif maqsurah E ْ F. According to Irab the noun is of two kinds; Declinable Eª F and Indeclinable E F Nouns. Declinable Eª F: It is further divided into two kinds; 1 ú - First declension or triptote: The Irab at its ends change under all the different conditions as shown in Table 5 above. 2 ú - Second declension or diptote: In this category the noun does not accept tanwin ( --) and, in the genitive case-ending, it does not accept - i.e. it has only two case-endings namely, nominative/ original form (represented with _) _), which is also representative of genitive case. Diptotes F Eú include the following categories: and accusative (represented with – Names of women, e.g. ْ , etc. – Names of Prophets and Angels (peace be upon them), e.g. ‫ون‬ ‫א‬ ª‫و‬ ª‫و‬ ‫א‬ , etc. 34
  40. 40. The Irab of Noun – Nouns on ْ pattern, e.g. , , ‫د‬ ‘black’, ‘white’, etc. ْ , ْ , , ‘red’, ‫‘ ز ق‬blue’, – The broken plurals nouns on patterns, e.g. ‘bed’, , ‫‘ د א‬Dirhams’, ‫‘ א‬glass’ ‘graves’, – Names of men on the pattern of ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ,‫ن, ْ ن‬ ,‫ن‬ , etc. , e.g. – Names of men ending with ? ? (closed ta), e.g. ْ , , ‫, و‬ , etc. – Names of most of the countries and cities, e.g. ,‫ن‬ ,‫, ن‬ , , , etc. – Nouns ending with ‫ א‬or e.g. ‫‘ د‬world’, ‫‘ אد‬near’, , etc. ْ (short ْ ‘distant’, ), , – Nouns ending with ‫ _א‬E ‫ود‬ F ‘prolonged vowel’, e.g. ‘merciful’, ‘nobles’, ‫א‬ ‘poor’, ‫دא‬ ‘black ♀’, ‘white ♀’, ‫א‬ ‘red ♀’, ‫‘ ز‬blue ♀’, ‫א‬ ‘green ♀’. – Some additional nouns, e.g. ‘Satin’, ‫ن‬ ‘Pharaoh’, ‫ج‬ Magog’, etc. ‘hell’, ْ ‫ْ ج‬ ‘Gog Note 1: With the definite article ‘‫ ’אل‬or with annexed noun Eú F the diptote Eú F accepts - in genitive case-ending, e.g. ‫א א‬ ‘In the 35
  41. 41. The Irab of Noun name of Allah, the Most Gracious’, ْ‫א‬ ‘from the beds’, ‫א‬ ‘among the Signs of Allah’, ْ ‘in the best stature/mould’. Note 2: The occasions as to when and why a noun changes its form from nominative to accusative or genitive case will be studied later. Indeclinable E F: Most of the Arabic nouns (about 90%) are declinable Eª F. However, some nouns/ pronouns called indeclinable E F, remain static or stationary on their original form under all the varied conditions. These include the following: – Personal pronouns, e.g. , , , , , etc. – Demonstrative pronouns, e.g. , ‫ , א‬etc. except the dual , e.g. ‫ אن‬L . ‫,و‬ L – Relative pronouns E‫ل‬ ْ ‫א א‬F, e.g. ‫,א‬ ‫ ,א‬etc. except the dual E ‫א ن‬L ‫,)♀( א‬ ‫.)♂( א אن ,א‬ ‫,א‬ ‫,א‬ F, e.g. – Interrogative pronouns E‫ْ م‬ , , , L‫ , ذא‬etc. – Possessive pronouns, e.g. – Nouns with alif E ending, e.g. ‫,د‬ 36 ‫א‬ , F or ْ , ‫‘ د‬near’, F, e.g. , ْ , , , , , etc. (short alif) ْ ‘distant’.
  42. 42. The Irab of Noun – Nouns with personal pronouns, e.g. , etc. , , – Cardinal numbers from eleven to nineteen, e.g. , ‫,א‬ , . Important Note: The learners should not get discouraged if he or she does not understand this lesson fully at this stage. He or she should continue with the subsequent lessons, which would definitely help in better understanding of the subject of Irab, Insha Allah.  37
  43. 43. ‫دس‬ ‫א‬ ‫سא‬ ‫ א‬Lesson 6 ْ‫א‬ THE ADJECTIVE PHRASE So far we have learnt the characteristics of a single word/ noun, called ‫ . ْ د‬We now come to the compounds Eª ‫א‬F i.e. the phrases/ sentences. If two or more words are joined together, it constitutes a phrase or a sentence E F, e.g. ‫ א‬and ْ ‫ א‬are two mufrad E‫ ْ د‬F words. But if they are joined as ْ‫א‬ ‫‘ א‬the hard working student’ or ‫‘ א‬the student is hardworking’, then they became a phrase/sentence. The murakkabat are of two kinds; – Phrase or incomplete sentence. ‫م‬ – Sentence E F which conveys complete sense. The murakkabun naqis E F is further divided into the following four types: ‫א‬ 1 ‫ – א‬the adjective phrase. 2 ‫א‬ ‫ – א‬the relative phrase. 3 ‫א‬ ‫ – א‬the demonstrative phrase. 4 Ğ‫א‬ ‫ – א‬the genitive phrase. 39
  44. 44. The Adjective Phrase It is very important to clearly grasp the above mentioned four phrases, which would go a long way in the construction and understanding of sentences E ْ ‫א‬F. In this lesson we shall learn about the Adjective Phrase, while the remaining three Phrases and the subject of sentences will be studied in the subsequent four lessons. ª ْ‫א‬ (The Compounds) ‫م‬ (Sentence - ) (Incomplete Sentence/ Phrase) (Genitive Phrase) (Demonstrative Phrase) (Relative Phrase) (Adjective Phrase) The Adjective Phrase E ‫א‬ ‫א‬F has two nouns in it where one noun describes the quality of another noun. The noun that describes the quality is called the adjective E ْ ‫א‬F and the noun qualified is called ú ‫( א‬al-mausuf), e.g. ﴾ ْ ‫ א‬ª ْ ‫“ ﴿א‬the illuminating Book” [13/184]. Here ª ْ ‫‘ א‬the Book’ is the noun qualified Eú ‫א‬F, and ْ‫א‬ ‘the illuminating’ is its adjective E ‫א‬F, ﴾ ﴿ “a noble Angel” [12/31], here ‘Angel’ is ú ‫ א‬and ‘noble’ is its adjective E ‫א‬F. Unlike English ú ‫א‬ comes before ‫( א‬the adjective). The important point to remember about (adjective phrase) is that the adjective E 40 ‫א‬F is to
  45. 45. The Adjective Phrase correspond to the noun being qualified Eú ‫א‬F in all the four aspects of a noun, i.e. ‫‘ א ْ د‬number’, ْ ‫‘ א‬the gender’, ْ ‫‘ א‬the capacity – definite/indefinite’ and ª‫‘ א א‬the case-ending’. These are explained below: 1 The number E‫د‬ ‫א‬F of the adjective E ‫א‬F is to be in coordination with ú ‫ ,א‬i.e. if ú ‫ א‬is singular E ‫وא‬F then ‫ א‬is to be singular E ‫وא‬F, if ú ‫ א‬is dual E F then ‫ א‬is to be dual, and if ú ‫ א‬is plural E F then ‫ א‬is to be plural E F, e.g. ‫و‬ (a pious boy), ‫ن‬ ‫( و אن‬two pious boys), ‫و د‬ ‫ن‬ (three or more pious boys). 2 The gender E ْ ‫א‬F of ‫ א‬is also to correspond to ú ‫ א‬i.e., if ú ‫ א‬is then ‫ א‬is to be ; if ú ‫ א‬is then ‫ א‬is to be too, e.g. (pious girl), ‫ن‬ ‫( ن‬two pious girls), ª ª (pious girls, more than two). 3 The Capacity E ‫א‬F of ‫ א‬is also to correspond to that of ú ‫ א‬i.e., if ú ‫ א‬is definite E F, ‫א‬ F, and if ú ْ ‫ א‬is indefinite will be definite E E F, ‫ א‬will be indefinite E F, e.g. – ‫و‬ ‫א‬ ْ‫א‬ – ‫ن‬ ‫و אن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫אن א‬ – ‫ن‬ ‫و د‬ ‫ن‬ ‫א و دא‬ ْ‫א‬ 4 The Irab / case-ending Eª‫א‬ ‫א‬F: The Irab of ‫ א‬are to be in coordination with that of the ú ‫ א‬i.e. if ú ‫א‬ 41
  46. 46. The Adjective Phrase is in nominative case E ْ nominative case E ْ accusative case E accusative case E case E ْ‫א‬ E ْ ‫ ,א‬e.g. F then ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫ א‬is to be in ‫ א‬is in the ‫ א‬too is in F, if ú F then F, if ú ‫ א‬is in the genitive ‫ א‬is to be in genitive F ‫وא‬ (Plural) ‫ن‬ F, (Dual) ‫ن و د‬ (Single) ‫و אن‬ ْ ‫א‬ ‫و‬ Nominative Case ‫و دא‬ ً ‫ً و‬ ‫و د‬ ‫ٍ و‬ ‫א‬ ‫و א‬ ً ‫و‬ Accusative Case ْ‫א‬ Genitive Case An exception to this rule is that the adjective to the broken plural Eٍ ْ F of inanimate objects is almost always feminine singular, e.g. ﴾ ª‫ و ْ א‬K ﴿ “in it there will be couches raised on high, and goblets placed ready” [88/13-14]. Here ‫ א‬of of ‘raised on high’ is ‘couches’ which is a broken plural Eٍ ‘couch’ and an inanimate object Eٍ Similarly, ‘placed ready’ is which is a broken plural Eٍ which is an inanimate object Eٍ ْ ‫ א‬of ª‫ْ א‬ F of ª F ‘goblets’ ‘goblet’, F; therefore, both the adjectives are in the feminine singular form. 42 F. ْ
  47. 47. The Adjective Phrase Some more examples of the adjective phrases from the Holy Quran: ‫א‬ ª ª ْ ‫,]01/53[ א‬ [3/172], ‫,]38/82[ א א א‬ [48/25], [34/15], ª [2/99], [24/35], ‫,]791/3[ ع‬ ْ‫א‬ ‫,]3/93[ א‬ [33/21], [14/24], ‫د ْ ن‬ [21/26], ‫א‬ ‫,]3/68[ א‬ ª [34/15], ْ [18/82], ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ [55/66], [88/10], [80/13]  43
  48. 48. ‫سא‬ ‫ א‬Lesson 7 THE RELATIVE PHRASE The Relative Phrase E F is a co-relation between two nouns. In a relative phrase the idea of one noun is very often more closely determined or defined by that of another. In this phrase, the determined noun is called ú ‫א‬ ‘the annexed’ and the determining noun is called ú ‘that to which the annexation is made or to which another noun is annexed’. The relation subsisting between them is ‫‘ א‬the annexation’, e.g. ‫ א‬ª ‘Allah’s Book’. In this phrase, ª is ú and ‫ א‬is ú . Similarly, in the phrase ‫ل א‬ ‘Allah’s Prophet’, ‫ل‬ is ú and ‫ א‬is ú . The following rules apply to known as ‘annexation’: ‘‫ ’אل‬is never placed on ú nor has it tanwin ( nunnation). In the above mentioned examples, it will be incorrect to say ‫ א‬ª or ‫ א‬ª ْ ‫ א‬and ‫ل א‬ or ‫لא‬ ‫.א‬ ú ْ ‫ א‬is always ‫و‬ ending, e.g. ْ‫, م א‬ i.e., in a genitive caseْ ‫ א‬ª and ْ ‫ א‬ª . In these examples the nouns, ْ ‫,א‬ ْ ‫ א‬and ْ‫א‬ are the mudaf ilai, which are in genitive case. 45
  49. 49. The Relative Phrase If ú ْ ‫ א‬is a dual E F or sound plural masculine E Í F then its ‫ ن א‬is dropped, e.g. ْ ‫‘ א‬two doors of the Mosque’ (for ْ ‫,) ن א‬ and ª ْ ‫א‬ ‘Muslims of the Arab’ (for ‫ن‬ ª ْ ‫ .)א‬Similarly, ﴾ ‫‘ ﴿ א‬the two hands of Abu Lahab” [111/1] (for ‫) אن‬ ú ْ ‫ א‬may be ‫ع‬ (nominative) original form of a noun, ª (accusative) ‘changed form I’ or ‫و‬ (genitive) ‘changed form II’, e.g. ‫ א‬ª , ‫א‬ª ‫,ن‬ ‫א‬ª . ú ‫ א‬always comes before ‘allurement of the life’, here ú ‫.א‬ There may be more than one ‫مא‬ [1/3], ‫ل א‬ e.g. ﴾ ú , e.g. ‫ ز‬is ú ‫ א‬and ْ‫א‬ ú ‫ א‬in one ‫ز‬ ْ ‫ א‬is , ﴿ “owner of the Day of Judgment” ‘daughter of the Prophet of Allah’. If ‫ א א‬ú (Interjection) comes before ú ‫ א‬then it is read as ª , e.g. ‫א‬ ‘Allah’s slave’, with ú ‫( א א‬interjection) it becomes ‫א‬ ‘O Allah’s slave!’. ْ ْ‫א‬ ‫‘ א‬O Allah! Owner of the kingdom’. But if that noun is not ú ‫ א‬then it is called ‫ د ْ د‬and is ‫ع‬ , but has no tanwin E F, e.g. ‘O man!’, ‫‘ ز‬O Zaid!’. If ‫ א ْ د‬is with ‘‫ ’אل‬then for masculine and for feminine is placed after , e.g. ‫א س‬ ‘O people!, O mankind! ♂’, ْ ‫‘ א‬O self!, O soul! ♀’. 46
  50. 50. The Relative Phrase The mudaf Eú ‫א‬F is often attached with a personal pronoun, i.e. , , , , etc, as ú , e.g. ‘their deeds’, in that ‫ل‬ is ú ‫ א‬and is ú ‫.א‬ ﴾‫א‬ ْ‫א‬ ‫“ ﴿ م‬the Day when men will see what his two hands have sent forth” [78/40], here ‫א‬ (for ‫ ) אن‬is ú ‫ א‬and the pronoun is ú ‫.א‬ When a noun is annexed to a Personal Pronoun, it will be in the following pattern. (Table 6) Table – 6 Pronouns Attached to Mudaf as Mudaf ilai SINGULAR Person 3rd Person (♂) ) his book her book their book their book their book # Person 2 Person your book your book your book # Person 2nd Person (♀) ) their book * nd (♂) ) PLURAL * Person 3rd Person (♀) ) DUAL your book your book your book my book our book our book Person 1st Person (♂♀) ) Note: # — the 2nd Person ♂ and ♀ dual are identical. *— the 3rd Person ♂ and ♀ dual are identical. 47
  51. 51. The Relative Phrase Since the pronouns are indeclinable E F, they remain in their original form even as ú ‫ ;א‬however, they are considered in genitive place E ‫و‬ F. The suffix of the first person singular is ‘ ’ (ya) and not (ni), e.g. , not (as attached to verbs). If the final letter of the word is a E F then it can be absorbed, e.g. for ‘my wrong action’; ‫( א‬for ‫) א‬ ‘my love/wish’. The nominal suffix ‘ ’ is sometimes shortened into –(i) particularly when the noun to which it is attached is in vocative, e.g. ª (for ) which has the meaning ‘O my Lord!’ as opposed to ‘my Lord’, similarly, ‫م‬ ‘O my people!’ as opposed to ‘my people’. The dammah in , , , is changed into kasra after –, or _, e.g. ‘in his book’, ‘in their books’, ‘in the two books of the two of them’. However, if no ambiguity of meaning can arise, the dual before a dual suffix is replaced by a singular mudaf, i.e. ‘the book of them both’ or the plural ‘the books of them both’.  48
  52. 52. ‫سא‬ ‫ א‬Lesson 8 THE DEMONSTRATIVE PHRASE The Demonstrative Phrase has two parts: (i) ‫( א א‬the demonstrating pronoun) and (ii) (the demonstrated ْ ‫‘ א א‬this pen’, ‫‘ ْ א‬that watch’, noun), e.g. ‫ل‬ ‫‘ א‬these men’. In these examples ‫, ْ , א‬ are the demonstrating pronouns E ‫א‬ F and ْ ‫,א‬ ‫,א‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ א‬are the demonstrated nouns E F. In a demonstrative phrase there is always a coordination between ‫ א א‬and in the Number E‫א ْ د‬F, the Gender E Ğ‫א‬F, the Capacity E ‫א‬F and the case-ending Eª‫ א‬F. ‫א א‬F has two forms, one The demonstrative pronoun E for near distance E ْ ‫א א‬F and another for far distance E ْ ‫א א‬F. These forms are given in the following tables. Demonstrative Pronouns for Near Distance E ْ ‫א‬ F Masculine Masculine ♂ Feminine ♀ Singular - All Cases Dual Nominative ‫א‬ ‫אن‬ this ‫ن‬ these (2) Dual - Accusative/Genitive these (2) Plural - All Cases these all 49
  53. 53. The Demonstrative Phrase Note: – ‫ א‬L are not written with full alif after , instead it is written with a short vowel _ as ‫ א‬L or with ْ (short alif) as ‫ א‬L ; and in both the cases it is pronounced as ‫ ذא‬L ‫. ذ‬ – The plural form is common to both the genders i.e. , but it is used only for rational being E F otherwise , singular form of the feminine is used to refer to the collective or plural inanimate nouns E F. Demonstrative Pronouns for Far Distance E ْ ‫א‬ F Masculine ♂ Feminine ♀ Singular - All Cases ¯‫ ذא‬L Dual Nominative Dual - Accusative/Genitive Plural - All Cases ‫ذא‬ * ‫و‬ ‫ذ‬ ْ that/this * ‫ذ‬ those (2) * those (2) ‫و‬ those all Note: *– These forms have neither occurred in the Holy Quran nor are these in the modern use. Some examples of the demonstrative compounds: – ْ ‫‘ א א‬this boy or this is the boy’ – ‫א‬ ‘this car’ – ‫ن‬ ‫‘ אن א‬these two students (male)’ 50
  54. 54. The Demonstrative Phrase – – – – – – – – – – – ‫ن‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ª ‫نא‬ ‘these two students (female)’ ‫א‬ ‘these men (more than two)’ ‫א‬ ‘these women (more than two)’ ْ ‫‘ ْ א‬that girl’ ‫א‬ ‫ ذ‬L¯‫‘ ذא‬that man’ ‫א‬ ‫‘ ذא‬those two men’ ‫א‬ ‘those two girls’ ْ‫א‬ ‫‘ و‬those Muslim men (more than two)’ ْ‫א‬ ‫‘ و‬those Muslim women (more than two)’ ْ‫א‬ ‘these books (inanimate noun)’ ‫א‬ ‘these trees (inanimate noun)’  51
  55. 55. ‫سא‬ ‫ א‬Lesson 9 THE GENITIVE PHRASE We have learnt earlier in the lessons that an Arabic noun is, in its original form, in the nominative case E ْ ‫א‬ F. We have also learnt that in the relative compound the noun is in the genitive case E ْ‫א‬ F when it is ú ‫ .א‬We will now study some more frequently used prepositions which, when present before a noun, make its ending Jarr or the genitive case. These prepositions can be divided into two groups, Inseparable and Separable Prepositions. Inseparable Prepositions: Consisting of one letter, these are always attached to the following word. The Inseparable Prepositions are: 1 ‘ª’ (bi): – ‘in, with, by, etc.’, e.g. ْ‫א‬ ْ ‘with the pen’. When attached to pronouns, it is ‘with it or with him’, ‘with you’, ‘with them’, etc. The verbs denoting “to begin, adhere, seize, attach” are also constructed with ‘ª’, e.g. ‫‘ א‬he got in contact with him’, ‘he began with him/it’, ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‘I start with the name of Allah’; often the verb is omitted as in ‫א‬ ‘with the name of Allah’. 53
  56. 56. The Genitive Phrase To believe in, is ª Allah’. , e.g. To swear by, is ª ْ , e.g. by the Day of Judgment’. ‘he believed in ‫مא‬ ْ ‘I swear 2 ‘ª’ (ta): – for oath only; by the name of the ‘by Allah’. Almighty Allah, e.g. ‫א‬ 3 ‘‫( ’و‬waw): – for oath, e.g. ﴾‫ א ْ وج‬ª‫ذא‬ ‫“ ﴿وא‬by the Heaven full of the starts” [the Quran], ْ ‫“ وא‬by the Time”, ‫“ وא‬by he Sun”, ‫“ وא‬by the Night”. 4 ‘‫( ’ل‬lam): – ‘for, to, belongs to, because of’, e.g. ‫א‬ ْ ‫‘ א‬this pen is mine’, ª ْ ‫‘ א א‬this book belongs to Zaid’, ‫א‬ L L ‫ذ‬ ‫م‬ L‫א‬ ‘he rose for his help’; these expressions denote ‘for this reason’. ‘for Allah, belongs to Allah’ is for E ‫ א‬F, alif is dropped when ‘‫ ’ل‬comes before ‫ ,אل‬e.g. ‫ن‬ ْ‫א‬ ْ ‘for Muslims’, ‫א ْ ذ ن‬ ‫‘ ْ ذ‬for liars’, ª ْ‫ א‬ª ْ ‘for the believing women’, etc. Note that ‘‫( ’ل‬li) is changed to ‘‫( ’ل‬la) before pronominal suffixes, except with the first person , e.g. ‘for him’, ‘for her’, ‘for all of you/ you all have’, ‘for both of them/ they both have’, ‘for us/ we have’, etc. 5 ‘¯’ (ka): – ‘as, like’, e.g. ْ‫א‬ ْ moon’, ª‫א‬ ª‫א‬ ‘like a mirage’, ْ ‘like the garden’. 54 ‘as the ْ‫א‬
  57. 57. The Genitive Phrase Separable Prepositions: The following prepositions are in common use: (fi): – ‘in’, e.g. ‫א ض‬ ‫א ض‬ 1 ‘in the earth’, ‫א‬ ‫‘ א‬in the sky’; and with suffixes: ‘in him/in it’, ‘in me’, ‘in you or among you’, ﴾ ‫لא‬ ‫ن‬ ﴿ “Surely, you have in the Messenger of Allah excellent exemplar” [the Quran]. 2 (un): – ‘away from, about, concerning, with’, e.g. ‘from Ali’. Some examples from the Holy Quran: ª‫א و‬ ‫“ و‬and they ask thee about the soul”, ‫א‬ ‫ون‬ ‫“ א‬those who hinder (people) from the path of Allah”, ‫א‬ ‫“ و א‬Allah is well pleased with them and they are well pleased with Him”, and with suffixes it is ‘from me’, ‘from him’, ‘from them’. 3 (min):– ‘from’, e.g. ْ‫א‬ ْ‫א‬ ‘from the Mosque’, ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‘from the sky’. It is often interchangeable with and used with suffixes such as ‘from him’, ‘from me’, ‘from us’, etc. An example from the Quran: ‫א‬ ª ‫א‬ “He brings them out of the darkness into the light”. is sometime used to complete the sense of ‘before’ and ‘after’. In that case the words and become indeclinable ‫א‬ i.e. , . According to some 55
  58. 58. The Genitive Phrase grammarians this kind of is called an ‘additional’ , e.g. from the Quran ‫و‬ ‫“ א‬with Allah is the decision in the Past and in the Future”. However, if and come in a sentence as ú (annexed) then they are ‫و‬ (in genitive case), e.g. ‫“ وא‬and those who come before you”, “after ye have believed”. 4 (ala): – ‘on, at, over, upon, against’, e.g. ‫א ْ ش‬ ‫אْ ش‬ ‘on the throne’, ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‘on the way’, from the Quran ‫“ م‬peace be on you”, ‫“ ن א‬Surely, Allah is Possessor over all things”. Sometimes it is used in a hostile sense, e.g. ‫‘ ج‬he went out against him’. is used with suffixes as shown in table 7. Table – 7 The Preposition ‫ ﻋﻠﹶﻰ‬and Attached Pronouns  SINGULAR Person 3rd Person (♂) ) on him on them On them on them on you * On you on you on you * On you on you on me on us on us nd Person 2 Person (♀) ) On them on her nd Person 2 Person (♂) ) PLURAL # rd Person 3 Person (♀) ) DUAL # st Person 1 Person (♂♀) ) 56
  59. 59. The Genitive Phrase Note: Note: (1) *— the 2nd Person ♂ and ♀ dual are identical. # — the 3rd Person ♂ and ♀ dual are identical. (2) Prepositions like ‘from’, ‘away from’), ª ‘by’, ‘in’, ‫‘ ل‬for’, ‘to’ are similarly attached to the personal pronouns on the same pattern as shown above for . ْ‫א‬ (ila): – ‘to, unto, towards’, e.g. 5 ْ ‫‘ א‬towards the Mosque’, ‫א ْ אم‬ ْ‫﴿ א‬ ْ ‫א‬ ْ ‫“ א‬from the sacred Mosque unto the ﴾ Distant (Al-Aqsa) Mosque” [the Quran]. With the suffixes, it is ‘to him, towards him’, ‘to me’, ‘unto us’, etc. 6 There are some nouns which, though not prepositions, change the following nouns in the genitive case: – ‫( ذو‬possessor), e.g. ٍ of bounty’. – ‫א‬ ‫‘ ذو‬Gracious or Possessor (possessor), e.g. ‫م‬ ‫א‬ ‘relations’. – (companion), e.g. ٍ ْ of knowledge/man of learning’. – (with), e.g. ﴾ ‫א‬ the patients” [the Quran]. – (with, at, beside): Adverb ú ‫ א‬used for place/time, e.g. ‘I sat with/beside him’, ﴾‫א ْ אم‬ ْ‫א‬ ‫“ ﴿و‬and fight not with them at the sacred Mosque” [the ‘companion ‫“ ﴿ ن א‬Allah is with 57
  60. 60. The Genitive Phrase Quran], ‫ع א‬ ‘he came at sun rise’. It is often used to denote the meaning of ‘for, to, near, presence, etc.’, e.g. ‫﴿אذ‬ ﴾ “remember me in presence of thy lord master” [the Quran], ‫א‬ ‫و‬ ﴿ ﴾‫“ ق‬what-ever you possess will pass away and ٍ what Allah has, will remain” [the Quran]. 7 There are some nouns used in Quran as prepositions, e.g. L‫ ن‬L ‘with’. These are used with suffixes as ‘with them’, ‘with me’, ‘with him’, ‘with me, to me’. Examples from the Holy Quran: ú ﴿ ﴾‫ن‬ ْ ‫“ א‬the Messengers fear not in My presence”, ‫“ ﴿و‬and it is in the original of the Book with us”, ﴾ ْ ‫ذ ْ ن‬ ‫﴿و‬ ﴾ ª ْ‫م א‬ “and you were not with them when they cast (their pens) lots with arrows”.  58
  61. 61. ‫سא‬ ‫ א‬Lesson 10 ْ‫א‬ THE SENTENCE In Arabic there are two types of sentences: The Nominal Sentence E ‫א‬ The nominal sentence E Ú ‫א‬ word is a noun, e.g. Ğ‫א‬F wherein the first ª ْ ‫‘ א‬the book is new’. The Verbal Sentence E ْ‫א‬ The verbal sentence E ْ‫א‬ word is a verb, e.g. ‫א‬F ْ ‫א‬F: ‫ج‬ ‫א‬F ْ ‫א‬F: ْ ‫א‬F where in the first ‘Hamid went out’. In this lesson we shall learn about the nominal sentences. The nominal sentence consists of the mubtada E ‫א‬ ‘the subject’ and the khabar E ْ ‫א‬F ْ ‫א‬F ‘the predicate’. The mubtada/subject is the noun about which you want to say something, and the khabar/predicate is what you have to say about the subject, e.g. ‘Hamid is sick’. In this sentence you want to speak about Hamid E F, so it is the mubtada/subject and the information you give about him is that he is sick E F so that is the khabar/predicate. Some more examples of simple nominal sentences ْ ‫א‬F E ‫ א‬are given below: 59
  62. 62. The Sentence Ġ‫–א‬ ‫א‬ – ‘Khalid is a wise man’. – ‘Bashir is a kind man’. – ْ ‫‘ و‬William is a poet’. – ‫د‬ ‘Mahmud is a learned man’. – ‫‘ ز‬Zainab is a learned woman’. – ‫ل‬ ‘Mohammad (SAW) is a messenger’. – ‫‘ א‬The student is hardworking’. – ‫‘ א‬The man is weak/old’. – ª ‫‘ א ْ ن‬The Quran is a Book’. – ‫مد‬ ‫‘ א‬Islam is a region/way of life’. – ‘Ali is a writer’. There should be an agreement in the number and the gender between the subject and the predicate, i.e. if a subject is masculine/feminine singular, dual or plural the predicate should be likewise. Examples: Ġ‫– א‬ ‫א‬ Singular ♂ ‘Saeed is a learned man’. ‫א‬ Singular ♂ ‘The student is a hardworking’. Singular ♀ ‘Saeeda is a learned woman’. ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ª‫א‬ 60 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ Singular ♀ ‘The student is a hardworking’. ‫ن‬ Dual ♂ ‫ن‬ ‫ א‬Dual ♀ ª ‫ א‬Plural ♂ ª ‫ א‬Plural ♀ ‘Both the students are believers ‘Both the students are believers ‘The students are believers’. ‘The students are hardworking’
  63. 63. The Sentence In a nominal sentence if the subject E ْ ‫א‬F is a noun alone then both the subject and the predicate E ْ ‫א‬F are in the nominative case. Types of the Mubtada E ‫א‬F ْ ‫א‬F : The beginning of a nominal sentence is one of the following: 1 A noun or a pronoun, e.g. ‫‘ א‬Allah is forgiver’, ‘I am a hardworking’, ‘this is a school’. 2 A masdar muawwal E‫א ول‬ ‫א‬F i.e. a clause functioning as a masdar, e.g. ﴾ ‫א‬ ‫“ ﴿و ن‬and that you fast is better for you” [2/184]. Here the clause ‫א‬ ‫ ن‬functions as a masdar (infinitive) which means ‘your fasting’. Another example ﴾ ْ ªْ ‫א‬ ‫“ ﴿وאن‬and that you should forgive is nearer to piety” [2/237]. Here ‫א‬ ‫ ن‬is E‫א ول‬ ‫א‬F which means ْ ‘your forgiving’. 3 A particle resembling the verb, e.g. ‫﴿ن א‬ ﴾ “indeed Allah is forgiving, merciful” [the Quran]. The particles resembling the verb ú‫ و‬ğ‫א‬F E ْ ‫ א‬are ‫ ن‬and its sisters, like ‫, ن , ن‬ , , and . The Mubtada E ‫א‬F is normally a definite E indicated in the following examples: – ‫لא‬ Allah’. Here F as ‘Muhammad (SAW) is the messenger of is ‘definite’ E F because it is a 61
  64. 64. The Sentence proper noun E annexation E – ‫س‬ ‫א‬F, and the predicate ‫א‬F. ‘he is a teacher’. ‫لא‬ is definite because it is a pronoun E ‫א‬F and the predicate ‫س‬ F. indefinite noun E ‫א‬ – ‘this is a Mosque’. ‫א‬ a demonstrative pronoun E is an indefinite noun E – ¯ is an is an is definite because it is ‫א‬ F. ‫א‬F and the predicate ‫‘ א‬he who worships other than ‫ א‬is definite Allah is mushrik (one who rejects faith)’. because it is a relative pronoun E‫ل‬ ْ‫א‬ ‫א‬F, and the predicate is a sentence E Ğ‫א‬F. – – ‫א‬ ‫א‬ª ‫‘ א ْ ن‬the Quran is the book of Allah’. ‫ א ْ ن‬is definite as it has the definite article ‫ ,אل‬and the predicate is an annexation E ‫א‬F. ‫א‬ ْ‫ א‬ª ْ ‘the key to Paradise is Salah’. ª ْ definite as it’s mudaf ilaihi E is F is definite, and the predicate in this case is a definite noun E F. However, the subject E ‫א‬ ú ‫א‬F may be indefinite E F in the following circumstances. – If the khabar E Ġ‫א‬F is a shibhu jumlah E F (literally, that which resembles a sentence), which is one of he following two terms: 1 A prepositional phrase, like table’, 62 ْ ‘like the water’, ْ ْ‫א‬ ‘on the ْ‫א‬ ‘in the
  65. 65. The Sentence house’. The phrase is also called ‫و‬ ‫و‬ (genitive phrase). 2 A zarf Eú ‫ق‬ ‫א‬F ‘adverb’, like ‘under’, ‫א‬ ً ‘above’, ‘today’. ú ‘with, by, beside’, ‘tomorrow’, ‫א ْ م‬ ‫ א‬is related to time or place. In these cases the khabar should precede the mubtada, ْ‫א‬ e.g. ‘there is a man in the room’. (Remember that ْ‫א‬ indefinite noun is the mubtada and the phrase is not a sentence). Here the ْ ‫ א‬is the khabar. Here is another example ‘I have a sister’ literally ‘there is sister for me’. Here the is the mubtada and the phrase indefinite noun the khabar, ( ْ ْ‫א‬ ْ ْ‫א‬ ‘there is a pen under the table’ is the mubtada is not a sentence). Here and the zarf is is the khabar. Another example is, ‘we have a car’ literally ‘there is a car with us’. Note, words like , ‫, ق‬ are ú prepositions in Arabic. The prepositions, like , , ª, ¯ are particles, but words like are nouns which are declinable, e.g. ‫א‬ not , , ,‫, ق‬ , , ‫ , א‬and a majrur E ‫و‬ F noun following one of these words is a mudaf ilaihi E ú F, e.g. ‫‘ א‬under the bed’. – The mubtada may also be indefinite if it is an interrogative noun, like ‘who’, ‘what’, many’. These nouns are indefinite, e.g. ‘how ‘what is 63
  66. 66. The Sentence is the mubtada and the wrong with you?’; here is the khabar. prepositional phrase is the mubtada and ‘who is sick?’, here ْ‫א‬ is the khabar. ً ‘how many students are there in the classroom?’, here is the ْ‫א‬ mubtada and the prepositional phrase khabar. is the There are some more situations where the mubtada can be indefinite, e.g. ﴾¯ ‫“ ﴿و‬and surely a believing slave is better than a man who associates (partners with Allah)” [2/21]. Note, the personal pronouns , , become , J or , e.g. when preceded with , , . Also note that the dammah of , is pronounced long if it is preceded by a short vowels, e.g. (la-hu’), (ra’aitu-hu’). And it is short when preceded by a consonant , ‫و‬ or a long vowels, e.g. (hi), e.g. (bi-hi), but . This rule also applies to (fi-hi); this change is for vocalic harmony. Also note that in case of the verb with the pronoun of the ‘you saw’, a waw E‫و‬F 2nd person masculine plural, like has to be added between the verb and the pronoun, e.g. ‘you saw him’, saw her’, H ْ 64 H ْ becomes ‘you saw them’, becomes ْ ْ ‘you ‘you asked them’, ‘you killed them’.
  67. 67. The Sentence habar: The Omission of the Mubtada/the Khabar: The mubtada or the khabar may be omitting, e.g. in reply to the question ‫ א‬one may say . This is the khabar and the mubtada has been omitted. The full sentence is ‫ .א‬Similarly, in answer to the question ú ‘who knows?’ one may say , which is the mubtada; and the khabar has been omitted. The complete sentence is ú ‘I know’. Types of the Khabar E ‫א‬F ْ ‫א‬F : There are three types of the predicate/khabar E ْ ‫א‬F: mufrad E‫ ْ د‬F, jumla E F and shibhu jumla E F: 1 The mufrad khabar is a word, not a sentence, e.g. ‫وא‬ ‫‘ א‬Allah is one’, EE ْ‫א‬ ْ ‫א‬FF “the believer is the mirror of the believer” [the Hadith]. 2 The jumla E F is a sentence. It may be a nominal or a verbal sentence, e.g. ‘Hashim’s father is a trader’ literally, Hashim, his father is a trader. Here is the mubtada and nominal sentence is the khabar, and this sentence in turn, is made up of the mubtada E F and the khabar E F. Here is another example; ‫א‬ ‫‘ א‬what is the name of the doctor?’ literally it means, the doctor, what is his name? Here ‫ א‬is the mubtada, and the nominal sentence ‫ א‬is the khabar. Another example, ‫ د א‬ª ‫‘ א‬the students entered’. Here ª ‫ א‬is the mubtada and the verbal sentence ‫‘ د א‬they entered’ is the 65
  68. 68. The Sentence khabar. Another example, created you’. Here verbal sentence khabar. ‫‘ وא‬and Allah ‫ א‬is the mubtada, and the ‘He created you’ is the 3 The shibhu jumlah E F, as we have already learnt, is either a prepositional phrase or zarf, e.g. ْ ‫‘ א‬the praise belongs to Allah’. Here ْ ‫ א‬is the mubtada and the prepositional phrase E ‫א‬H F is the khabar, and it is in the place of raf F Eٍ ْ . Another example, ْ‫ْ א‬ ْ ‫‘ א‬the house is behind the mosque’. Here ْ ‫ א‬is the mubtada, and the zarf ْ is the khabar. As a zarf, it is mansub, and as a khabar it is in the place of raf F Eٍ ْ . As stated earlier, in a nominal sentence, the subject is usually a definite noun E F and the predicate is usually an indefinite E F, but if the subject is a pronoun, e.g. ‘I am Yousaf’, ª ْ ‫א‬ ‫‘ ذ‬that is the book’, then the predicate maybe a definite noun like and ª ْ ‫ .א‬In these cases if the predicate is indefinite the meaning is different, e.g. ª ‫‘ ذ‬that is a book’. When both the subject E ‫א‬F and the predicate E Ġ‫א‬F are definite then an appropriate pronoun is frequently inserted between them. This insertion gives the benefit of emphasis on the mubtada and it brings the mubtada into focus, e.g. ‫‘ א‬Allah is forgiving’ being a simple nominal sentence is changed to ﴾ ْ‫א‬ ‫“ ﴿א‬Allah is indeed 66
  69. 69. The Sentence forgiving” [42/5], ‫ن‬ ‫‘ א ْ ون‬those who reject faiththey are the wrong doers’ to ﴾‫ن‬ ‫א‬ ‫“ ﴿א ْ ون‬those who reject faith-they are the wrong doers” [2/254]. ª ‫ون‬ ْ ‫‘ א‬the dwellers of paradise will be successful’ to ﴾‫א ْ ون‬ ْ‫ א‬ª ﴿ “It is the dwellers of paradise that will be successful”. [59/20]. ‫‘ א‬this is a truth’ to ‫﴿ א‬ ﴾ ْ ‫“ א‬this is indeed the truth” [8/32]. ‫‘ א‬Allah is Ghani/Rich, free of all needs’ to ﴾ ْ ‫א‬ ‫“ ﴿א‬Allah, He is al-Ghani/the Rich, free of all needs”. [the Quran] ‫א‬ to ﴾ ْ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫“ ﴿א‬Indeed You, You alone, is the All Hear All Knowing”. [the Quran] The 3rd person pronoun is inserted when the predicate is comparative, e.g. ﴾ً ْ ‫ون‬ ‫“ ﴿و‬and my brother Haroon, he is far better in speech than I am” [the Quran]. This added pronoun is called the Pronoun of Separation E ْ‫א‬ F. : It means ‘is not’. It is used in a nominal sentence to negate a statement, e.g. ْ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ً ْ‫א‬ or Ę ْ‫א‬ ‘the house is not new’. Note that is often F. prefixed to khabar and it is therefore majrur E ‫و‬ After the introduction of the mubtada is called “ismu ‫א‬F, and the khabar is called “khabaru laisa” laisa” E E F. The predicate of is in accusative case. The feminine of is , e.g. ً or Ĩ ‘Amina is not sick’, ‫א‬ ‫‘ א‬the car is not old’. Note that in this example the sukun of has changed to kasrah because of the 67
  70. 70. The Sentence following ‫( אل‬al) (laisat al sayaratu laisa tissayaratu). Another example, ‫ س‬Ĩ ٍ ‘I am not an engineer’. Here, the pronoun ‘ª’ (tu) is the ismu laisa E ‫א‬F and ‫ س‬Ĩ is the khabru laisa E ٍ F. Examples from the Holy Quran: – ﴾ٍ Ĩ K ﴿ “O Muhammad (SAW) you are only one who reminds. You are not a dictator over them” [88/21-22] – ﴾ª ْ ‫ق وא‬ ْ‫א‬ ‫אو‬ ‫א ْ× ن‬ ﴿ “It is not al-Birr (piety, righteousness and every act of obedience to Allah) that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west (in prayers)” [the Quran].  68
  71. 71. ‫ د‬ğ‫س א‬ ‫ א‬Lesson 11 SOME PARTICLES OF VARIOUS ORIGIN ‫א –ل‬ ‫: مא‬ It is a lam E‫ل‬F with fathah prefixed to the mubtada E ‫א‬F for the sake of emphasis , e.g. ﴾ ْ ‫ْ א‬ ‫﴿و‬ “and indeed the remembrance of Allah is the greatest (thing in life)”. [29/43] This lam is not to be confused with the preposition which has a kasra, but takes a fathah when prefixed to a pronoun, e.g. , , . ‫م א‬ does not change the ending of the mubtada, e.g. ‘indeed your house is more The ‫א‬ , beautiful’. Now if we want to use ‫ ن‬also in this sentence then the lam E‫ل‬F has to be shifted to the khabar, as two particles of emphasis cannot come together in one place. So the sentence becomes ‫ن‬ (indeed your house is more beautiful). After its removal from its original position the lam is no longer called lam al-ibtida E ‫א‬ ‫ م א‬F. It is now called ‫א م‬ ‫( א‬the displaced lam). A sentence with both ‫ ن‬and ‫( ل‬the lam) is more emphatic than with ‫ ن‬or ‫ ل‬alone. Here are some examples: ﴾ ‫א‬ ‫“ ﴿ ن‬verily your Ilah (God) is indeed one (i.e. Allah)”. [37/4] 69
  72. 72. Some Particles of Various Origin ﴾ª ْ‫א‬ ª ْ‫א‬ ‫“ ﴿و ن אو‬Indeed the frailest (weakest) of the houses is the Spider’s house”. [29/41]. ﴾ٍ ْ‫ א‬ª ª‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫“ ﴿ ن‬Verily/surely/indeed, the harshest of all voices is the braying of the asses”. [31/19] (But): (But): It is one of the sisters of ‫ ن‬and it acts like ‫ , ن‬e.g. ‫ن‬ ‫و ز א‬ ً ‘Hashim is hardworking but Zaid is lazy’. is also used without the shaddah i.e. (lakin) and, in this case it loses two of its characteristics: 1 It does not render the noun following it mansub, e.g. ﴾ٍ ‫ل‬ ٍ ‫ن אْ م‬ ‫א‬ ﴿ “But the wrong doers are today in manifest error”. [19/38] 2 It may also be used in verbal sentence, e.g. ‫﴿و‬ ﴾‫ون‬ “But they do not perceive”. [2/12] Both and are said to be used to rectify or amend the previous statement. ‫ن‬ : It is one of the sisters of ‫ , ن‬and so the noun following it is mansub. ‫ن‬ means, ‘it looks as if’, e.g. ‫نא‬ ‘it looks as if the student is sick’ and ْ ‫( א‬you seem to be from India). ‫:ن‬ The particle ‫ אن‬is used at the beginning of a nominal sentence, e.g. ‫א‬ ‫ ن א‬and ª ْ‫א‬ ‫ن‬ ª ْ ‫.א‬ 70
  73. 73. Some Particles of Various Origin Note that the noun after ‫ ن‬is mansub i.e. in the accusation case. After the introduction of ‫ ن‬the mubtada is no longer called mubtada, but is, instead, called ismu-inna E‫ن‬ ‫א‬F and the khabr is called khabaru-inna E‫ن‬ F. ‫ ن‬signifies emphasis. It can be translated as certainly ‘indeed’, ‘surely’, ‘no doubt’, ‘truly’ and ‘verily’. Remember the following: 1 If the mubtada has one dammah, it changes to one fathah after ‫ , ن‬e.g. ‫א س‬ ‫ ن א ْ س‬and ‫.ن‬ 2 If the mubtada has two dammah E to two fathah, e.g. F they change ‫א‬ ً ‫ن‬ 3 If the mubtada is a pronoun, it changes to its corresponding mansub form, e.g. , L and ª L ª . ‫ ن‬is frequently used with the attached pronouns, e.g. , , , , ‫ ن‬L , etc. The above mentioned rules of ‫ ن‬are equally applicable to ‫ ن‬ª‫א‬ – its sisters, which are ‫, ن , ن‬ , , . : This is also a particle like ‫ . ن‬It is called one of the sisters of ‫ . ن‬Grammatically it acts like ‫ . ن‬It signifies hope or fear, e.g. ْ ‫‘ א‬the weather is fine’ ْ ‫‘ א‬I hope the weather is fine/the weather maybe 71
  74. 74. Some Particles of Various Origin fine’ and ‫‘ א ْ س‬the teacher is sick’ ‘I am afraid the teacher is sick’. ‫س‬ ْ‫א‬ : It is the most important particle of restriction, e.g. ﴿ ﴾‫ون‬ “we are only mocking”. [2/14] and ﴿ ﴾‫ ْ א‬ª ‫“ א‬the obligatory alms are only for the poor”. [9/60]. ‫س‬ means, ‘I am only a teacher’ i.e. I am a teacher and nothing else. is H‫ . ن‬This is called ْ ‫ ,א‬i.e. the preventive ma, as it prevents ‫ ن‬from rendering the following noun mansub, e.g. EEª ‫ل‬ ‫א‬ FF “actions are judged only by the intentions”. Unlike ‫ ن‬the word is used in verbal sentences as well, e.g. ª ْ ‘he is only telling a lie’. (T ‫( ن‬That): It is used always in the middle of the sentence preceding a noun in accusative case Eª F, e.g. ﴾ ‫نא‬ ﴿ “Did you not know that Allah has power over all things”. [2/106] ‫ ن‬is also attached to pronouns, e.g. ﴾‫ن‬ ‫א‬ ‫“ ﴿و‬and that they are to return to Him”. [2/46] ‫ ن‬and ‫ ن‬in a nominal sentence give it the meaning of the infinitive or the verbal noun E ‫א‬F. (From Where ow, here, (From Where, How, When): means ‘where? how? when?’, e.g. 72 ‫﴿ ل‬
  75. 75. Some Particles of Various Origin ﴾‫א‬ “He said, O Maryam! Whence comes this to you”. [3/37] : It denotes: ‘nay, nay rather, not so, on the contrary, but’, e.g. ﴾ ‫א‬ ْ ‫ون א‬ ﴿ “Nay (behold) you prefer the life of this word” [87/16]. is opposed to either a preceding affirmative or negative proposition, a command or a prohibition, e.g. ْ ‫﴿ א‬ ﴾ ‫“ א‬They say, our hearts are impermeably wrapped; not so! Allah has cursed them for their unbelief”. [the Quran] : It means ‘hypothetical or optative’, e.g. ﴾ ‫“ א‬O would that I were mere dust”. [78/40] ﴿  73
  76. 76. ‫سא‬ ْ‫א‬ ‫ א‬Lesson 12 ْ‫א‬ THE VERB – PERFECT TENSE The Arabic verb has only three forms: The perfect called madi E ‫א‬F. It denotes an action which was completed and finished at the indicated time, and is often referred to the past. The imperfect called mudare E‫ع‬ ْ‫א‬ ‫א‬F. It refers to both the present and the future time for an incomplete action that is either in progress or to be completed in the future. The imperative called amr E ‫א‬ order/desire/wish/supplication. ْ ‫א‬F. It implies to an The Arabic verb is mostly triliteral E‫د‬ ْ‫א‬ ‫א‬F, i.e. it is based on roots of three consonants, called radicals. Thus the root meaning of a simple triliteral verb ‫א‬ ‫א‬F E‫.א ْ د‬ (kataba) is ‘to write/writing’, and the literal meaning of is ‘he wrote’. This meaning is given by the three consonants i.e. ªHªH¯ – ktb, and it is a past perfect tense, third person masculine singular (abbreviate as III M1) ‫وא‬ . Similarly, = H‫ص‬H‫–ن‬nsr, its root meaning is ‘to help/helping’ and literally ‘he helped’, =ªHªHú – fth is ‘opening’ and literally ‘he opened’. 75
  77. 77. The Verb – Perfect Tense To indicate the pattern of a verb, the grammarians use three consonants of the verb (fa’ala) ‘to do or doing’ literally ‘he did’. In this the letter ‘ú’ represents the first radical, the ‘‫ ’ع‬represents the second radical and ‘‫ ’ل‬the third radical. Thus in the verb , ¯ is in place of ú radical, called ْ ‫ , א‬ª is in place of the middle radical ‫ ع‬called ْ‫א‬ and ª is in place of ‫ ل‬called ْ ‫ . م א‬Follow the examples below: ‘he wrote’ ª ‘he struck’ ‫مא‬ ª ª ‘he helped’ ‘he opened’ ‘he heard’ ‫م‬ ‘he was noble’ ‘he thought’ ‘he was/became weak’ ª ‫ع‬ ‫م‬ ª ú ‫א‬Ħ ª ‫ص‬ ª ‫م‬ ‫س‬ ‫ع‬ ‫א‬ ¯ ‫ض‬ ‫ن‬ ú ‫س‬ ¯ ª ‫ض‬ In a simple triliteral verb E‫א د‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬F the first and the third (last) radicals are always ª ْ i.e. vowelled with , but the second or the middle radical is not constant. It may be ª ْ (vowelled with fathah ) or ْ (vowelled with kasra ) or ‫م‬ (vowelled with dammah ). Thus a simple triliteral verb E‫ د‬Ó‫א‬ ‫א‬F may be symbolized as follows: –fa’ala (i.e. a-a-a) as 76 (he helped), ‘he
  78. 78. The Verb – Perfect Tense wrote’, ‘he opened’, ‘he sat’, ‫ج‬ out’, ‫‘ د‬he came in or entered’. ‘he went –fa’ila (i.e. a-i-a) as ‘he heard’, ‘he knew’, ª ‘he became happy/was glad’, ª ‘he drank’, ‫و‬ ‘he inherited’, ‘he was pleased’, ‘he was afraid’. –fa’ula (i.e. a-u-a) as ú ‘he was/has been honored’, ‘he was ugly’, ‘he was/became good or beautiful’, ‘he was/became far away’, ‘he was/became great’, ‘he became/was noble’, ‘he became/was weak’, ‫م‬ ‘he was noble’. Note that in all the three patterns of triliteral verbs ‫א‬F E‫ א د‬mentioned above, the first and the last radicals remained unchanged. They are always maftuh ª ْ . Apart from the triliteral E‫ د‬Ó‫א‬ ‫א‬F, four radical verbs called (quadriliteral) are also in use. However, quadriliteral verbs are less common. The pattern for a four radical verbs is – fa’lala, e.g. ‘he translated’, ‫ز ْ ل‬ ‘he/it shook’, ‫‘ د ج‬he rolled’, ª ‫‘ ز‬he/it was removed’. It is a well known fact that a verb E ‫א‬F without a subject E ‫א‬F conveys no sense, e.g. ‘wrote’ in English, conveys no sense unless a personal pronoun/noun is added to it, e.g. ‘he wrote’, ‘I wrote’, ‘you wrote’, ‘she wrote’, ‘we wrote’, ‘they wrote’, ‘William wrote’, ‘Bilal wrote’, etc. In Arabic the relevant pronoun is a part of the verb, i.e. it has a built-in pronoun which becomes the subject of the verb, 77
  79. 79. The Verb – Perfect Tense e.g. in ‫‘ ذ‬he went’ and ‫‘ ذ‬she went’; the subject is said to be ‘damir mustatir’ (hidden pronoun). In this way, to the basic form of madi E F, suffixes are added to indicate different pronouns. All simple verbs have three persons, i.e., the first person (mutakallim), e.g. ‘I wrote’, the second person called (hadir), e.g. ‘you wrote’, and the third person called (ghaib), e.g. ‘he wrote’, each called of which may be masculine gender E F or feminine E F. Each gender, in turn may be either singular E ‫وא‬F, dual E F or plural E F. When a simple verb is conjugated into three persons, two genders and three numbers in the form of a table it is called conjugation Eú F; this process is also called Isnad E‫د‬ F. In all, there are fourteen categories in a table, and each category is called sighah 1. (form) as explained below; ‫ – ذ‬he went: The subject ‘he’ is a hidden pronoun E F. This tense (III M1) forms the basis, and contains the root letters, called radicals. 2. ‫ – ذ‬two (♂) went: It is a masculine dual. The subject is alif E F 3. ‫א‬ ‫ – ذ‬they went (♂): The subject is waw ‘‫ .’و‬The alif after the waw is not pronounced (dahab-u). 4. E 78 ‫ – ذ‬She went: The subject is dhamir mustatir . The ta ‘ª’ is the sign of its being feminine. F
  80. 80. The Verb – Perfect Tense 5. ‫ – ذ‬two (♀) went: The subject is alif denoting dual. 6. ‫ – ذ‬they went (♀): The subject is the nun ‘‫’ن‬ (dahab-na). 7. ‫ – ذ‬you went (singular ♂): The subject is the ta ‘ª’ (dahab-ta). 8. ‫– ذ‬you (dual ♂) went: The subject is tuma ‘ ’ (dahab-tuma). 9. ‫ – ذ‬you went (plural ♂): The subject is tum ‘ ’ (daheb-tum). 10. ‫ – ذ‬you went (singular ♀): The subject is ti ‘ª’ (daheb-ti). 11. ‫ – ذ‬you (dual ♀) went: It is the same as for masculine dual. 12. ‫ – ذ‬you went (plural ♀): The subject is tunna ‘ ’ (daheb-tunna). 13. ‫ – ذ‬I went (singular ♂or♀): The subject is tu ‘ª’ (daheb-tu). 14. ‫ – ذ‬we went (plural/dual ♂or♀): The subject is na ‘ ’ (daheb-na) and is applicable to both the genders. For the method of conjugating a trilateral perfect simple verb Madi Maruf Eú‫و‬ ْ‫א‬ ‫א‬F, see Table 8 below: 79
  81. 81. The Verb – Perfect Tense Table – 8 Conjugation of Madi Maruf – ú‫و‬ (Triliteral (Triliteral Verb) SINGULAR Person 3rd Person (♂) ) Person 3rd Person (♀) ) Perso 2nd Person (♂) ) Person 2nd Person (♀) ) Person 1st Person (♂♀) ) ْ‫א‬ DUAL ْ‫א‬ PLURAL ‫א‬ he did they did they did ْ she did ْ you did ْ you did ْ I did they did ْ * ْ you did you did ْ * ْ you did # they did you did # ْ we did ْ we did Note: (1) *— 2nd Person masc. dual and fem. dual are identical. # — 1st Person dual ♂♀ and plural ♂♀ are identical. (2) The second and third person masculine plural of any verb cover any group of men and women even though in a group of 100 women there is only one man, whereas the second and third person feminine plural only cover groups of women exclusively. A quadrilateral perfect simple verb E the same pattern, as shown in Table 9. 80 ‫א‬F is conjugated on
  82. 82. The Verb – Perfect Tense Table – 9 Madi Maruf – ú‫و‬ ْ‫א‬ ْ‫א‬ Verb) (Quadriliteral Verb) Quadrili SINGULAR Person 3rd Person (♂) ) Person 3rd Person (♀) ) Person 2nd Person (♂) ) Person 2nd Person (♀) ) DUAL PLURAL ‫א‬ he translated they translated they translated she translated they translated they translated * you you you translated translated translated * you translated # you translated # you translated # st Person 1 Person (♂♀) ) I translated we translated we translated Note: *— the 2nd Person ♂ and ♀ are identical. # — applicable to both the genders. 81
  83. 83. The Verb – Perfect Tense THE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE FORMS OF MADI The Active Form is called Maruf (ú‫و‬ - literally ‘known’) in which the subject E F is known, e.g. ‘He created’ or ‫א‬ ‘Allah created’, ‫‘ زא‬he visited’, ً ‫‘ زא ز‬Zaid visited the patient’. In these examples, ‘He’, ‘Allah’ and ‘Zaid’ are subjects of the verbs. The subject may be in the form of (hidden pronoun) as ‘he’ in and ‫,زא‬ or it may be mentioned as an apparent noun as ‘Allah’ in ‫א‬ and ‘Zaid’ in ‫.زא ز‬ literally The Passive Form is called Majhul (‫ل‬ ‘unknown’) in which the subject E F is not known. It is formed on the pattern of ‘it was done’ by placing a Dammeh E F on the first letter and kasrah E F on the middle letter or on the second last letter in a verb having more than three letters, as exemplified below: Active Verb E F ‘he wrote’ ª ‘he drank’ ‘he translated’ ‘he killed’ ‫‘ د‬he entered’ ‫‘ ل‬he descended’ ‫‘ ز ْ ل‬it/he shook’ 82 Passive Verb E F ‘It was written/prescribed’ ª ‘It was drunk’ ‘It was translated’ ‘he was killed’ ‫‘ د‬he was entered’ ‫‘ ل‬he/it was descended’ ‫‘ ز ْ ل‬he/it was shaken’
  84. 84. The Verb – Perfect Tense ‘he read’ ª ‫‘ ز‬he removed’ ‘he informed’ ‘it was read’ ‫‘ ز‬he/it was removed’ ‘he was informed’ ª The passive of the perfect i.e. Madi Majhul is formed according to the pattern and and conjugated in exactly the same manners as the Active of the perfect Madi Maruf described in the tables 8 and 9, e.g. , ,‫א‬ , , ْ , ْ , etc. , Negative of Perfect: To render a verb in the madi negative the particle the University’ ْ‫א‬ leave the class’, ‫ج‬ University’, ْ‫א‬ (ma) is used, e.g. ª ْ‫א‬ he did not come out’, ‫س‬ ‫و‬ ‫جא‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫‘ ذ‬I went to ‘I did not go to the ‘the students did not ‫‘ د‬Hamid entered but ‫א‬ ‘the lesson was not written’. All forms E F of the perfect can be converted into the negative form by prefixing negated with (la), e.g. ‫ل‬ . However, a question is to be ‫س‬ ‫א‬ ‘O Bilal! did you write the lesson?’ the answer in negative is; ‫س‬ ‫‘ א‬No, I did not write the lesson’. ‘O Hamid! did you understand the lesson?’ ‫س‬ ‫א‬ ‘No, I did not understand it?’. The Difference between a positive question, and question, e.g. ‫ل‬ and : is used in reply to is used in reply to a negative ‘O Bilal! are you a student?’ 83
  85. 85. The Verb – Perfect Tense the answer is ‘yes, I am a student’. ٍ ‘are you not a Muslim?’ the answer is course, I am a Muslim’. ‘Yes/of The Near Perfect E ْ‫א‬ ْ ‫א‬F: The particle (qad) is prefixed to any sigha of the perfect tense to give it the meaning of near perfect E ْ‫א‬ ‫א‬F, e.g. (he has done), (these two ♂ have done), ‫א‬ (they ♂ have done), etc. The particle or when prefixed to a sigha of the perfect tense it also gives an emphasis and denotes certainty E ْ ‫א‬F to the meaning of the verb, e.g. ‫د‬ ْ ‫‘ א ْ س א‬the teacher has already entered the class’, ‫א‬ ‘the prayer has started/established’ ْ ﴿ ﴾ٍ ْ ‫ن‬ ‫“ א‬Indeed, we (Allah) created man in the best state/mould”. [94/4], ‫ذ א‬ ‘certainly the man has gone’, ﴾‫ن‬ ْ‫ْ א‬ ﴿ “successful indeed are the believers”. [23/1] The Distant Perfect E ْ‫א‬ ْ ‫א‬F: The word ‫ن‬ is prefixed to the perfect tense in order to change it into the distant perfect, e.g. ‫‘ ذ‬he went’ ‫ن ذ‬ ‘he had gone’, ‘I am sick’ ً ‘I was sick yesterday’. The word ‫ن‬ is also conjugated to correspond with the sigha (form) concerned. The conjugation of ‫ن‬ called (incomplete verb) is shown in Table 10 below: 84
  86. 86. The Verb – Perfect Tense Table – 10 (‫ن‬ The Distant Perfect – ْ‫א‬ ْ‫א‬ observed’ ‘he was or had’ ‫‘ ن‬he had observed’) SINGULAR Person 3rd Person (♂) ) Person 3rd Person (♀) ) Person 2nd Person (♂) ) Person 2nd Person (♀) ) Person 1st Person (♂♀) ) DUAL ‫ن‬ ‫א‬ he had observed they had observed ª PLURAL ‫وא‬ ‫א‬ they had observed ‫ن‬ she had observed they had observed they had observed you had you had you had observed observed observed you had observed you had observed we had observed we had observed ª ª you had observed ª I had observed  85