Artificial Intelligence (AI)Computers with the ability to mimic or duplicatethe functions of the human brainArtificial intelligence systemsThe people, procedures, hardware, software, data,and knowledge needed to develop computersystems and machines that demonstrate thecharacteristics of intelligence
Intelligent behaviorLearn from experienceApply knowledge acquired from experienceHandle complex situationsSolve problems when important information is missingDetermine what is importantReact quickly and correctly to a new situationUnderstand visual imagesBe creative and imaginativeUse heuristics ()
Major Branches of AIPerceptive system A system that approximates the way a human sees, hears, andfeels objectsVision system Capture, store, and manipulate visual images and picturesRobotics Mechanical and computer devices that perform tedious taskswith high precisionExpert system Stores knowledge and makes inferences
Learning system Computer changes how it functions or reacts to situations basedon feedbackNatural language processing Computers understand and react to statements and commandsmade in a “natural” language, such as EnglishNeural network Computer system that can act like or simulate the functioning ofthe human brain
ArtificialintelligenceRoboticsVisionsystemsLearningsystemsNatural languageprocessingNeural networksExpert systems
Artificial IntelligenceThe branch of computer science concerned with makingcomputers behave like humans. The term was coined in 1956 byJohn McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Artificial intelligence includes games playing: programming computers to play games such aschess and checkers expert systems : programming computers to make decisions in real-lifesituations (for example, some expert systems help doctors diagnosediseases based on symptoms) natural language : programming computers to understand naturalhuman languages
Artificial Intelligence neural networks : Systems that simulate intelligence by attemptingto reproduce the types of physical connections that occur in animalbrains robotics : programming computers to see and hear and react toother sensory stimuliCurrently, no computers exhibit full artificial intelligence (that is,are able to simulate human behavior). The greatest advances haveoccurred in the field of games playing. The best computer chessprograms are now capable of beating humans. In May, 1997, anIBMsuper-computer called Deep Blue defeated world chess champion
Artificial IntelligenceIn the early 1980s, expert systems were believed to represent thefuture of artificial intelligence and of computers in general. Todate,however, they have not lived up to expectations. Many expertsystems help human experts in such fields as medicine andengineering, but they are very expensive to produce and arehelpfulonly in special situations.Today, the hottest area of artificial intelligence is neural networks,which are proving successful in a number of disciplines such asvoice recognition and natural-language processing.
1958 Lisp – a functional programming language with asimple syntax.1972 PROLOG - a logic programming language whoseprimary control structure is depth-first search1988 CLOS (Common Lisp Object Standard)
AI is very important.. its how the computer basically thinks. Itsused in games and how the computer solves problems. AI is basedon algorithms, events, time, procedures/steps, conditions. AI is ahuge part on how a computer works.AI can have two purposes. One is to use the power of computers toaugment human thinking, just as we use motors to augment human orhorse power. Robotics and expert systems are major branches of that.The other is to use a computers artificial intelligence to understandhow humans think. In a humanoid way.
http://www.eecs.mit.edu/100th/images/Brooks-Cog-Kismet.html1998 – now CogHumanoidintelligence requireshumanoidinteractions with theworld.
Fresh Kitty Modular, inexpensive,autonomous mobile robot 4 wheel toy car design Max. speed of 1 foot/sec On-board microcomputersupervises and supports theexchange of information Rotating turret holds 4 sonars Turret also holds an infraredsensor to detect infrared rays 32 light sensors detect objects infront of the robot Bumpers all around the robotused to follow walls Radio modem to communicatewith remote agents
SPOT Autonomous mobile robot 2 independent wheel design Max. speed of 1 foot/sec On-board microcontrollersupervises and supports theexchange of information Turret that holds infraredemitters that can be detected at adistance of up to 20 feet Bumpers all around the robotused to follow walls Radio modem to communicatewith remote agents
How do SPOT and Fresh Kittywork together?SPOT also holds a small brush on its backSPOT finds a wall and uses its bumper systemand sensors to follow edges and collect dust withits brushThrough radio frequency and infraredcommunication SPOT can bring the dust back toFresh Kitty who has a vacuum cleaner waiting tosuck it up
Robots must cooperate in…Strategy acquisitionReal-time reasoningMulti-agent collaborationCompetition against anotherteam of robotsRoboCup is an international research effort topromote autonomous robots.Robot
Each robot has…Pentium 233MHzLinux OSVideo camera andframe grabberSensor SystemKickerRoboCup
Control is based on a set of behaviorsEach behavior has a set of preconditions thateither…Must be satisfiedAre desiredA behavior is selected when all of the “musts”become trueA behavior is selected from several behaviorsbased on how many desired conditions are true
Difference Between Humanand Robots ???Humans RobotsHumans are Organic Robots are made of metalHuman can think and have a soul. Robots just do commands and obey towhat Humans say.Humans can eat Robots just get oiled up, and chargedlike a battery.A human can love, cry, get angry, andthrow temper tantrumsA robot cant love, cry, get angry, andthrow temper tantrums
Why build a human-like robot??Our bodies are critical to the representationsthat we use for internal thought and languageIf a robot is looks like a human then it will benatural for humans to interact with it in ahuman-like wayTo develop similar task constraints