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Arificail Intelligence and robotics


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Arificail Intelligence and robotics

  1. 1. Artificial Intelligence (AI)Computers with the ability to mimic or duplicatethe functions of the human brainArtificial intelligence systemsThe people, procedures, hardware, software, data,and knowledge needed to develop computersystems and machines that demonstrate thecharacteristics of intelligence
  2. 2. Intelligent behaviorLearn from experienceApply knowledge acquired from experienceHandle complex situationsSolve problems when important information is missingDetermine what is importantReact quickly and correctly to a new situationUnderstand visual imagesBe creative and imaginativeUse heuristics ()
  3. 3. Major Branches of AIPerceptive system A system that approximates the way a human sees, hears, andfeels objectsVision system Capture, store, and manipulate visual images and picturesRobotics Mechanical and computer devices that perform tedious taskswith high precisionExpert system Stores knowledge and makes inferences
  4. 4. Learning system Computer changes how it functions or reacts to situations basedon feedbackNatural language processing Computers understand and react to statements and commandsmade in a “natural” language, such as EnglishNeural network Computer system that can act like or simulate the functioning ofthe human brain
  5. 5. ArtificialintelligenceRoboticsVisionsystemsLearningsystemsNatural languageprocessingNeural networksExpert systems
  6. 6. Artificial IntelligenceThe branch of computer science concerned with makingcomputers behave like humans. The term was coined in 1956 byJohn McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Artificial intelligence includes games playing: programming computers to play games such aschess and checkers expert systems : programming computers to make decisions in real-lifesituations (for example, some expert systems help doctors diagnosediseases based on symptoms) natural language : programming computers to understand naturalhuman languages
  7. 7. Artificial Intelligence neural networks : Systems that simulate intelligence by attemptingto reproduce the types of physical connections that occur in animalbrains robotics : programming computers to see and hear and react toother sensory stimuliCurrently, no computers exhibit full artificial intelligence (that is,are able to simulate human behavior). The greatest advances haveoccurred in the field of games playing. The best computer chessprograms are now capable of beating humans. In May, 1997, anIBMsuper-computer called Deep Blue defeated world chess champion
  8. 8. Artificial IntelligenceIn the early 1980s, expert systems were believed to represent thefuture of artificial intelligence and of computers in general. Todate,however, they have not lived up to expectations. Many expertsystems help human experts in such fields as medicine andengineering, but they are very expensive to produce and arehelpfulonly in special situations.Today, the hottest area of artificial intelligence is neural networks,which are proving successful in a number of disciplines such asvoice recognition and natural-language processing.
  9. 9. 1958 Lisp – a functional programming language with asimple syntax.1972 PROLOG - a logic programming language whoseprimary control structure is depth-first search1988 CLOS (Common Lisp Object Standard)
  10. 10. game playingspeech recognitionunderstanding natural languageHeavy Industries and SpaceFinanceAviationWeather ForecastSwarm Intelligence
  11. 11. AI is very important.. its how the computer basically thinks. Itsused in games and how the computer solves problems. AI is basedon algorithms, events, time, procedures/steps, conditions. AI is ahuge part on how a computer works.AI can have two purposes. One is to use the power of computers toaugment human thinking, just as we use motors to augment human orhorse power. Robotics and expert systems are major branches of that.The other is to use a computers artificial intelligence to understandhow humans think. In a humanoid way.
  12. 12. – now CogHumanoidintelligence requireshumanoidinteractions with theworld.
  13. 13. Fresh Kitty Modular, inexpensive,autonomous mobile robot 4 wheel toy car design Max. speed of 1 foot/sec On-board microcomputersupervises and supports theexchange of information Rotating turret holds 4 sonars Turret also holds an infraredsensor to detect infrared rays 32 light sensors detect objects infront of the robot Bumpers all around the robotused to follow walls Radio modem to communicatewith remote agents
  14. 14. SPOT Autonomous mobile robot 2 independent wheel design Max. speed of 1 foot/sec On-board microcontrollersupervises and supports theexchange of information Turret that holds infraredemitters that can be detected at adistance of up to 20 feet Bumpers all around the robotused to follow walls Radio modem to communicatewith remote agents
  15. 15. How do SPOT and Fresh Kittywork together?SPOT also holds a small brush on its backSPOT finds a wall and uses its bumper systemand sensors to follow edges and collect dust withits brushThrough radio frequency and infraredcommunication SPOT can bring the dust back toFresh Kitty who has a vacuum cleaner waiting tosuck it up
  16. 16. Robots must cooperate in…Strategy acquisitionReal-time reasoningMulti-agent collaborationCompetition against anotherteam of robotsRoboCup is an international research effort topromote autonomous robots.Robot
  17. 17. Each robot has…Pentium 233MHzLinux OSVideo camera andframe grabberSensor SystemKickerRoboCup
  18. 18. Control is based on a set of behaviorsEach behavior has a set of preconditions thateither…Must be satisfiedAre desiredA behavior is selected when all of the “musts”become trueA behavior is selected from several behaviorsbased on how many desired conditions are true
  19. 19. Difference Between Humanand Robots ???Humans RobotsHumans are Organic Robots are made of metalHuman can think and have a soul. Robots just do commands and obey towhat Humans say.Humans can eat Robots just get oiled up, and chargedlike a battery.A human can love, cry, get angry, andthrow temper tantrumsA robot cant love, cry, get angry, andthrow temper tantrums
  20. 20. Why build a human-like robot??Our bodies are critical to the representationsthat we use for internal thought and languageIf a robot is looks like a human then it will benatural for humans to interact with it in ahuman-like wayTo develop similar task constraints