Published on

Classification and Tabulation of data.

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. <ul><li>STATISTICS </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction & application in business </li></ul><ul><li>Survey & methods of survey </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire and Types of questionnaire </li></ul>
  2. 2. Classification and Tabulation
  3. 3. <ul><li>Sarah </li></ul><ul><li>FARHAN </li></ul><ul><li>Rashmi </li></ul><ul><li>Rameez </li></ul><ul><li>NITIN </li></ul><ul><li>Joyson </li></ul>MEMBERS MBA 1 st Sem AIBA
  4. 4. THE DAFFODILS <ul><li>Miss Gee is very excited. “The daffodils” her flower boutique which she had set up two years back is getting an overwhelming response from the customers. It has now emerged among the best flower suppliers in the neighborhood. The reason for this success is the undaunting effort by Miss Gee. She makes it a point to sell fresh flowers of all the possible varieties including the seasonal flowers at justified and affordable price. Her invaluable customer service has earned her many regular customers. </li></ul>
  5. 5. But at the same time she is finding it difficult to keep track of the total sales in each category of flowers. She indeed has all the copies of the sales bills. In order to increase her total sales she has to find out which of her flowers have more demand. For this she needs to review the past sales trend. But she is piled up with all the bills. How do you think she has to sort out the bills? Yes!!! She has to first classify the flower into different groups.
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>The act of forming into a class or classes, a distribution into groups, as classes, orders, families, etc, according to some common relations or affinities. </li></ul>When studying a number of objects or observations you can sometimes reveal an underlying structure of the material by grouping the observations into classes. For the basis of categorization you have to select a property or attribute which you can record for each of the studied specimens or cases.
  7. 7. <ul><li>Classification of flowers </li></ul>FLOWERS SEASONAL REGULAR WILD DECORATIVE BOUQUET Amaranthus. Bells of Ireland Buplerum Curly Willow Carnation Dahlia Daisy Anthurium Buttons Aster Cushion Anemone Roses
  8. 8. Functions & Objectives of classification <ul><li>It pinpoints the most significant features of the data at a glance </li></ul><ul><li>It gives prominence to the important information </li></ul><ul><li>It enables statistical treatment of the material collected </li></ul><ul><li>It condenses mass data </li></ul><ul><li>It helps to facilitate comparison </li></ul><ul><li>It helps in preparing data for tabulation </li></ul><ul><li>It enables the study relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>It enables grasp of data </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Classification of flowers </li></ul>FLOWERS SEASONAL REGULAR WILD DECORATIVE BOUQUET Amaranthus. Bells of Ireland Buplerum Curly Willow Carnation Dahlia Daisy Anthurium Buttons Aster Cushion Anemone Roses
  10. 10. Essentials of a good classification <ul><li>Exhaustive </li></ul><ul><li>Mutually exclusive </li></ul><ul><li>Suitability </li></ul><ul><li>Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Homogeneity </li></ul>
  11. 11. Modes / Types of classification <ul><li>Statistical data are classified in respect of their </li></ul><ul><li>characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Chronological classification </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical classification </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative classification </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative classification </li></ul><ul><li>Fuzzy classification </li></ul><ul><li>Typology </li></ul><ul><li>Stylistic classification </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Classification of people </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Chronological classification </li></ul><ul><li>Total no of flowers sold for certain months </li></ul>Geographical classification Total no of flowers sent to places 459 205 220 130 Sales June March Feb Jan Month 160 506 489 250 Sales ComercialCenters Households office Church Places
  13. 13. <ul><li>Qualitative classification </li></ul><ul><li>Based on kinds of flowers. </li></ul>Quantitative classification No of flowers in stock 134 Roses 60 Carnations 250 Daisies Total No Names FLOWERS REGULAR SEASONAL
  14. 14. <ul><li>Other classifications </li></ul><ul><li>Fuzzy classification: Placing the specimens </li></ul><ul><li>in one or other classes even if the &quot;fit&quot; is </li></ul><ul><li>not perfect by considering several </li></ul><ul><li>attributes. </li></ul><ul><li>Typology: Each class is formed around </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;typical&quot; or &quot;pure&quot; exemplar and objects are </li></ul><ul><li>assigned through resemblance. </li></ul><ul><li>Stylistic classification: Sort objects that belong </li></ul><ul><li>to the same point of time, e.g. paintings from </li></ul><ul><li>various artists. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Other classifications </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster analysis: Cases or specimens for which </li></ul><ul><li>there are lot of measurements but one cannot </li></ul><ul><li>know which of the variables are best suited </li></ul><ul><li>for the basis of classification. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Other classifications </li></ul><ul><li>Classification of people: In cases of people , </li></ul><ul><li>families, and organizations, classes are made </li></ul><ul><li>on the basis of profession, education, income </li></ul><ul><li>and other demographic characteristics. </li></ul>
  17. 17. TABULATION <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Tabulation is the process of summarizing classified or grouped data in the form of a table so that it is easily understood and an investigator is quickly able to locate the desired information. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Objectives of Tabulation <ul><li>It simplifies complex data and the data presented are easily understood. </li></ul><ul><li>It facilitates comparison of related facts. </li></ul><ul><li>It facilitates computation of various statistical. </li></ul><ul><li>It presents facts in minimum possible space. </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover, the needed information can be easily located. </li></ul><ul><li>Tabulated data are good for references and to present the information in the form of graphs and diagrams. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Components of Table <ul><li>An ideal table should consist of the following main parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Table number </li></ul><ul><li>Title of the table </li></ul><ul><li>Captions or column headings </li></ul><ul><li>Stubs or row designation </li></ul><ul><li>Body of the table </li></ul><ul><li>Footnotes </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of data </li></ul>
  20. 20. Stub Sub Heading BODY TOTAL Total Caption Heading Caption Subheading Sub Heading
  21. 21. Requirements of a Good Table <ul><li>A table should be formed in keeping with the objects of statistical enquiry. </li></ul><ul><li>A table should be carefully prepared so that it is easily understandable. </li></ul><ul><li>A table should be formed so as to suit the size of the paper. </li></ul><ul><li>If the figures in the table are large, they should be suitably rounded or approximated. </li></ul><ul><li>Rows and columns in a table should be numbered. </li></ul><ul><li>The arrangements of rows and columns should be in a logical and systematic order. </li></ul><ul><li>The corresponding proportions or percentages should be given in adjoining rows and columns. </li></ul><ul><li>The averages or totals of different rows should be given at the right of the table and that of columns at the bottom of the table. </li></ul><ul><li>In case it is not possible to accommodate all the information in a single table, it is better to have two or more related tables. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of tabulation is fully achieved only if all the cases fit into classes. </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover, any table works best when the boundaries between the categories are clear-cut </li></ul>
  22. 22. Types of tables <ul><li>Simple and Complex tables. </li></ul><ul><li>General purpose and special purpose tables. </li></ul><ul><li>Original and derived table. </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Tabulation </li></ul>
  23. 23. ADVANTAGES OF CLASSIFICATIONS <ul><li>I t pinpoint unique characteristics of data at a glance. </li></ul><ul><li>It facilitate comparison </li></ul><ul><li>It prepare the data for tabulation </li></ul><ul><li>It highlight significant information and to dropout the insignificant once. </li></ul><ul><li>It locate similarities and dissimilarities in the data collected. </li></ul><ul><li>It enables further statistical treatment of the numerical data collected. </li></ul><ul><li>It simplifies complex data. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Disadvantages of Classification <ul><li>If data is incorrect or not complete it’s difficult to do other process. </li></ul><ul><li>Classification is subjected to personal bias. </li></ul><ul><li>There may be misrepresentation of data collected while classifying the data and thus it may be ignored. </li></ul><ul><li>In the process of classification some amounts of details are lost. </li></ul><ul><li>It fails to highlight the salient features i.e. it becomes difficult to notice how the observations contained in each class are distributed. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Advantages of Tabulation <ul><li>It facilitates comparison relationship between different sets of data can be easily studied and compared. </li></ul><ul><li>Simplification of complex data. </li></ul><ul><li>It facilitates further statistical treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides unique identity to data collected. </li></ul><ul><li>They are simple to conduct. </li></ul><ul><li>It is only after tabulation that some vital omissions are detected. </li></ul><ul><li>It easier to present the information in the form of graphs and diagrams. </li></ul><ul><li>The needed information can be easily located. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Disadvantages of Tabulation <ul><li>It provides incorrect information while comparing with other data. </li></ul><ul><li>It is time consuming. It takes long time to tabulate the information. </li></ul><ul><li>Only people with practical experience and knowledge can construct good table. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in accumulation of sufficient data. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of description. </li></ul>
  27. 27. THANK YOU
  28. 28. <ul><li>Classification and Tabulation </li></ul><ul><li>Members Topics </li></ul><ul><li>Sarah Meaning, definition, & functions of classification. </li></ul><ul><li>Farhan Characteristics & objectives of classification. </li></ul><ul><li>Rashmi Modes of classification & components of table. </li></ul><ul><li>Rameez Meaning, definition, & objectives of tabulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Nitin Requirements & types of tables. </li></ul><ul><li>Joyson Types of table, advantages & disadvantages of classification & tabulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>Special thanks to </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Sumitha Achar, Senior lecturer at AIBA, Mangalore for </li></ul><ul><li>her support & guidance. </li></ul><ul><li>To our family & friends for their support. </li></ul><ul><li>To AUDIENCE for being and good listener & asking so </li></ul><ul><li>many!!!!!!! Questions. </li></ul>