Childhood immunization


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Childhood immunization presentation done by fifth year medicine and surgery students at the university of Science and Technology (UST), Sana'a, Yemen

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Childhood immunization

  1. 1. * By: 5th year Medicine and surgery students, UST Sana’a, Republic of Yemen
  2. 2. ** Prevention of infectious disease spread worldwide* A key to public health maintenance* Protection for one self and the surrounding in contact* To eradicate diseases (e.g. Smallpox)* Enhancement of the immune system response by “letting it learn something new”
  3. 3. ** Maternal Antibodies against certain disease do not offer a life long immunity to the baby* Many fatal childhood diseases can be prevented through vaccination (e.g. Whooping cough)* Protection of those with weak immune system from disease (e.g. Leukemia)* To maintain healthy, active and productive community members
  4. 4. ** Vaccines are weakened or killed forms of disease causing micro organisms* When the antigen is injected into the body → this allows the immune system to deal with and neutralize the invader.* Next time the same micro organism enters the body, the body has already preformed antibodies to destroy the invader
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  6. 6. ** Causative MO: Mycobacterium tuberculosis* Disease transmitter: Droplet* Type: Live attenuated bacilli* Age of vaccine administration: As soon as possible after birth* Route of administration: ID* Doses: 1* Interval between each dose: -* Booster dose: -* Special considerations: Those of low immunity should be excluded from vaccination (HIV etc)* Adverse reactions: If administered SC instead of ID, this may cause lymphadenitis.* C/I: In those with compromised immune system
  7. 7. ** Causative MO: Hepatitis B virus (dsDNA)* Disease transmitter: Blood transfusion, sexually, through the birth canal* Type: Subunit* Age of vaccine administration: After birth* Route of administration: IM* Doses: 3* Interval between each dose: →1st to 2nd: 4 weeks →2nd to 3rd: 4 weeks* Booster dose: -* Special considerations: -Premature infants’ 1st dose after 1 month of age -Infants to infected mother receive hepatitis B immunoglobulins with the initial dose.* Adverse effects: Those of importance which require prompt treatment included: anaphylaxis; Tachycardia; Numbness.* C/I: Infants weighing less than 2 kgs
  8. 8. ** Causative MO: Poliovirus (Enteroviruses of the family Picorna viridae)* Disease transmission: Droplet* Type: Salk: Killed vaccine Sabine: Live attenuated vaccine,* Route of administration: OPV: Orally IPV: IM in arm or leg* Age of vaccine administration: 6th week for OPV 8th week for IPV* Doses: 3 (4)* Interval between each dose: At least 4 weeks between each vaccine* Booster dose: IPV booster dose 6 months after the 3rd dose* Special considerations: -* Adverse effects: Anaphylaxis, tachycardia, pyrexia* C/I: Immunosuppressed individuals should not receive the vaccine
  9. 9. ** Causative MO: Diphteria, Tetanus, Pertussis* Disease transmission: Droplet, contaminated wound, droplet* Type: Diphteria and tetanus toxoids, acellular pertussis* Age of vaccine administration: Minimum age is 2 months* Route of administration: IM* Doses: 3* Interval between each dose: 1-2 months between each dose* Booster dose: 1-6 years of age* Special considerations: Patients older than 7 years whom did not get vaccinated, receives toxoids of 3 doses (1, 4w, 6-12m)* Adverse effects: Excessive crying, encephalopathy (usually occurring with pertussis)* C/I: Hypersensitivity to any vaccine component
  10. 10. ** Causative MO: Haemophilus influenza type B* Disease transmitter: Droplet/aerosol* Type: Conjugate vaccine* Age of vaccine administration: 6 weeks of age* Route of administration: IM (Part of pentavalent)* Doses: 3* Interval between each dose: 4 weeks* Booster dose: -* Special considerations: Those older than 12 months who did not receive the vaccine should receive a single dose* Adverse reactions: rare, but if occurring, are in the form of redness, pain and hotness at site of injection.* C/I: Severe allergic reaction to any component
  11. 11. ** Causative MO: Paramyxovirus* Disease transmitter: Droplet/aerosol* Type: Chicken embryo cell culture (attenuated)* Age of vaccine administration: 9 or 12 months of age* Route of administration: SC* Doses: 2* Interval between each dose: Minimum 1 month between the 1st and 2nd* Booster dose: -* Special considerations: Early to HIV (sufficient CD4+ count).* Adverse effects: Idiopathic epilepsy, febrile seizures* C/I: Allergy to any vaccine component.
  12. 12. ** Causative MO: Pneumococcus pneumonia* Disease transmitter: Droplet* Type: Conjugate* Age of vaccine administration: 1,5 months of age (minimum)* Route of administration: IM* Doses: 2 or 3* Interval between each dose: 4 weeks between each of the 2nd and 3rd doses (for the 3 dosed variety) and at 8th week interval for the 2 dosed variety)* Booster dose: For the 2 dosed type given a booster at 9-15th month later* Special considerations: Use the same type of product vaccine when giving the other doses* Adverse effects: Redness, swelling, tenderness (at site of injection)* C/I: Any kind of hypersensitivity (anaphylaxis)
  13. 13. ** Causative MO: Rotavirus* Disease transmitter: Contaminated water* Type: Attenuated virus* Age of vaccine administration: Rotarix (at 6 weeks of age)RotaTeq (at 6 weeks of age)* Route of administration: RotaTeq (oral), Rotarix (Oral)* Doses: Rotarix (2), RotaTeq (3)* Interval between each dose: Rotarix (4 weeks), RotaTeq (4 weeks between the 2nd and 3rd doses)* Booster dose: -* Special considerations: -* Adverse effects: Intussusception* C/I: Anaphylaxis due to vaccine component; Intussusception (especially in patients with previous history of intussusception)
  14. 14. ** Causative MO: Rubella virus* Disease transmitter: Droplet/aerosol* Type: Live attenuated* Age of vaccine administration: 9 or 12 months with measles* Route of administration: SC* Doses: 1* Interval between each dose: -* Booster dose: -* Special considerations: Has a coverage of more than 80% of the population when vaccinated* Adverse effects: Thrombocytopenia, arthritis, febrile seizures, anaphylaxis* C/I: Allergy, thrombocytopenia, immunosuppression
  15. 15. ** Causative MO: Human Papilloma virus (dsDNA)* Route of transmission: Sexual transmission* Type: Protein subunit* Route of administration: IM (deltoid)* Age of vaccine administration:-Quadrivalent (HPV types 6,11,16 and 18):Females 9-13 years of age-Bivalent vaccine: Females 10-13 years of age
  16. 16. ** Doses: 3* Interval between each dose:→1st to 2nd :-Quadrivalent - 2 months (min 4 weeks)-Bivalent - 1 months (max 2.5 months)→2nd to 3rd:-Quadrivalent - 4 months (min 12 weeks)-Bivalent - 5 months* Booster dose: No need for a booster dose* Considerations: The vaccination has not been recommended for males yet.* Adverse effects: Allergy (due to wheat component)* C/I: Pregnant women, Immunosuppressed individuals
  17. 17. ** Causative MO: Japanese encephalopathy virus (Flavivirus- a ssRNA)* Disease transmitter: Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquito* Type of vaccine: Brain mouse derived or Live attenuated* Route of administration: IM (deltoid muscle)* Age of vaccine administration:- Brain mouse derived: 1 year of age- Live attenuated: 9-12 months of age* Doses:-Mouse brain derived: 2 doses-Live attenuated: 1 dose
  18. 18. ** Interval between each dose:-Mouse brain derived: 1st to 2nd dose: 4 weeks-Live attenuated: no second dose* Booster dose:* -Mouse brain derived: After 1 year and every 3 years up to 10-15 years of age-Live attenuated: After 1 year* Special considerations: WHO recommends these two types of vaccines* Adverse effects: Headache, myalgia, local pain and tenderness, multiple sclerosis* C/I: Anaphylaxis due to any component
  19. 19. ** Causative MO: A flaviviridae (ssRNA virus)* Disease transmitter: The Yellow fever mosquito, Aedes Aegypti* Type of vaccine: Attenuated virus* Route of administration: SC* Age of vaccine administration: 9-12 months with measles* Doses: 1* Interval between each dose: -* Booster dose: -* Special considerations: Children of endemic areas* Adverse effects: Fever, headache, anaphylaxis, swelling at the injection site* C/I: Immunosuppressed individuals, patients younger than 6 months of age
  20. 20. ** Causative MO: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (a flavivididae ssRNA)* Disease transmitter: Ixodes mite* Type: Inactivated* Route of administration: IM (deltoid)* Age of vaccine administration: ≥ 1 yr FSME-Immun and Encepur* ≥ 3 yrs TBE_Moscow and EnceVir* Doses: 3
  21. 21. ** Interval between each dose:* -FSME-Immun and Encepur:1st to 2nd: 1-3 months2nd to 3rd: 5-12 months* TBE_Moscow and EnceVir: 1st to 2nd: 1-7 months2nd to 3rd: 23 months* Booster dose: Atleast 1 every 3 years* Special considerations: Vaccination is recommended for high risk areas* Adverse effects: Loss of appetite, headache, allergic reaction, visual disturbances* C/I: Patients with severe egg allergy, Any autoimmune disease, RA, MS, Pregnancy, immunosuppressed
  22. 22. ** Causative MO: Salmonella enterica typhi* Disease transmitter: Contaminated food items with the bacteria* Type: Ty21a: a live attenuated vaccine* Age of vaccine administration: Minimum 5 years of age* Route of administration: Oral* Doses: 3 or 4* Interval between each dose: 2 day between each dose* Booster dose: every 3-7 years* Special considerations: Preschool and school children of high risk areas of the disease* Adverse effects: Anaphylaxis, fever, headache, nausea* C/I: Recent illness with fever, immunosuppressed individuals
  23. 23. ** Causative MO: Vibrio cholera* Disease transmitter: Contaminated drinking water* Type: Killed/inactivated* Route of administration: Oral, IM, ID* Age of vaccine administration: Dukoral: 2 years at minimumShanchol And mORCVAX: 1 year minimum* Doses: Dukoral: 3Shanchol And mORCVAX: 2* Interval between each dose: Dukoral: between 1 and 6 weeks between each other doseShanchol And mORCVAX: 14 days* Booster dose: Dukoral: every 6 monthsShanchol And mORCVAX: After 2 years* Special considerations:The vaccine (dukoral) is not licensed for children below the age of 2 years* Advese effects: Erythema, pain, malaise, headache* C/I: IV infusion of the vaccine; Pregnants (category C)
  24. 24. ** Causative MO: Neisseria meningitidis* Disease transmitter: Saliva, close contact* Type: -MenA conjugate-MenC conjugate-Quadrivalent conjugate* Route of administration: IM* Age of vaccine administration:-MenA conjugate: 1-29 years-MenC conjugate: 2-11 months-Quadrivalent conjugate: at about the age of 2 years
  25. 25. ** Doses: -MenA conjugate: 1-MenC conjugate: 2-Quadrivalent conjugate: 1* Interval between each dose:-MenC conjugate: 1st to 2nd: 8 weeks* Booster dose: After 1 year* Special considerations:-* Adverse effects: Pain at the site of injection, redness* C/I: Currently ill patient, immunocompromised
  26. 26. ** Causative MO: Rhabdoviridae* Disease transmitter: Through animal byte* Type: Purified chicken embryo cell vaccine* Age of vaccine administration: Any age requiring protection* Route of administration: IM* Doses: 3* Interval between each dose: 1st to 2nd: 7 days2nd to 3rd: 14-21 days* Booster dose: Only if rabies-virus neutralizing antibody titers fall to <0.5 IU/ml.* Special considerations: Antibody testing should be done every 6 months for people at risk* Adverse effects: Stomach pain, dizziness, headache* C/I: Any allergy to: Chicken protein, neomycin, amphotericin, bovine gelatin, as these can cause anaphylaxis
  27. 27. ** Causative MO: Paramyxovirus (ssRNA)* Disease transmitter: Droplet* Type: Live attenuated* Age of vaccine administration: 12-18 months with measles* Route of administration: IM* Doses: 2* Interval between each dose: 1st to 2nd: at least 1 month between* Booster dose: -* Special considerations: The vaccine has a coverage of more than 80%* Adverse effects: Parotitis, fever, rash* C/I: Pregnancy, Low immunity (e.g. Leukemia)
  28. 28. ** Causative MO: Orthomyxoviridiae (RNA)* Disease transmitter: Droplet* Type: Avian (H5N1) or Swine (H1N1)- Live attenuated* Age of vaccine administration: Minimum age is 6 months* Route of administration: IM* Doses: 1(>9 years) or 2 (<9 years)* Interval between each dose: -* Booster dose: Annual dose (as strains mutate)* Special considerations: Prioritization of those at risk (children and elderly)* Adverse effects: Pain and redness at site of injection, narcolepsy has been noted in some patients receiving the vaccine* C/I: Allergy to any drug component or egg allergy.
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