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La Nutrició

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La Nutrició

  1. 1. LA NUTRICIÓ Sisé de Primària
  2. 2. El procés digestiu <ul><li>L’aparell digestiu ens permet obtindre dels aliments les substàncies que necessitem per a viure. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Substàncies que ens donen energia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substàncies per a creixer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L’aparell digestiu s’encarrega d’obtindre aquestes substàncies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processos: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digestió. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absorció. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expulsió dels rebuigs. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. El procés digestiu <ul><li>La digestió serveix per a processar els aliments i separar-ne les substàncies que el nostre cos necessita. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procés de la digestió: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boca: es mastegen els aliments i es mesclen amb la saliva. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Esófag : passen els aliments mastegats per la boca fins arribar a l’estómac. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estómac : els aliments es mesclen amb els sucs gàstrics i formen el quim. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intestí prim : els sucs pancreàtics i la bilis formen el quil, que ja esta preparat per a què el cos puga absorbir els nutrients. Es produeix l’absorció. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intestí gros : es recullen les substàncies no aprofitables que formen els excrements. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anus : expulsa els excrements. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. El procés digestiu
  5. 5. El procés digestiu <ul><li>L’aparell digestiu. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>La boca: llengua, dents i glàndules salivals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>La faringe i l’ esòfag : dos tubs per on passa l’aliment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L’ estòmac : òrgan amb forma de bossa. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>El fetge : fabrica la bilis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>El pàncrees : fabrica els sucs pancreàtics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L’ intestí prim : mesura aproximadament 7 metres. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L’ intestí gros : al final hi ha l’ anus . </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. La respiració. L’excreció <ul><li>L’aparell respiratori ens permet obtindre de l’aire una altra substància que necessitem per a viure: l’oxigen. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procés de la respiració : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nas. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laringe i tràquea. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bronquis. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmons. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bronquiols. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alvèols pulmonars: l’oxigen de l’aire passa a la sang. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moviments de la respiració : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inspiració: els pulmons s’omplin d’aire. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Espiració: l’aire ix dels pulmons. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. La respiració. L’excreció <ul><li>L’excreció serveix per a eliminar substàncies de rebuig que transporta la sang. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>L´aparell excretor: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Renyons: filtren la sang i produeixen l’orina. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aigua: 95%. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substàncies de rebuig: 5%. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urèters: dos tubs que porten l’orina a la bufeta. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bufeta de l’orina. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uretra: conducte que expulsa l’orina. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glàndules sudorípares: fabriquen el suor que s’expulsa pels porus. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. La respiració. L’excreció <ul><li>La suor. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>La suor esta formada per aigua (99%) i substàncies de rebuig (1%). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>La sudoració controla la temperatura corporal. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>La pell. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>La pell té glàndules sudorípares. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cada glàndula acaba en un porus per on ix la suor a l’exterior del cos. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. L’aparell circulatori <ul><li>L’aparell circulatori s’encarrega del transport de substàncies nutritives i substàncies de rebuig. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Per a què el nostre organisme funcione correctament ès necessari que les substàncies nutritives i de rebuig es repartisquen per tot el cos. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L’aparell circulatori farà aquesta tasca. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. L’aparell circulatori <ul><li>La sang és un líquid que conté totes les substàncies que recorren el cos. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composició de la sang: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma : líquid que transporta les substàncies resultants de la digestió. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glòbuls rojos : cèl·lules de color roig que transporten l’oxigen. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glòbuls blancs : ens defenen contra les infeccions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plaquetes : s’ocupen de què es coagule la sang quan es produeix una ferida. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. L’aparell circulatori <ul><li>El cor impulsa la sang per tot el cos. El vasos sanguinis són conductes per on circula la sang per tot el cos. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cor: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Òrgan que impulsa la sang. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tamany: com un puny tancat. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No para de bategar durant tota la vida. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Els vasos sanguinis: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artèries : vasos sanguinis que ixen del cor. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Venes : vasos sanguinis que arriben al cor. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capil·lars : arriben a totes les parts del nostre cos. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. La respiració. L’excreció <ul><li>El cor. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Format per teixit muscular cardíac. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No para de bategar: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8.400 litres de sang diaris. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entre 60/80 batecs/minut quan estem en repòs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fins 200 batecs quan fem exercici. </li></ul></ul></ul>aurícula esquerra venticle esquerre vàlvula aurícula dreta vàlvula venticle dret vena cava superior artèria aorta Venes pulmonars paret muscular vena cava inferior
  13. 13. La circulació de la sang <ul><li>La circulació és el recorregut que du a terme la sang per tot el cos. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>El conjunt de venes, artèries i capil·lars forma un circuit tancat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>La sang el recorre contínuament . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>La circulació té dues fases: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonar. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. La circulació de la sang <ul><li>La circulació pulmonar és el recorregut de la sang entre el cor i els pulmons. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passos: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>La sang ix del cor per les artèries pulmonars i es dirigeix cap als pulmons. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alvèols pulmonars: intercanvi de diòxid de carboni per oxigen. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continua el recorregut de la sang per a repartir l’oxigen per tot el cos. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. La circulació de la sang <ul><li>La circulació general és el recorregut que fa la sang per tot el cos. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passos: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>La sang amb oxigen ix del cor per l’artèria aorta. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recorregut general: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>La sang arriba a tots els òrgans. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A l’intestí prim arreplega les substàncies resultants de la digestió. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Als renyons separa les substàncies de rebuig. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Les venes retornen la sang al cor. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moviments : sístole i diàstole. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. La circulació de la sang <ul><li>Relació entre la circulació i altres processos de la funció de nutrició. </li></ul>
  17. 17. La sang <ul><li>La compossició de la sang. </li></ul><ul><li>La sang reparteix per tot el cos l’oxigen i les substàncies nutritives i arreplega productes de rebuig. </li></ul><ul><li>Conté plasma , que és la part líquida: glucosa i colesterol. </li></ul><ul><li>Els glòbuls rojos: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molt menuts i amb forma de disc aplanat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estan plens d’hemoglobina que és de color roig. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transporten oxigen i diòxid de carboni. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Els glòbuls blancs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Són més grans que els rojos. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tenen forma arredonida. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defenen el cos de les infeccions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Les plaquetes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Són trossets de cèl·lula. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intervenen en la coagulació de la sang. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. La sang <ul><li>Els grups sanguinis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Segons el sistema ABO hi ha quatre grups sanguinis: A, B, O i AB. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Segons el sistema RH hi ha dos grups sanguinis: RH+ I RH-. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>En una anàlisi de sang s’estudien: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>El nombre de cèl·lules que hi ha de cada classe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>El tipus de quantitat de substàncies que formen el plasma. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. HEM ACABAT

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