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Rm ch 2


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Rm ch 2

  1. 1. Chapter 2 SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION Research Methods: Chapter 2
  2. 2. Introduction to Research TOPICS  The Hallmarks of Scientific Research  Limitations to scientific research in the management  The building blocks of science and hypo-thetico deductive method of research  Seven steps of hypo-thetico deductive method  Other types of research (Case studies and Action research) Research Methods: Chapter 2
  3. 3. The Hallmarks of Scientific Research; Main Characteristics 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. P R T R P O G P Research Methods: Chapter 2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. G O P P P R T R
  4. 4. The Hallmarks of Scientific Research; Main Characteristics 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Purposiveness 1. Rigor 2. Testability 3. Replicability 4. Precision and Confidence 5. Objectivity 6. Generalizability 7. Parsimony 8. Research Methods: Chapter 2 P R T R P O G P 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. G O P P P R T R
  5. 5. The Hallmarks of Scientific Research; Purposiveness Purposiveness    It has to start with a definite aim or purpose. The focus is on increasing employee commitment. Increase employee commitment will translate into   Less absenteeism   Less turnover Increased performance levels Thus it has a purposive focus. Research Methods: Chapter 2
  6. 6. The Hallmarks of Scientific Research; Rigor A good theoretical base and sound methodological design would add rigor to the purposive study.  Rigor adds carefulness, accuracy and the degree of exactitude in research. Example:   A manager asks only from 10-12 employees how to increase the level of commitment.  And on the basis of their responses the manager reaches to conclusions on how commitment can be increased?  Whole approach to the investigation would be unscientific.  It would lack rigor for the following reasons Research Methods: Chapter 2
  7. 7. The Hallmarks of Scientific Research; 1. 2. 3. Based on few employees’ opinion that does not represent the whole population Bias and incorrectness in the responses There might be other influences on commitment which are ignored and are important for a researcher to know  Rigorous involves good theoretical base and thought out methodology.  These factors enable the researcher to collect the right kind of information from an appropriate sample with the minimum degree of bias and facilitate suitable analysis of the data gathered. Research Methods: Chapter 2
  8. 8. The Hallmarks of Scientific Research; Testability  After random selection manager and researcher develop certain hypothesis on how manager employee commitment can be enhanced, then these can be tested by applying certain statistical tests to the data collected for the purpose.  If the scientific analysis of data supports the hypothesis, it is accepted as a fact or as truth.  The researcher might hypothesize that those employees who perceive greater opportunities for participation in decision making would have a higher level of commitment. Research Methods: Chapter 2
  9. 9. The Hallmarks of Scientific Research; Replicability  It means that the results of the tests of hypotheses should be supported again and yet again when the same type of research is repeated in other similar circumstances. Example:  The study concludes that participation in decision making is one of the most important factors that influences the commitment, we will place more faith and credibility in these finding and apply in similar situations.  To the extent that this does happen, we will gain confidence in the scientific nature of our research.  Every object is attracted to the center of the earth. Research Methods: Chapter 2
  10. 10. The Hallmarks of Scientific Research; Precision and Confidence  Precision refers to the closeness of the findings to “reality” based on a sample.  It reflects the degree of accuracy and exactitude of the results of the sample. Example:  If a supervisor estimated the number of production days lost during the year due to absenteeism at between 30 and 40, as against the actual of 35.  The precision of estimation more favorably than if he has indicated that the loss of production days was somewhere between 20 and 50. Research Methods: Chapter 2
  11. 11. The Hallmarks of Scientific Research; Precision and Confidence  Confidence refers to the probability that our estimations are correct.  That is, it is not merely enough to be precise, but it is also important that we can confidently claim that 95% of the time our results would be true and there is only a 5% chance of our being wrong.  This is also known as confidence level. Research Methods: Chapter 2
  12. 12. The Hallmarks of Scientific Research; Objectivity  The conclusions drawn through the interpretation of the results of data analysis should be objective; that is, they should be based on the facts of the findings derived from actual data, and not on our subjective or emotional values. Example:  If we had a hypothesis that stated that greater participation in decision making will increase organizational commitment and this was not supported by the results, it makes no sense if the researcher continues to argue that increased opportunities for employee participation would still help! Research Methods: Chapter 2
  13. 13. The Hallmarks of Scientific Research; Generalizability  It refers to the scope of applicability of the research findings in one organization setting to other settings. Example:  If a researcher’s findings that participation in decision making enhances organizational commitment are found to be true in a variety of manufacturing, industrial and service organizations, and not merely in the particular organization studied by the researcher, then the Generalizability of the findings to other organizational settings in enhanced. Research Methods: Chapter 2
  14. 14. The Hallmarks of Scientific Research; Parsimony  Simplicity in explaining the phenomenon or problems that occur, and in generating solutions for the problems, is always preferred to complex research frameworks that consider an unmanageable number of factors. Example:  For instance, if 2-3 specific variables in the work situation are identified, which when changed would raise the organizational commitment of the employees by 45%, that would be more useful and valuable to the manager than  if it were recommended that he should change 10 different variables to increase organizational commitment by 48%. Research Methods: Chapter 2
  15. 15. Obstacles or Limitations In business Research:  It is not possible to conduct 100% scientific research studies.  It is due to human behavior being studied.  Data collection in the subjective areas of feelings, moods, attitudes and perceptions may not be 100% accurate.  Sometimes, the obstacle is due to lack of a representative sample.
  16. 16. The Building Blocks of science in Research; Research Methods: Chapter 2
  17. 17. The Building Blocks of science in Research; Observation: Example  A sales manager might observe that customers are perhaps not as pleased as they used to be.  This process of observation of the situation is what gets most of the research started  Now the manager is to determine weather there is a real problem if it is so then how serious it is? Research Methods: Chapter 2
  18. 18. The Building Blocks of science in Research; The problem identification:  This problem identification calls for some preliminary data gathering  The manager might talk casually to a few customers to find out how they feel about the products and customer service  During these conversation the manager might find that the customers like the products but are upset because of the stocks availability  And they perceive the salesperson as not being helpful Research Methods: Chapter 2
  19. 19. The Building Blocks of science in Research; The problem identification:  From discussions with the salespersons, the manager might discover that the factory does not supply the goods on time and promise new delivery dates that it fails on occasions to keep.  Salespersons might also indicate that they try to please and retain the customers by communication the delivery dates given by the factory.  Gathered information helped the manager to determine that the problem does exist. Research Methods: Chapter 2
  20. 20. The Building Blocks of science in Research; Theoretical Framework:  Gathered information also helps the manager to formulate a conceptual model and theoretical framework of all the factors contributing to the problems.  In this case there is a network of connections among the following factors.  Delays by the factory in delivering the goods  The notification of later delivery dates are not kept  Salesperson’s promises can not be fulfilled  All of them contribute to customer dissatisfaction Research Methods: Chapter 2
  21. 21. The Building Blocks of science in Research; Hypotheses:  From the theoretical framework several hypotheses can be generated and tested to determine if the data support them.  Concepts are then operationally defined so that they can be measured Research Methods: Chapter 2
  22. 22. The Building Blocks of science in Research; A research design:  A research design is set up to decide on, among other issues to collect further data, analyze and interpret them.  And finally to provide an answer to the problem.  The process of drawing from logical analysis an inference that declare to be conclusive is called deduction. Research Methods: Chapter 2
  23. 23. The Building Blocks of science in Research; Deduction and Inductions  Answers to issues can be found either by the;  Process of Induction  Process of Deduction,  By a combination of the two. Research Methods: Chapter 2
  24. 24. Deduction & Induction Methods in Research; Research Methods: Chapter 2
  25. 25. The Hypothetico-Deductive Method; The Seven-step Process 1) Identify a broad problem area 2) Define the problem statement 3) Develop hypotheses 4) Determine measures 5) Data collection 6) Data analysis 7) Interpretation of data Research Methods: Chapter 2
  26. 26. The Hypothetico-Deductive Method; Research Methods: Chapter 2
  27. 27. The Hypothetico-Deductive Method; dentify a broad problem area  Observation is the first stage, in which one senses that certain changes are occurring or that some new behaviors, attitudes and feelings are surfacing in one’s environment (i.e., the work place).  Drop in sales  Frequent production interruptions  Customer switching  Disinterestedness of employees Research Methods: Chapter 2
  28. 28. The Hypothetico-Deductive Method; efine the problem statement  Scientific research starts with a definite aim or purpose  It involves the seeking of information in depth, of what is observed, to find solutions for identified problems  A problem statement that states the general objective of the research should be developed  This could be done by talking informally to several people in the work setting or to clients or to other relevant sources, thereby gathering information on what is happening and why,  Then it is followed by structured interviews. Research Methods: Chapter 2
  29. 29. The Hypothetico-Deductive Method; evelop hypotheses  It is an attempt to integrate all the information in a logical manners, so that the factors responsible for the problem can be on conceptualized and tested.  The theoretical framework formulated is often guided by experience and intuition.  In this step the critical variables are identified and examined as to their contribution or influence in explaining why the problem occurs and how it can be solved.  A scientific hypothesis must meet the two criteria  Hypothesis must be testable and falsifiable Research Methods: Chapter 2
  30. 30. The Hypothetico-Deductive Method; Hypothesizing  It is the next logical step after theory formulation.  From the theorized network of associations among the variables, certain testable hypotheses or educated conjectures can be generated.  Hypothesis testing is called deductive research. Sometimes, hypotheses that were not originally formulated do get generated through the process of induction. Research Methods: Chapter 2
  31. 31. The Hypothetico-Deductive Method; etermine measures  Measurement of variables (variables and measuring scales)  After the development of the hypotheses, data with respect to each variable in the hypotheses need to be obtained. Research Methods: Chapter 2
  32. 32. The Hypothetico-Deductive Method; ata Collection  Further data are collected to test the hypotheses that are generated in the study. Research Methods: Chapter 2
  33. 33. The Hypothetico-Deductive Method; Data Analysis  Data gathered are statistically analyzed to see if the hypotheses that were generated have been supported.  Co-relational method will be used to analyze and determine the relationship of two or more factors in the hypotheses for example:  Stock availability and customer satisfaction. Research Methods: Chapter 2
  34. 34. The Hypothetico-Deductive Method; terpretation of data  Deduction is the process of arriving at conclusions by interpreting the meaning of results of the data analysis. Research Methods: Chapter 2
  35. 35. Other Types of Research; Other Types  Case studies and action research are sometimes used to study certain types of issues. 1. 2. Case Studies Action Research Research Methods: Chapter 2
  36. 36. Other Types of Research; Case Studies  Case studies involve in depth, contextual analyses of similar situations in the other organizations, where the nature and definition of the problem happen to be the same as experienced in the current situation.  Case study, as a problem solving technique, is not often undertaken in organizations  Because such studies dealing with problems similar to the one experienced by a particular organization of a particular size and in a particular type of setting are difficult to come by. Research Methods: Chapter 2
  37. 37. Other Types of Research; Action Research  The researcher begins with a problem that is already identified and gathers relevant data to provide a tentative problem solution.  This solution is then implemented, with the knowledge that there may be unintended consequences following such implementation.  The effects are then evaluated, defined and diagnosed and the research continues on an ongoing basis until the problem is fully resolved. Research Methods: Chapter 2