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CONTENTS
2.1. COMPONENT
2.2 . PUBLIC RELATIONS OBJECTIVE
2.3 . PUBLIC RELATIONS STRATEGY
2.4 . PUBLIC RELATIONS PROCESS
2.1. COMPONENT
= Public Relations Objective
= Communication programme
= Content / message development
= Media Co-ordination
= Impact / Result monitoring
2.2. PUBLIC RELATIONS OBJECTIVE
For developing a sound Public Relations programme, a clear well-defined Public
Relations objective needs to be established. These objectives should be very specific
and measurable.
Example:
Objective: To immunize two million child of the state above the
age of 3 and below the age of 5 during the period of August 15
to August 30 to avert the Polio.
Evaluation: Success of the programme can be determined by
the actual number immunized.
Objective:
1. To begin to provide the public with regularly scheduled
advertisements about the danger of burning plastic in open
air and its associated disease like cancer, disabled child etc.
2. To personally contact once in 3 months all media
representatives (press meet) in order to inform the health
hazards and to seek their cooperation for highlighting the
issues.
2.3. PUBLIC RELATIONS STRATEGY
For effective implementation of the Public Relations objective a Public Relations
strategy is to be evolved. The process of strategy starts with planning which consist
of:
a. Determining Key results area
b. Define roles
c. Selecting and setting objectives
d. Preparing action plans relating to programming, scheduling, budgeting,
fixing accountability and establishing rules and procedures.
Rice and Paisley suggest the guidelines for planning a successful campaign.
i. Assessment of the needs, goals and capabilities of target audiences.
ii. Systematic campaign planning and production
iii. Continuous evaluation
iv. Complementary roles of mass media and interpersonal communication
v. Selection of appropriate media for target audiences.
2.4. PUBLIC RELATIONS PROCESS
The definition of Public Relations as relations with the general public through
publicity, those functions of a corporation, organisation, branch of military service,
etc., concerned with informing the public of its activities, policies, etc., attempting to
create favourable public opinions.
Public Relations is the planned effort to influence opinion through good character
and responsible performance, based upon mutually satisfactory two-way
communications.
1) Research-listening: This involves probing the opinions, attitudes and reactions of
those concerned with the acts and policies of an organisation, then evaluating the
inflow. This task also requires determining facts regarding the organisation:
"what's our problem?"
2) Planning-decision making: This involves bringing these attitudes, opinions,
ideas and reactions to bear on the policies and programmes of the organisation. It
will enable the organisation to chart a course in the interests of all concerned:
"Here's what we can do."
3) Communication-action: This involves explaining and dramatizing the chosen
course to all those who may be affected and whose support is essential: "Here's
what we did and why."
4) Evaluation: This involves evaluating the results of the programme and the
effectiveness of techniques used: "How did we do?"
The first phase of Public Relations process is identifying and listing out the
information or message to the communicator.
The second phase of Public Relations is process to ascertain the existing image
or awareness level about the issue in the target group or common public.
The third phase of Public Relations is developing of communication objectives
and priorities.
The fourth phase of Public Relations is deals with developing the message and
choosing the media to transit.
The fifth phase of Public Relations is the implementation of the message and
media, coordination or the dissemination of message.
The sixth phase of Public Relations is communication process to check
whether message reached properly and the expected action or behaviour or knowledge
on image factors.
The seventh phase of Public Relations, in case the message did not reach
properly identified the reason for the ineffectiveness and rectification of the same and
disseminate the revised message.
Now, let us briefly see the above component:
1. Listing and prioritising of information is to be disseminated:
May wish to inform the public:
a) The new policy of the Government or organisation
b) The change in the existing policy
c) The new scheme promoted
d) The change in the existing scheme
Public Relations activity starts with identifying the message to be disseminated
and prioritised.
2. Ascertaining the existing knowledge level or understanding the perceptions of
the public:
The organisation can check a quick survey among the target group of the public to
ascertain the knowledge level of the issue for which the organisation is planning to
initiate Public Relations process and in case of the image it is essential to know
whether the image is positive, neutral or negative in terms of the assessment or in
terms of the organisation or both.
3. Communication objectives and prioritise:
Based on the knowledge level or image factor, communication objectives is to be
established which is possible to evaluate and the top management approval is
required. For example, communication objective instead of using the term increasing
awareness level about the scheme, it should be specific "By 2005, in the number of
families where of the scheme be atleast one lakh" so that we can evaluate the impact.
4. Message and Media:
After choosing the objective, the content of the message need to be developed.
While developing the message we should keep in mind the media in which we are
going to use for disseminating that message. TV/Visual media may be effective for
showing the demonstrating awareness. Training media may be effective whether the
recipient may wish to keep the gap or further reference.
5. Implementation of message and media:
Based on the expected reaching level and target group, the budget is to be
prepared and message is transmitted through the appropriate media's.
6. Impact assessment:
After release of the message, it is essential to study the impact at interval by
interacting with the target group.
7. Message redesigned:
In case, the interaction of the target group reveals the message did not reach as
expected the modification in message or media need to be done and the revised
message should be disseminated.
The research process:
Opinion, market and academic researchers have developed a pattern of research that involves
nine basic steps:
1) Statement of the problem
2) Selection of a manageable portion of the problem
3) Definition of concepts and terms
4) Literature search
5) Development of a hypothesis
6) Determination of a study design
7) Gathering of the data
8) Analysis of the data
9) Recording of the implications, generalization, conclusions
Research for analysisof a specificproblemshouldinclude these elements:
1) A broad overview of whathasgone before thatinfluencesthe presentsituation
2) Changesexpectedinthe environmentinthe nextyearorso that couldaffectthe organisation.
3) Social,political andeconomictrendsforeseeable in the nextfive totenyearsthat couldaffectthe
organisation;and
4) What the organisationcando to influence the publictoaccelerate favourable trendsandslow down
unfavourable ones.
Public Relations Process:
FACT-FINDING
RESEARCH
PLANNING AND
PROGRAMMING
COMMUNICATION EVALUATION
Situation
Background
Causes
Precedents
Allies
Opponents
Neutrals
Strategic
Analysis
Objectives
Alternatives
Risks
Benefits
Consequences
Decision
Tactics
Actions
Timing
Repetition
Follow-up
Results
Yardsticks
Proposal
Vehicles
Media
Talent
Cost
Approval
Commitment
Support
Participation
Conclusions
Revisions
Renewal
Termination
Feedback
There are at least nine questions to be answered.
i) What are the objectives in influencing public opinion?
ii) What are the alternative avenues of action for attaining them?
iii) What are the risks in taking each avenue?
iv) What are the potential benefits in each?
v) What are the potential consequences beyond each?
vi) Which avenue do we choose to take?
vii) What should be the structure of a proposal to proceed on the course chosen
embodying the projects and programmes we want to carry out?
viii) In what form do we present our proposal to best advantage for approval? To
whom?
ix) What is the minimum commitment in support and participation acceptable
from administration if the plan is to go forward and succeed?
INPUT ACTIVITY OUTPUT
ANALYTICAL
PROCESS
Target Groups
Media
Message
Intended effect
PROGRAMMING
Programming incl.
Budget Timing
PR PLAN
Analytical view on
present situation and
surrounding factors.
Co-ordination with
other corporate
activities.
ACTIVITIES
Evaluation
Follow up
ORGANISATION
POLICY
ANALYSIS PR POLICY
ANALYTICAL MATRIX FOR PUBLIC RELATIONS PROGRAMMING
Target
Group
Information
Interest
(Most
receptive
to…)
Intended
Effect
(reaction or
Relation
effect
Message
(policy
and image
values)
Media
(established
and
possible)
Priority
(long range
or short
term,
permanent
or
temporary)
Activities
(rough
outline)
Problemstatement:
The firstproduct of the researchisa statementthatsummarizes whatwaslearned aboutthe problem
situation.Writteninpresenttense, the problemstatementdescribes the situationinspecificand
measurable terms.Itdetailsmostorall of the following:
What isthe source of concern?
Where is thisproblem?
Whenis ita problem?
Who isinvolvedoraffected?
How are theyinvolvedoraffected?
Why isthisconcernto the organization anditspublics?

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PR process

  • 1. CONTENTS 2.1. COMPONENT 2.2 . PUBLIC RELATIONS OBJECTIVE 2.3 . PUBLIC RELATIONS STRATEGY 2.4 . PUBLIC RELATIONS PROCESS 2.1. COMPONENT = Public Relations Objective = Communication programme = Content / message development = Media Co-ordination = Impact / Result monitoring 2.2. PUBLIC RELATIONS OBJECTIVE For developing a sound Public Relations programme, a clear well-defined Public Relations objective needs to be established. These objectives should be very specific and measurable. Example: Objective: To immunize two million child of the state above the age of 3 and below the age of 5 during the period of August 15 to August 30 to avert the Polio. Evaluation: Success of the programme can be determined by the actual number immunized. Objective: 1. To begin to provide the public with regularly scheduled advertisements about the danger of burning plastic in open air and its associated disease like cancer, disabled child etc. 2. To personally contact once in 3 months all media representatives (press meet) in order to inform the health hazards and to seek their cooperation for highlighting the issues. 2.3. PUBLIC RELATIONS STRATEGY For effective implementation of the Public Relations objective a Public Relations strategy is to be evolved. The process of strategy starts with planning which consist of: a. Determining Key results area b. Define roles c. Selecting and setting objectives d. Preparing action plans relating to programming, scheduling, budgeting, fixing accountability and establishing rules and procedures.
  • 2. Rice and Paisley suggest the guidelines for planning a successful campaign. i. Assessment of the needs, goals and capabilities of target audiences. ii. Systematic campaign planning and production iii. Continuous evaluation iv. Complementary roles of mass media and interpersonal communication v. Selection of appropriate media for target audiences. 2.4. PUBLIC RELATIONS PROCESS The definition of Public Relations as relations with the general public through publicity, those functions of a corporation, organisation, branch of military service, etc., concerned with informing the public of its activities, policies, etc., attempting to create favourable public opinions. Public Relations is the planned effort to influence opinion through good character and responsible performance, based upon mutually satisfactory two-way communications. 1) Research-listening: This involves probing the opinions, attitudes and reactions of those concerned with the acts and policies of an organisation, then evaluating the inflow. This task also requires determining facts regarding the organisation: "what's our problem?" 2) Planning-decision making: This involves bringing these attitudes, opinions, ideas and reactions to bear on the policies and programmes of the organisation. It will enable the organisation to chart a course in the interests of all concerned: "Here's what we can do." 3) Communication-action: This involves explaining and dramatizing the chosen course to all those who may be affected and whose support is essential: "Here's what we did and why." 4) Evaluation: This involves evaluating the results of the programme and the effectiveness of techniques used: "How did we do?" The first phase of Public Relations process is identifying and listing out the information or message to the communicator. The second phase of Public Relations is process to ascertain the existing image or awareness level about the issue in the target group or common public. The third phase of Public Relations is developing of communication objectives and priorities. The fourth phase of Public Relations is deals with developing the message and choosing the media to transit. The fifth phase of Public Relations is the implementation of the message and media, coordination or the dissemination of message. The sixth phase of Public Relations is communication process to check whether message reached properly and the expected action or behaviour or knowledge
  • 3. on image factors. The seventh phase of Public Relations, in case the message did not reach properly identified the reason for the ineffectiveness and rectification of the same and disseminate the revised message. Now, let us briefly see the above component: 1. Listing and prioritising of information is to be disseminated: May wish to inform the public: a) The new policy of the Government or organisation b) The change in the existing policy c) The new scheme promoted d) The change in the existing scheme Public Relations activity starts with identifying the message to be disseminated and prioritised. 2. Ascertaining the existing knowledge level or understanding the perceptions of the public: The organisation can check a quick survey among the target group of the public to ascertain the knowledge level of the issue for which the organisation is planning to initiate Public Relations process and in case of the image it is essential to know whether the image is positive, neutral or negative in terms of the assessment or in terms of the organisation or both. 3. Communication objectives and prioritise: Based on the knowledge level or image factor, communication objectives is to be established which is possible to evaluate and the top management approval is required. For example, communication objective instead of using the term increasing awareness level about the scheme, it should be specific "By 2005, in the number of families where of the scheme be atleast one lakh" so that we can evaluate the impact. 4. Message and Media: After choosing the objective, the content of the message need to be developed. While developing the message we should keep in mind the media in which we are going to use for disseminating that message. TV/Visual media may be effective for showing the demonstrating awareness. Training media may be effective whether the recipient may wish to keep the gap or further reference. 5. Implementation of message and media: Based on the expected reaching level and target group, the budget is to be prepared and message is transmitted through the appropriate media's. 6. Impact assessment: After release of the message, it is essential to study the impact at interval by interacting with the target group. 7. Message redesigned: In case, the interaction of the target group reveals the message did not reach as
  • 4. expected the modification in message or media need to be done and the revised message should be disseminated. The research process: Opinion, market and academic researchers have developed a pattern of research that involves nine basic steps: 1) Statement of the problem 2) Selection of a manageable portion of the problem 3) Definition of concepts and terms 4) Literature search 5) Development of a hypothesis 6) Determination of a study design 7) Gathering of the data 8) Analysis of the data 9) Recording of the implications, generalization, conclusions Research for analysisof a specificproblemshouldinclude these elements: 1) A broad overview of whathasgone before thatinfluencesthe presentsituation 2) Changesexpectedinthe environmentinthe nextyearorso that couldaffectthe organisation. 3) Social,political andeconomictrendsforeseeable in the nextfive totenyearsthat couldaffectthe organisation;and 4) What the organisationcando to influence the publictoaccelerate favourable trendsandslow down unfavourable ones.
  • 5. Public Relations Process: FACT-FINDING RESEARCH PLANNING AND PROGRAMMING COMMUNICATION EVALUATION Situation Background Causes Precedents Allies Opponents Neutrals Strategic Analysis Objectives Alternatives Risks Benefits Consequences Decision Tactics Actions Timing Repetition Follow-up Results Yardsticks Proposal Vehicles Media Talent Cost Approval Commitment Support Participation Conclusions Revisions Renewal Termination Feedback
  • 6. There are at least nine questions to be answered. i) What are the objectives in influencing public opinion? ii) What are the alternative avenues of action for attaining them? iii) What are the risks in taking each avenue? iv) What are the potential benefits in each? v) What are the potential consequences beyond each? vi) Which avenue do we choose to take? vii) What should be the structure of a proposal to proceed on the course chosen embodying the projects and programmes we want to carry out? viii) In what form do we present our proposal to best advantage for approval? To whom? ix) What is the minimum commitment in support and participation acceptable from administration if the plan is to go forward and succeed? INPUT ACTIVITY OUTPUT ANALYTICAL PROCESS Target Groups Media Message Intended effect PROGRAMMING Programming incl. Budget Timing PR PLAN Analytical view on present situation and surrounding factors. Co-ordination with other corporate activities. ACTIVITIES Evaluation Follow up ORGANISATION POLICY ANALYSIS PR POLICY
  • 7. ANALYTICAL MATRIX FOR PUBLIC RELATIONS PROGRAMMING Target Group Information Interest (Most receptive to…) Intended Effect (reaction or Relation effect Message (policy and image values) Media (established and possible) Priority (long range or short term, permanent or temporary) Activities (rough outline) Problemstatement: The firstproduct of the researchisa statementthatsummarizes whatwaslearned aboutthe problem situation.Writteninpresenttense, the problemstatementdescribes the situationinspecificand measurable terms.Itdetailsmostorall of the following: What isthe source of concern? Where is thisproblem? Whenis ita problem? Who isinvolvedoraffected? How are theyinvolvedoraffected? Why isthisconcernto the organization anditspublics?