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Broadcast Media
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video content to a dispersed audience via radio,
television, or other, often digital transmission media. Receiving parties may include the general
public or a relatively large subset of thereof.
The original term broadcast referred to the literal sowing of seeds on farms by scattering them
over a wide field.[1] It was first adopted by early radio engineers from the Midwestern United
States to refer to the analogous dissemination of radio signals. Broadcasting forms a very large
segment of the mass media. Broadcasting to a very narrow range of audience is called
narrowcasting.
Historically, there have been several different types of electronic broadcasting mediums:
 Telephone broadcasting (1881–1932): the earliest form of electronic broadcasting
 Radio broadcasting (experimentally from 1906, commercially from 1920)
 Television broadcasting (telecast), experimentally from 1925, commercially from the
1930s
 Cable radio (also called "cable FM", from 1928) and cable television (from 1932)
 Satellite television (from 1974) and satellite radio (from 1990)
 Webcasting of video/television (from 1993) and audio/radio (from 1994) streams.
Radio Broadcasting:
Radio broadcasting is a one-way sound broadcasting service, transmitted over radio waves (a
form of electromagnetic radiation) from a transmitter to a receiving antenna and intended to
reach a wide audience. Audio broadcasting also can be done via cable FM, local wire networks,
satellite and the Internet.
Types Of Radio Broadcasting:
 AM: Amplitude Modulation
 FM: Frequency Modulation
 Pirate radio
 Terrestrial digital radio
 Satellite
Program formats
Radio program formats differ by country, regulation and markets. Formats change in popularity
as time passes and technology improves. Early radio equipment only allowed program material
to be broadcast in real time, known as live broadcasting. As technology for sound recording
improved, an increasing proportion of broadcast programming used pre-recorded material. A
current trend is the automation of radio stations. Some stations now operate without direct
human intervention by using entirely pre-recorded material sequenced by computer .
TV
Television (TV) is the most widely used telecommunication medium for transmitting and
receiving moving images that are either monochromatic ("black and white") or color, usually
accompanied by sound. "Television" may also refer specifically to a television set, television
programming or television transmission. The word is derived from mixed Latin and Greek roots,
meaning "far sight": Greek tele (τῆλε), far, and Latin visio, sight (from video, vis- to see, or to
view in the first person).
Definition Of Television:
 Television: broadcasting visual images of stationary or moving objects; "she is a star of
screen and video"; "Television is a medium because it is neither rare nor well done" -
Ernie Kovacs
 Television receiver: an electronic device that receives television signals and displays
them on a screen; "the British call a tv set a telly".
History Of Television:
In its early stages of development, television employed a combination of optical, mechanical and
electronic technologies to capture, transmit and display a visual image. By the late 1920s,
however, those employing only optical and electronic technologies were being explored. The
first images transmitted electrically were sent by early mechanical fax machines. The concept of
electrically powered transmission of television images in motion was first sketched in 1878 as
the telephonoscope, shortly after the invention of the telephone. At the time, it was imagined by
early science fiction authors, that someday that light could be transmitted over wires, as sounds
were.
Programming:
Getting TV programming shown to the public can happen in many different ways. After
production the next step is to market and deliver the product to whatever markets are open to
using it.
Funding:
Around the globe, broadcast television is financed by either government, advertising, licensing
(a form of tax), subscription or any combination of these.
Advertising
Television's broad reach makes it a powerful and attractive medium for advertisers. Many
television networks and stations sell blocks of broadcast time to advertisers ("sponsors") in order
to fund their programming.
Genres
Television genres include a broad range of programming types that entertain, inform, and
educate viewers. The most expensive entertainment genres to produce are usually drama and
dramatic miniseries. However, other genres, such as historical Western genres, may also have
high production costs.
Films
A film, also called a movie or motion picture, is a story conveyed with moving images. It is
produced by recording photographic images with cameras, or by creating images using
animation techniques or visual effects. The process of filmmaking has developed into an art form
and industry.
Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn,
affect them. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment
and a powerful method for educating — or indoctrinating — citizens. The visual elements of
cinema give motion pictures a universal power of communication. Some films have become
popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue into the
language of the viewer.
Films are made up of a series of individual images called frames. When these images are shown
rapidly in succession, a viewer has the illusion that motion is occurring. The viewer cannot see
the flickering between frames due to an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye
retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. Viewers
perceive motion due to a psychological effect.
The origin of the name "film" comes from the fact that photographic film (also called film stock)
has historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many
other terms exist for an individual motion picture, including picture, picture show, moving
picture, photo-play and flick. A common name for film in the United States is movie, while in
Europe the term cinema or film is preferred. Additional terms for the field in general include the
big screen, the silver screen, the cinema and the movies.
Preview
A preview performance refers to a showing of a movie to a select audience, usually for the
purposes of corporate promotions, before the public film premiere itself. Previews are sometimes
used to judge audience reaction, which if unexpectedly negative, may result in recutting or even
refilming certain sections (Audience response).
Trailer
Trailers or previews are film advertisements for films that will be exhibited in the future at a
cinema, on whose screen they are shown. The term "trailer" comes from their having originally
been shown at the end of a film programme. That practice did not last long, because patrons
tended to leave the theater after the films ended, but the name has stuck. Trailers are now shown
before the film (or the A movie in a double feature program) begins.
Film, or other art form?
Film may be combined with performance art and still be considered or referred to as a “film”.
Performance art where film is incorporated as a component is usually not called film, but a film,
which could stand-alone but is accompanied by a performance may still be referred to as a film.
The act of making a film can, in and of itself, be considered a work of art, on a different level
from the film itself, as in the films of Werner Herzog.

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Broadcast media

  • 1. Broadcast Media Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video content to a dispersed audience via radio, television, or other, often digital transmission media. Receiving parties may include the general public or a relatively large subset of thereof. The original term broadcast referred to the literal sowing of seeds on farms by scattering them over a wide field.[1] It was first adopted by early radio engineers from the Midwestern United States to refer to the analogous dissemination of radio signals. Broadcasting forms a very large segment of the mass media. Broadcasting to a very narrow range of audience is called narrowcasting. Historically, there have been several different types of electronic broadcasting mediums:  Telephone broadcasting (1881–1932): the earliest form of electronic broadcasting  Radio broadcasting (experimentally from 1906, commercially from 1920)  Television broadcasting (telecast), experimentally from 1925, commercially from the 1930s  Cable radio (also called "cable FM", from 1928) and cable television (from 1932)  Satellite television (from 1974) and satellite radio (from 1990)  Webcasting of video/television (from 1993) and audio/radio (from 1994) streams. Radio Broadcasting: Radio broadcasting is a one-way sound broadcasting service, transmitted over radio waves (a form of electromagnetic radiation) from a transmitter to a receiving antenna and intended to reach a wide audience. Audio broadcasting also can be done via cable FM, local wire networks, satellite and the Internet. Types Of Radio Broadcasting:  AM: Amplitude Modulation  FM: Frequency Modulation  Pirate radio  Terrestrial digital radio  Satellite Program formats Radio program formats differ by country, regulation and markets. Formats change in popularity as time passes and technology improves. Early radio equipment only allowed program material to be broadcast in real time, known as live broadcasting. As technology for sound recording improved, an increasing proportion of broadcast programming used pre-recorded material. A current trend is the automation of radio stations. Some stations now operate without direct human intervention by using entirely pre-recorded material sequenced by computer .
  • 2. TV Television (TV) is the most widely used telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that are either monochromatic ("black and white") or color, usually accompanied by sound. "Television" may also refer specifically to a television set, television programming or television transmission. The word is derived from mixed Latin and Greek roots, meaning "far sight": Greek tele (τῆλε), far, and Latin visio, sight (from video, vis- to see, or to view in the first person). Definition Of Television:  Television: broadcasting visual images of stationary or moving objects; "she is a star of screen and video"; "Television is a medium because it is neither rare nor well done" - Ernie Kovacs  Television receiver: an electronic device that receives television signals and displays them on a screen; "the British call a tv set a telly". History Of Television: In its early stages of development, television employed a combination of optical, mechanical and electronic technologies to capture, transmit and display a visual image. By the late 1920s, however, those employing only optical and electronic technologies were being explored. The first images transmitted electrically were sent by early mechanical fax machines. The concept of electrically powered transmission of television images in motion was first sketched in 1878 as the telephonoscope, shortly after the invention of the telephone. At the time, it was imagined by early science fiction authors, that someday that light could be transmitted over wires, as sounds were. Programming: Getting TV programming shown to the public can happen in many different ways. After production the next step is to market and deliver the product to whatever markets are open to using it. Funding: Around the globe, broadcast television is financed by either government, advertising, licensing (a form of tax), subscription or any combination of these.
  • 3. Advertising Television's broad reach makes it a powerful and attractive medium for advertisers. Many television networks and stations sell blocks of broadcast time to advertisers ("sponsors") in order to fund their programming. Genres Television genres include a broad range of programming types that entertain, inform, and educate viewers. The most expensive entertainment genres to produce are usually drama and dramatic miniseries. However, other genres, such as historical Western genres, may also have high production costs. Films A film, also called a movie or motion picture, is a story conveyed with moving images. It is produced by recording photographic images with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effects. The process of filmmaking has developed into an art form and industry. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment and a powerful method for educating — or indoctrinating — citizens. The visual elements of cinema give motion pictures a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue into the language of the viewer. Films are made up of a series of individual images called frames. When these images are shown rapidly in succession, a viewer has the illusion that motion is occurring. The viewer cannot see the flickering between frames due to an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. Viewers perceive motion due to a psychological effect. The origin of the name "film" comes from the fact that photographic film (also called film stock) has historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture, photo-play and flick. A common name for film in the United States is movie, while in Europe the term cinema or film is preferred. Additional terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the cinema and the movies. Preview A preview performance refers to a showing of a movie to a select audience, usually for the purposes of corporate promotions, before the public film premiere itself. Previews are sometimes used to judge audience reaction, which if unexpectedly negative, may result in recutting or even refilming certain sections (Audience response).
  • 4. Trailer Trailers or previews are film advertisements for films that will be exhibited in the future at a cinema, on whose screen they are shown. The term "trailer" comes from their having originally been shown at the end of a film programme. That practice did not last long, because patrons tended to leave the theater after the films ended, but the name has stuck. Trailers are now shown before the film (or the A movie in a double feature program) begins. Film, or other art form? Film may be combined with performance art and still be considered or referred to as a “film”. Performance art where film is incorporated as a component is usually not called film, but a film, which could stand-alone but is accompanied by a performance may still be referred to as a film. The act of making a film can, in and of itself, be considered a work of art, on a different level from the film itself, as in the films of Werner Herzog.