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Lecture Notes Critical Thinking Part 2 of 3

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Part 2 of 3 PowerPoint Lecture Notes on Critical Thinking (Dr. Matthew Stafford)
for the NMP at Air University, Air Command and Staff College

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Lecture Notes Critical Thinking Part 2 of 3

  1. 1. Critical Thinking … something to think about … SECTION II Dr Matthew Stafford Chief Academic OfficerWe Produce the Future Squadron Officer College
  2. 2. Section IIWe Produce the Future
  3. 3. Thinking About Thinking Develop Americas Airmen Today ... for Tomorrow• Cognition: ‒The mental process regarding how humans come to understand things ‒How humans select, process and retain information and knowledge• Meta-cognition ‒Thinking about the cognitive process ‒Self-regulation to match personal perceptions against others’ The Intellectual and Leadership Center of the Air Force Fly – Fight – Win in Air, Space, and Cyberspace 3
  4. 4. Cognitive Levels Develop Americas Airmen Today ... for Tomorrow Level Definition Recall previously learned material (facts, theories, etc.) in essentially Knowledge the same form as taught. See relationships, concepts, and abstractions beyond the simpleComprehension remembering of material. Typically involves translating, interpreting, and estimating future trends. Use learned intellectual material in new and realistic situations, Application including the application of rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws, and theories. Break down material into its component parts so that the organizational structure may be understood, including the identification of the parts, Analysis analysis of the relationships between parts, and recognition of the organizational principles involved. Put parts together to form new patterns or structures, such as a unique communication (a theme or speech), a plan of operations (a research Synthesis proposal), or a set of abstract relations (schemes for classifying information). Judge the value of material for a given purpose. Learning in this area is the highest in the cognitive hierarchy because it involves elements of Evaluation all the other categories, plus conscious value judgments based on clearly defined criteria. The Intellectual and Leadership Center of the Air Force Fly – Fight – Win in Air, Space, and Cyberspace 4
  5. 5. Cognitive Levels Develop Americas Airmen Today ... for Tomorrow Level Definition Recall previously learned material (facts, theories, etc.) in essentially Knowledge Seeking to retain information the same form as taught. See relationships, concepts, and abstractions beyond the simpleComprehension remembering of material. Typically involves translating, interpreting, and estimating future trends. Use learned intellectual material in new and realistic situations, Application including the application of rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws, and theories. Break down material into its component parts so that the organizational structure may be understood, including the identification of the parts, Analysis analysis of the relationships between parts, and recognition of the organizational principles involved. Put parts together to form new patterns or structures, such as a unique communication (a theme or speech), a plan of operations (a research Synthesis proposal), or a set of abstract relations (schemes for classifying information). Judge the value of material for a given purpose. Learning in this area is the highest in the cognitive hierarchy because it involves elements of Evaluation all the other categories, plus conscious value judgments based on clearly defined criteria. The Intellectual and Leadership Center of the Air Force Fly – Fight – Win in Air, Space, and Cyberspace 5
  6. 6. Cognitive Levels Develop Americas Airmen Today ... for Tomorrow Level Definition Recall previously learned material (facts, theories, etc.) in essentially Knowledge Seeking to retain information the same form as taught. See relationships, concepts, and abstractions beyond the simpleComprehension Reconstructing information in individual terms remembering of material. Typically involves translating, interpreting, and estimating future trends. Use learned intellectual material in new and realistic situations, Application including the application of rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws, and theories. Break down material into its component parts so that the organizational structure may be understood, including the identification of the parts, Analysis analysis of the relationships between parts, and recognition of the organizational principles involved. Put parts together to form new patterns or structures, such as a unique communication (a theme or speech), a plan of operations (a research Synthesis proposal), or a set of abstract relations (schemes for classifying information). Judge the value of material for a given purpose. Learning in this area is the highest in the cognitive hierarchy because it involves elements of Evaluation all the other categories, plus conscious value judgments based on clearly defined criteria. The Intellectual and Leadership Center of the Air Force Fly – Fight – Win in Air, Space, and Cyberspace 6
  7. 7. Cognitive Levels Develop Americas Airmen Today ... for Tomorrow Level Definition Recall previously learned material (facts, theories, etc.) in essentially Knowledge Seeking to retain information the same form as taught. See relationships, concepts, and abstractions beyond the simpleComprehension Reconstructing information in individual terms remembering of material. Typically involves translating, interpreting, and estimating future trends. Use learned intellectual material in new and realistic situations, Application including the application of rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws,ways Transferring information and using it in new and theories. Break down material into its component parts so that the organizational structure may be understood, including the identification of the parts, Analysis analysis of the relationships between parts, and recognition of the organizational principles involved. Put parts together to form new patterns or structures, such as a unique communication (a theme or speech), a plan of operations (a research Synthesis proposal), or a set of abstract relations (schemes for classifying information). Judge the value of material for a given purpose. Learning in this area is the highest in the cognitive hierarchy because it involves elements of Evaluation all the other categories, plus conscious value judgments based on clearly defined criteria. The Intellectual and Leadership Center of the Air Force Fly – Fight – Win in Air, Space, and Cyberspace 7
  8. 8. Cognitive Levels Develop Americas Airmen Today ... for Tomorrow Level Definition Recall previously learned material (facts, theories, etc.) in essentially Knowledge Seeking to retain information the same form as taught. See relationships, concepts, and abstractions beyond the simpleComprehension Reconstructing information in individual terms remembering of material. Typically involves translating, interpreting, and estimating future trends. Use learned intellectual material in new and realistic situations, Application including the application of rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws,ways Transferring information and using it in new and theories. Break down material into its component parts so that the organizational structure may be understood, including the identification of the parts, analysis of the relationships between parts, and into subcomponents Breaking complex information recognition of the Analysis organizational principles involved. Put parts together to form new patterns or structures, such as a unique communication (a theme or speech), a plan of operations (a research Synthesis proposal), or a set of abstract relations (schemes for classifying information). Judge the value of material for a given purpose. Learning in this area is the highest in the cognitive hierarchy because it involves elements of Evaluation all the other categories, plus conscious value judgments based on clearly defined criteria. The Intellectual and Leadership Center of the Air Force Fly – Fight – Win in Air, Space, and Cyberspace 8
  9. 9. Cognitive Levels Develop Americas Airmen Today ... for Tomorrow Level Definition Recall previously learned material (facts, theories, etc.) in essentially Knowledge Seeking to retain information the same form as taught. See relationships, concepts, and abstractions beyond the simpleComprehension Reconstructing information in individual terms remembering of material. Typically involves translating, interpreting, and estimating future trends. Use learned intellectual material in new and realistic situations, Application including the application of rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws,ways Transferring information and using it in new and theories. Break down material into its component parts so that the organizational structure may be understood, including the identification of the parts, analysis of the relationships between parts, and into subcomponents Breaking complex information recognition of the Analysis organizational principles involved. Put parts together to form new patterns or structures, such as a unique communication (a theme or speech), a knowledge and producing Taking discrete pieces of plan of operations (a research a Synthesis proposal), or a set of abstract relations (schemes for classifying information). new whole Judge the value of material for a given purpose. Learning in this area is the highest in the cognitive hierarchy because it involves elements of Evaluation all the other categories, plus conscious value judgments based on clearly defined criteria. The Intellectual and Leadership Center of the Air Force Fly – Fight – Win in Air, Space, and Cyberspace 9
  10. 10. Cognitive Levels Develop Americas Airmen Today ... for Tomorrow Level Definition Recall previously learned material (facts, theories, etc.) in essentially Knowledge Seeking to retain information the same form as taught. See relationships, concepts, and abstractions beyond the simpleComprehension Reconstructing information in individual terms remembering of material. Typically involves translating, interpreting, and estimating future trends. Use learned intellectual material in new and realistic situations, Application including the application of rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws,ways Transferring information and using it in new and theories. Break down material into its component parts so that the organizational structure may be understood, including the identification of the parts, analysis of the relationships between parts, and into subcomponents Breaking complex information recognition of the Analysis organizational principles involved. Put parts together to form new patterns or structures, such as a unique communication (a theme or speech), a knowledge and producing Taking discrete pieces of plan of operations (a research a Synthesis proposal), or a set of abstract relations (schemes for classifying information). new whole Judge the value of material for a given purpose. Learning in this area is Evaluation Thinking of different ways to synthesize information the highest in the cognitive hierarchy because it involves elements of all the other categories, plus conscious value judgments based on and making a judgment about which method is better clearly defined criteria. The Intellectual and Leadership Center of the Air Force Fly – Fight – Win in Air, Space, and Cyberspace 10
  11. 11. Why “Think about Thinking?” Develop Americas Airmen Today ... for Tomorrow• Improve thinking efficiency• Improve thinking effectiveness• Dedicate more effort to practice Many different approaches! The Intellectual and Leadership Center of the Air Force Fly – Fight – Win in Air, Space, and Cyberspace 11
  12. 12. AFSO-21 8-Step Model Develop Americas Airmen Today ... for Tomorrow1. Clarify problem2. Break problem into component parts; identify gaps3. Set target(s)4. Analyze/determine root cause(s)5. Develop countermeasures6. See countermeasures through7. Evaluate/confirm results and process8. Standardize successful processes The Intellectual and Leadership Center of the Air Force Fly – Fight – Win in Air, Space, and Cyberspace 12
  13. 13. 6-Step Problem-Solving Model Develop Americas Airmen Today ... for Tomorrow1. Define the problem2. Gather information3. List possible solutions4. Test solutions5. Select best course of action6. Implement solution The Intellectual and Leadership Center of the Air Force Fly – Fight – Win in Air, Space, and Cyberspace 13
  14. 14. John Boyd’s OODA Loop Develop Americas Airmen Today ... for Tomorrow Observe Act Orient Decide The Intellectual and Leadership Center of the Air Force Fly – Fight – Win in Air, Space, and Cyberspace 14
  15. 15. Comparing… Develop Americas Airmen Today ... for Tomorrow CCA OODA 6-Step 8-Step Define problem Clarify problem Discover and interpret Break problem into Observe facts Gather information component parts; identify gaps List possible solutions Set target(s) Trace effects back to Orient Analyze/determine root causes Test solutions cause(s) Investigate and evaluate – consider Select best course of Develop Decide alternatives. Look for action countermeasuresbetter courses of action. See countermeasures through Evaluate/confirm results Act Implement solution and process Standardize successful processes The Intellectual and Leadership Center of the Air Force Fly – Fight – Win in Air, Space, and Cyberspace 15
  16. 16. PLEASE VIEW Section III NEXTWe Produce the Future
  17. 17. The Intellectual and Leadership Center of the Air Force Develop Americas Airmen Today ... for TomorrowWe Produce the Future… One Student at a Time One Faculty Member at a Time One Idea at a Time The Intellectual and Leadership Center of the Air Force Fly – Fight – Win in Air, Space, and Cyberspace 17 17

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