Energy has a major economical and political role to play in the modern day society. Energy consumption in the developed countries has more or less stabilized whereas in developing countries like India and China it is increasing at a phenomenal rate. The Government is looking forward to Biomethanation as a secondary source of energy by utilizing industrial, agricultural and municipal solid wastes. A large amount of money is being invested in this direction with various projects under different stages of implementation and many to follow them. Hence the long-term sustainability of the technology needs to be judged. Various potential merits of Biomethanation like reduction in land requirement for disposal, preservation of environmental quality, etc. are the spin off of the process. A study of biomethanation plant in different developed countries and India has been carried out. To understand the technical feasibility in the Indian context, a comparison is made between the characteristics of Indian waste and the ideal wastes characteristics. Further problems of the operational stability, commercial viability of biomethanation in India, developmental plans covering issues in the formulation of national policy, improvements in collection and transportation systems, marketing strategy, and funds allocation has been highlighted .With the growing energy crisis supplemented by environmental concerns, Biomethanation can serve as a potential waste-to-energy generation alternative.
With the ever increasing awareness of green house gases and its adverse impact on the environment, pursue of Biomethanation of Municipal Solid Waste will drastically reduce the emission of CH4 and CO¬2, earning the country precious carbon credits. It will also forge India among developing countries, leading in adoption of technology which suffices the broad guidelines as laid under KAYOTO PROTOCOL.