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Lecture 4 Materials Development and Adaptation

the selection process, the approaches, the methods, piloting

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Lecture 4 Materials Development and Adaptation

  2. 2. SELECTION PROCESS The process involves finding the best possible fit & potential for adapting or supplementing 1.Identify aims & objectives of the programme 2.Analyze the T&L situation where material will be used 3.Find / design suitable evaluation checklist
  3. 3. SELECTION PROCESS 4. Limit the number of criteria 5. Draw a list of potential coursebook – use impressionistic evaluation (getting general overview of the book) for elimination 6. The short listed books are subjected to in- depth evaluation using the checklist chosen 7. Use finding to make decision to select
  4. 4. EVALUATION APPROACHES 1. IMPRESSIONISTICS OVERVIEW – A general impression, formed by looking through the material for its possibilities, – Strengths & weaknesses – noting significant features that stand out – Cannot identify weaknesses, not enough details to ensure match or to make decision [Cunningsworth]
  5. 5. EVALUATION APPROACHES 2. IN-DEPTH EVALUATION – Examine how specific items or aspects of language are dealt with, related to students learning needs, syllabus requirements, etc – More receptive, look for anything noteworthy & interesting – Matching a checklist against the requirements of T&L situation [Cunningsworth] NOTE: a combination of both approaches forms a sound basis for evaluation
  6. 6. EVALUATION APPROACHES • EXTERNAL EVALUATION • Examine the organization of the book as stated explicitly by author • look at blurb, introduction/foreword & table of content • Find out answers to questions raised such as the target audience, proficiency level of target audience, context, etc
  7. 7. EVALUATION APPROACHES • INTERNAL EVALUATION – In-depth investigation into the materials – To check the validity of claims made by authors – Look into at least two (or more) factors such as the presentation of skills, the grading & sequencing, skills representation, incorporation of other skills (listening/speaking)
  8. 8. EVALUATION APPROACHES • OVERALL EVALUATION –An overall assessment to the suitability of the materials for the teachers’ learning context –Criteria to check including usability, generalizability, adaptability & flexibility (versatility)
  9. 9. EVALUATION METHODS • Piloting – use a small range of material for a short length of time; a trial run • Opinions from other practicing teachers – within & outside the institution • Students’ view – whether they like the book or if it helps them in learning • Detailed analysis – when other methods are not possible
  10. 10. PILOTING • Materials are trialed before they are revised & disseminated more widely • Provides a feel whether : – the materials actually works or not – Aims of the materials are fulfilled – Appropriate in level, content & approach – Suitable for particular ages & groups of learners (T149-189)
  11. 11. PILOTING (cont’d) – Relates well to teachers’ expectations & stages of development – Successfully promotes learning • Reveals in details the component of success – Innovative approach – Implemented in practical terms, accessible to teachers & learners – Requirements can be followed by teachers & learners
  12. 12. PILOTING (cont’d) –Organized into suitable chunks of lessons, sections, units –Amount of preparations required –Fulfilled suitable number of hours –Helps to achieve learning outcomes that is satisfactory & measurable –Provide sense of progression –Balance of skills is appropriate (T183-185)
  13. 13. STAGES OF EVALUATION • Grant (1987) cited in Yilmaz 2005: – Initial evaluation • quick process • check preface, contents & abstract – Detailed evaluation • Teacher make own judgment • Use of questionnaires – In-use evaluation
  14. 14. Grant’s ‘CATALYST’ • A test proposed by Grant to decide the worthiness of the material in hand by asking some key questions: – Communicative? – Aims? – Teachable? – Available? – Level? – Your impression – Students’ interest? – Tried & tested?
  15. 15. Cunningsworth’s (1984) underlying principles • Relate teaching materials to your aims & objectives • Be aware of what language is for & select teaching materials which will help equip your students to use language effectively for their own purposes • Keep your students’ learning in mind • Consider the relationship between language, learning process & learners
  16. 16. Robinett’s (1978)Checklist • Goals of the course • Background of the students • Approach • Language skills • General content • Quality of practical material • Sequencing • Vocabulary • General sociolinguistics factors • Format • Accompanying materials • Teacher’s guide (Yilmaz, 2005)