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Lecture 2 Materials Development and Adaptation


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the roles, advantages, disadvantages, ideal use of materials

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Lecture 2 Materials Development and Adaptation

  2. 2. THE ROLES OF MATERIALS • Resource for presentation materials – both spoken & written • Source of activities for learners practice & communicative interactions • Reference source for grammar, vocabulary & pronunciation
  3. 3. THE ROLES OF MATERIALS • Source for stimulation & ideas for classroom language activities • As syllabus (reflect learning objectives which have already been determined) • Resource for self-directed learning • A support for less experienced teachers
  4. 4. ADVANTAGES OF TEXTBOOKS • Tsiplakides (2011): –Psychologically indispensable – progress & achievement are measured using it –Published materials have more ‘credibility’ than ‘in-house’ materials –Usually sensitive to students’ needs – save time & money, allow adaptation –Inexpensive, require little preparation
  5. 5. ADVANTAGES OF TEXTBOOKS • Tsiplakides (2011): –Effective for self directed learning –Provide structure for a program –help standardized instruction –Maintain quality –Provide a variety or learning resources –Provide language models & input –Usually visually appealing
  6. 6. ADVANTAGES OF TEXTBOOKS • Richards (2002) – Provide structure & syllabus for programme – Help standardized instruction – Maintain quality – Provide variety in learning resources – Efficient – Provide effective language model & input – Can train teachers – Visually appealing
  7. 7. ADVANTAGES OF TEXTBOOKS • Ur (1996) cited in Yilmaz 2005: – Provides a clear framework – keep teachers & learners on the right track – Can serve as syllabus – teachers & learners can follow subject systematically – Provide useful guidance & support for inexperienced teachers – Learners can learn, review & monitor progress of target language independently
  8. 8. DISADVANTAGES OF TEXTBOOKS • Richards (2002): – Contain inauthentic language – Distort content – May not reflect students needs – Can deskill teachers – Can be expensive
  9. 9. DISADVANTAGES OF TEXTBOOKS • Tsiplakides (2011): – Not flexible – mirror pedagogic, psychological & linguistics preferences of the author – Contain social & cultural biases – Too contrived & artificial in the presentation of the target language – Prevent teachers’ creativity & undermined teachers role
  10. 10. IDEAL USE OF TEXTBOOKS • Use the textbook as core reference but also supplement it with other materials • As a common framework & act as a point of reference – to keep teachers on the right track • Rookie teachers can use as much as they need to & progress to use lesser as they gain experience & knowledge
  11. 11. IDEAL USE OF TEXTBOOKS • There is a scope for replacing unsuitable parts of the book with other materials • There is a scope for teachers to develop confidence to experiment with alternative materials • Gives more variety to classroom activities & teaching techniques • Gives more flexible response to students’ individual needs.
  12. 12. THE AUTONOMY POWER • In Malaysia the common practice is that the textbooks are prescribed by the ministry while other supplementing materials are selected by the committee (Panitia). • In some occasions, teachers are also required to make selection on materials for language room or resource centres.
  13. 13. THE AUTONOMY POWER • Most higher education institutions also require teaching staff to select their own materials (course books) to be used in courses/subjects the teachers teach • If the teachers have sufficient knowledge on the process of selecting materials, the task can rewarding as they can choose materials that are suitable for their group of learners.
  14. 14. THE AUTONOMY POWER • If the teachers are less experienced and less knowledgeable, the task can be very intimidating. • Materials selection can be a demanding task as well as time consuming – having to evaluate a large number of materials before making the decision.
  15. 15. DEGREE OF AUTONOMY • Factors affecting degree of autonomy: 1.Type of education system – In centralized system (ie:Malaysia) textbooks are prescribed by the education authorities hence less autonomy for teachers – In decentralized system (ie:USA) gives more autonomy to teachers to choose what is suitable for their students
  16. 16. DEGREE OF AUTONOMY 2. Syllabus / material constraints imposed by education authorities – the more constraints imposed by the syllabus (curriculum is spelled out in details), the less autonomy power the teacher has – there are less materials that can be chosen to be used along with the syllabus, hence the used of textbooks as these books are written based on the specification
  17. 17. DEGREE OF AUTONOMY 3. Culture of the learners – certain cultural restrictions may lessen autonomy of the teachers in selecting materials – Teachers will have lesser pool of materials to choose from as they have to consider the restrictions in hand
  18. 18. DEGREE OF AUTONOMY 4. Amount of training for teachers – the more training teachers receive the more they can exercise the autonomy power given 5. Teacher’s experience & confidence – less experienced teachers will find the autonomy power useless because they do not know how to work it to their advantage
  19. 19. DEGREE OF AUTONOMY 6. Teachers’ command of English (NNS) – less proficient teachers will have lesser materials to choose from, hence less autonomy to be exercised 7. Availability of alternative t/b & resources for materials production – autonomy will be pointless if there is no materials to choose from
  20. 20. TUTORIAL 2 • Discuss the degree of autonomy power to select materials in each of the scenario: – Trainer in HR department of a banking institution – Teacher in a language centre – Lecturer in a public university • Explain why do you think each scenario has that level of autonomy power