WRITING SKILLSWRITING SKILLSCED 1224CED 1224Lecture 1Lecture 1Murni SalinaMurni SalinaFac of Education & Social SciencesFac of Education & Social SciencesUNISEL Bestari JayaUNISEL Bestari Jaya
Types of writing systemWriting systems can be divided into two main types:• alphabets - consonants and vowels,• syllabaries - syllablesThere are a number of subdivisions of each type, and thereare different classifications of writing systems indifferent sources.• Abjads / Consonant Alphabets• Alphabets• Syllabic Alphabets / Abugidas• Syllabaries• Semanto-phonetic writing systems• Undeciphered writing systems• Other writing and communication systems
1. Abjads, or consonantalphabets• such as Arabic and Hebrew full vowel indication(vocalisation) is only used in specific contexts, such as inreligious books and childrens books.• the word language in Arabic and Hebrew, both withoutvowel marks (unvocalised) and with vowel marks (vocalised).
• In Semitic languages e.g. k-t-b ()كتب is the root for wordsrelated to marking, inscribing or writing in Arabic.• Adding vowels and other consonants to such roots createsdifferent words such as– katîb, writer;– kutub, books;– kutubî, bookdealer;– maktab, school, office;– maktaba, library, literature.• Many of the ancient alphabets used in West Asia and NorthAfrica were abjads, as are the Arabic and Hebrew scripts.
2. Alphabets or phonemicalphabetsare sets of letters that represent consonants and vowels. In English,letters might represent a variety of sounds, or the same sounds can bewritten in different ways.IPA: / / (unvoiced postalveolar fricative)ʃAfrikaans: sjampoe (shampoo)Czech: šplouchat (to splash)English: ship, election, machine, mission, pressue, schedule.French: chat (cat)German: schön (beautiful)Irish: mise (me)Lingala: cakú / shakú (African grey parrot)Welsh: siarad (to speak)Russian: кошка (cat)Armenian: շ (Saturday)աբաթօրյաGeorgian: ბოდიშ (sorry)ი
3. Syllabic alphabets• alphasyllabaries or abugidas are writing systems in whichthe main element is the syllable. Syllables are built up ofconsonants, each of which has an inherent vowel, e.g. ka,kha, ga, gha.• Diacritic symbols are used to change or mute the inherentvowel, and separate vowel letters may be used when vowelsoccur at the beginning of a syllable or on their own.
4. A syllabary• phonetic writingsystem consistingof a consonant plusa vowel or a singlevowel.• The illustrationbelow shows aselection ofsymbols fromJapanese Hiragana,and Inuktitut.
5. Semanto-phonetic writingsystems• The symbols used in semanto-phoneticwriting systems often represent bothsound and meaning. As a result, suchscripts generally include a large number ofsymbols: anything from several hundred totens of thousands. In fact there is notheoretical upper limit to the number ofsymbols in some scripts, such as Chinese.These scripts could also be calledlogophonetic, morphophonemic, logographicor logosyllabic.
5.1 Pictograms and logogramsPictograms orpictographs resemblethe things theyrepresent. Logogramsare symbols thatrepresent parts ofwords or whole words.The image showsexamples ofpictograms from theAncient EgyptianHieroglyphic andChinese scripts.
5.2 IdeogramsIdeograms or ideographs are symbolswhich graphically represent abstract ideas.The image below shows a number ofideographic Chinese characters.
5.3 Compound charactersThe majority of characters in the Chinese scriptare semanto-phonetic compounds: they include asemantic element, which represents or hints attheir meaning, and a phonetic element, whichshows or hints at their pronunciation. Below are afew such compound characters which all share asemantic element meaning horse.
Undeciphered writing systems• The writing systems listed below have yet to bedeciphered or have only been partially deciphered.Vinča / Old European• A collection of symbols found on many of theartefacts dating from between 6,000 to 4,500 BCexcavated from sites in south-east Europe, inparticular from Vinča near Belgrade. There is noagreement on whether these symbols are awriting system.Indus/Harappa script• A collection of symbols used in the Indus valley ofIndia between about 3,500 and 2,000 BC. Somebelieve that these symbols are non-linguistic,while others argue that they represent aDravidian language.
Other writing andcommunication systems• Alternative scripts - alternative scriptsfor English and other languages• Phonetic alphabets - writing systems thatcan be used to phonetically indicate thepronunciation of any language• Other notation systems - Braille,Shorthand, etc.• Language-based communication systems -Morse Code, Semaphore, etc.• Magical alphabet - Enochian, Theban, etc.• Fictional scripts - writing systems used inbooks, films and computer games