Training brush generator

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Training brush generator

  1. 1. Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. PO Box 18, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 1HJ, England Telephone: +44 (1509) 611511 Telefax: +44 (1509) 610440 E-Mail: sales@bem.fki-et.com Web Site: http://www.fki-et.com/bem TTTrrraaaiiinnniiinnnggg MMMaaannnuuuaaalll SONAHESS PRISMIC PMS SYSTEM 237 (English Version) Manual No: TP00001242 Issue: A Date: January 2008
  2. 2. SONAHESS PRISMIC PMS TRAINING MANUAL (English Version) Manual No: TP00001242 Issue: A Date: January 2008 Page: 2 of 5 © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2008 TRAINING MANUAL CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................................ 3 2 GUIDE TO TRAINING MANUAL ............................................................................................................... 3 3 PROJECT DOCUMENTATION ................................................................................................................. 3 4 TRAINING MODULES ............................................................................................................................... 4
  3. 3. SONAHESS PRISMIC PMS TRAINING MANUAL (English Version) Manual No: TP00001242 Issue: A Date: January 2008 Page: 3 of 5 © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2008 1 INTRODUCTION This Training Manual is intended to provide Operators with a understanding of the concepts and procedures used in the design and manufacture of generators and ancillary equipment. In addition to general background information, the Training Manual incorporates details of basic design concepts and project specific information as appropriate. A schedule of the training modules provided, and a summary of their content is given in Section 4. 2 GUIDE TO TRAINING MANUAL Electronic copies of the Training Manual are provided in Adobe Acrobat format (PDF files), which includes bookmarks or links to enable the user to navigate between the various Sections within the manual. To move to the required Section, 'click' on the bookmark in the left hand portion of the screen. 3 PROJECT DOCUMENTATION The Training Manual is designed to supplement the information given in other project documentation i.e.  Operating & Maintenance Manual comprising Installation & Commissioning procedures, Operation & Maintenance procedures, Drawings, Control & Monitoring Equipment and Suppliers Data.  Instruction Manuals/Handbooks for Brush ancillary equipment  Quality Dossier incorporating as shipped equipment settings and, where Brush has an involvement, as commissioned settings.
  4. 4. SONAHESS PRISMIC PMS TRAINING MANUAL (English Version) Manual No: TP00001242 Issue: A Date: January 2008 Page: 4 of 5 © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2008 4 TRAINING MODULES 01 GENERAL 01.01.01 Introduction To Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. FKI plc; Brush Electrical Machines History; Brush Electrical Machines 01.02.01 Safety Warning Symbols; Health & Safety At Work Act (1974); Control Of Substances Hazardous To Health (COSHH Regulations 1999); Operation & Maintenance; Protection & Monitoring Devices 01.03.01 Maintenance Philosophies Maintenance; Machine Deterioration; Maintenance Philosophies; Sensory Perception 01.04.01 Principles Of AC Generation Faraday's Law Of Electromagnetic Induction; Three Phase Generation; Generator Excitation Control Systems 04 GENERATOR SYSTEMS 04.01.01 Power Generation Systems Prime Mover/Generator; Generator Operation; Automatic Voltage Control; Parallel Operation; Governor Droop; Generator Output 04.02.01 Generator Synchronising Introduction; DC Generators; AC Generators; Synchronising AC Generators; Lamp Synchronising; Synchroscope; Synchronising At The Switchboard/Control Panel; Automatic Synchronising; Check Synchronising; Closing Onto Dead Busbar 04.03.01 Capability Diagrams Introduction; Stator Current; Power Output; Rotor Current; Stability Of The Rotor; Temporary Limitation; Use Of Capability Diagram; Capability Diagram For Synchronous Motor; Capability Diagram For Synchronous Condenser 04.07.01 Electrical Device Numbers & Functions Introduction; Device Numbers 04.08.01 Equipment & Switchgear Labelling (BS3939) Introduction; General; Prefix Letter; Wire Numbers; Suffix Letters; Numbering Table 04.09.01 High Voltage Phasing Checks Introduction; Phasing Out Of HV Systems; Phasing Sticks 04.10.01 Electrical Power Resistance, Inductance & Capacitance; Current & Voltage; Active Power; Reactive Power; Power Factor & Apparent Power; Three Phase Power, Tariffs & Power Factor Correction. 07.01.03 PRISMIC Power Management System (PMS) Introduction; Applications; Features 07.05.01 Stability Settings Using Keyboard Entry (PRISMIC 'A') Introduction; Active Power Sharing (MW) Commissioning; Reactive Power Sharing (MVAr) Commissioning; Connecting To The Grid Network; After Commissioning 07.06.02 Calibration Procedures (PRISMIC 'B') Introduction; Analogue Cards; Voltage Sensing Unit; Power Measurement System; PRISMIC Calibration On Site; Typical Calibration Problems 07.06.03 Calibration Procedures (PRISMIC PMS) 07.07.01 Set Management Introduction; Starting; Stopping Of Sets; Duty Selection And Hours Run; Fail To Synchronise Alarm; Incorrect Duty Alarm; Minimum Sets To Run; Critical Sets; Large Motor Starting; Split Bus Operation; Grid Tariffs 07.08.02 Load Shedding (HMI Systems) Introduction; Modes Of Operation 07.09.01 Spinning Reserve Introduction; Solid Bus System; Detached System 07.10.01 Data Communications Introduction; Communications - What Is It?; What Is Data Communications; Historical Background; Information Transfer Systems; Telecommunications Systems; Data, Audio & video Communications; Communications Interface; Interface Standards Overview; Smart Instrumentation; Modern Systems
  5. 5. SONAHESS PRISMIC PMS TRAINING MANUAL (English Version) Manual No: TP00001242 Issue: A Date: January 2008 Page: 5 of 5 © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2008 07.11.03 Fault Finding - PRISMIC PMS Introduction; Rack And External Input Faults; External Faults; PRISMIC Generated Alarms; Fault Scenarios 07.12.03 System Maintenance - PRISMIC PMS Introduction; General Maintenance; Routine Checks; Calibration Of Generators/Grid Feeders; Calibration Of Load Feeders; Load Inhibits; Spinning Reserve Alarms; Set Management Maintenance, Load Shedding Maintenance; Printers And HMI Systems; Records
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION TO BRUSH ELECTRICAL MACHINES LTD. Training Module: 01.01.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 1 of 12 01.01.01 (A) Introduction To BEM.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 INTRODUCTION TO BRUSH ELECTRICAL MACHINES LTD.
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION TO BRUSH ELECTRICAL MACHINES LTD. Training Module: 01.01.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 2 of 12 01.01.01 (A) Introduction To BEM.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 CONTENTS 1 FKI PLC...................................................................................................................................................... 3 1.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................................... 3 1.2 FKI Energy Technology....................................................................................................................... 3 1.3 Companies In The FKI Energy Technology Group............................................................................. 4 2 BRUSH ELECTRICAL MACHINES LTD. - HISTORY .............................................................................. 6 2.1 Charles Francis Brush......................................................................................................................... 6 2.2 Development ....................................................................................................................................... 6 2.3 Other Brush Products.......................................................................................................................... 7 2.4 Generators .......................................................................................................................................... 7 2.5 Diversification...................................................................................................................................... 8 2.6 Development ....................................................................................................................................... 8 2.7 Brush Loughborough Site ................................................................................................................... 9 3 BRUSH ELECTRICAL MACHINES LTD................................................................................................. 10 3.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................................ 10 3.2 Products ............................................................................................................................................ 10 3.3 Industries Served .............................................................................................................................. 11 3.4 Quality ............................................................................................................................................... 11 3.5 After-Sales Service & Training.......................................................................................................... 11
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION TO BRUSH ELECTRICAL MACHINES LTD. Training Module: 01.01.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 3 of 12 01.01.01 (A) Introduction To BEM.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 1 FKI PLC 1.1 Introduction FKI plc is a major international engineering group. FKI has world leading positions in its specialised business areas of automated logistic solutions, lifting products and services, hardware and energy technology products. FKI was incorporated on 6 March 1920 in England under the companies Acts 1908 to 1917 and was re-registered on 3 June 1982 as a public limited company under the Companies Acts 1948 to 1980. The Group has operations in more than 30 countries and in the year ended 31 March 2002, its turnover amounted to £1.6 billion, and employs just under 16,000 people. ► 1.2 FKI Energy Technology FKI Electrical Engineering Group was established in 1996 following the acquisition of the Hawker Siddeley Electric Power Group and Marelli Motori. These acquisitions, added to the existing presence of Whipp & Bourne, Laurence Scott & Electromotors and Froude Consine within FKI, made up a Group of world class stature with synergies of technology, manufacturing, purchasing and sales. FKI Electrical Engineering, along with the Measurement and Controls Division, formed FKI plc’s Engineering Group. In July 2001, this became FKI Energy Technology.
  9. 9. INTRODUCTION TO BRUSH ELECTRICAL MACHINES LTD. Training Module: 01.01.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 4 of 12 01.01.01 (A) Introduction To BEM.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 FKI Energy Technology is a leading independent supplier of rotating machines, particularly turbogenerators, switchgear and transformers; measurement and control products and is a significant supplier of other electrical products. Products and systems are sold to manufacturers of turbines, pumps, compressors, fans and other machines and to a wide variety of Customers in industry, power generation, oil and gas supply, air separation, petrochemical and contracting. Main businesses in the FKI Energy Technology group are: Rotating Machines: High, medium and low voltage electric motors; turbo, medium and low voltage generators; industrial drives, control equipment, frequency changers, engine and vehicle test systems. Switchgear: Indoor switchgear, outdoor circuit breakers, ring main units, pole mounted reclosers and DC switchgear. Transformers: Power, system and distribution transformers, pole mounted transformers and on load tap changers. Traction: Rail locomotive manufacture and refurbishment. Measurement and Control : Measurement and control devices and systems. ► 1.3 Companies In The FKI Energy Technology Group Many of the individual companies have histories going back over 100 years. These companies include: Brush Electrical Machines Ltd.: Located at Loughborough in the UK and is designated as FKI's Centre of Excellence for the design and manufacture of power management systems and air cooled 2-pole turbogenerators up to 150MVA. Brush HMA bv: The company, formerly known as 'HMA Power Systems' and before that 'Holec Machines and Apparaten', has been established for over 115 years and became part of FKI Energy Technology at the beginning of 2000. Brush HMA is FKI’s Centre of Excellence for the design and manufacture of 4-pole generators with ratings between 10MVA and 65MVA. Brush SEM sro: Located at Plzen in the Czech Republic and designated as FKI's Centre of Excellence for the design and manufacture of air cooled 2-pole turbogenerators above 150MVA, hydrogen cooled generators and hydrogen/water cooled generators up to 1100MVA and the refurbishment of hydro generators up to 355MVA. Brush Transformers: Based in Loughborough, UK, Brush Transformers is a major international manufacturer of transformers. With over a century of experience, Brush Transformers manufacture a wide range of distribution, power, dry type, cast resin and traction transformers, along with flameproof transformers and switchgear. FKI Industrial Drives: Formed by the merger of Heenan Drives and Brush Industrial Controls, and now provide state of the art variable speed drive products from a new centrally located facility in Loughborough. Products also include AC sensorless flux vector inverters, synchronous motor drives and DC thyristor drives covering a power range from 0.37kW to 20MW. Fully engineered drive systems designed to customer specifications are available.. Hawker Siddeley Power Transformers: Based in Walthamstow, London, Hawker Siddeley Power Transformers is a major international manufacturer of power transformers including generator transformers for steam, hydro, nuclear and gas turbine power stations. Hawker Siddeley Switchgear: Based in Blackwood in South Wales, Hawker Siddeley Switchgear are an international producer of Switchgear. The Blackwood site is a centre of excellence for switchgear manufacture, producing a range of indoor and outdoor distribution switchgear.
  10. 10. INTRODUCTION TO BRUSH ELECTRICAL MACHINES LTD. Training Module: 01.01.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 5 of 12 01.01.01 (A) Introduction To BEM.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 Laurence Scott And Electromotors: Are the UK's premier manufacturer of electric motors (high and low voltage, ac and dc) and electro-mechanical power transmission products (gearboxes, geared motors, eddy current variable speed drives, electro-pneumatic clutch/brakes). Brand names include LSE, NECO, EPG, TASC, NORAC, HEENAN, PSS, GLENPHASE, EDC, SLENDAUR, CENTAUR. Marelli Motori: Produce a range of low and medium voltage asynchronous motors, DC motors and synchronous generators in a large variety of designs and power ranges up to 3,000 kW. The factory is situated in Vicenza in the north of Italy, and has more than one hundred years of experience in the production of rotating electrical machines. South Wales Transformers: Based in Blackwood, South Wales, South Wales Transformers is a major international manufacturer of distribution transformers and substations. The Blackwood site is a centre of excellence for distribution transformer manufacture, producing a wide range of liquid-filled distribution transformers, both pole- and ground-mounted, and packaged substations. Whipp & Bourne: Established in 1903, and based in Rochdale, Lancashire, Whipp and Bourne has long been a leader in heavy duty electrical switchgear. Products include a range of DC Circuit Breakers, Switchgear and Auto Reclosers. ►
  11. 11. INTRODUCTION TO BRUSH ELECTRICAL MACHINES LTD. Training Module: 01.01.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 6 of 12 01.01.01 (A) Introduction To BEM.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 2 BRUSH ELECTRICAL MACHINES LTD. - HISTORY 2.1 Charles Francis Brush Figure 1: Charles Francis Brush The original company was the Anglo-American Brush Electric Light Corporation which was established in 1879 in Lambeth, London, to exploit the inventions of Charles Francis Brush (1849-1929). Brush, born in Cleveland, Ohio, had developed his first dynamo in 1876 and founded the American Brush Company in 1881. This American company lasted until about 1891. ► 2.2 Development Lighting equipment (both arc lamps and incandescent lights) was the main product at first, expanding with the formation of lighting supply companies throughout the country. After an early boom in the promotion of lighting companies, the Electric Lighting Act of 1882 laid down new and onerous conditions of operating so that a general period of stagnation followed in the newly-born electrical industry. However, there were some developments prior to the repeal of the Act in 1888, mainly in the field of industrial electrification. Thus the company was able to thrive on the manufacture of dynamos, motors, switchgear and small transformers. Trade again increased after 1888 and the works in Lambeth were no longer adequate for the vast increase in orders. New premises were required and, in the following year, the Falcon Engine and Car Works in Loughborough was purchased. Figure 2: Brush Works (Early)
  12. 12. INTRODUCTION TO BRUSH ELECTRICAL MACHINES LTD. Training Module: 01.01.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 7 of 12 01.01.01 (A) Introduction To BEM.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 The title of the company was changed soon after the movement to Loughborough. At first, only the heavier manufacturing was transferred from Lambeth, but by 1895 most of the production was concentrated in the Falcon Works which by now incorporated large extensions. ► 2.3 Other Brush Products Figure 3: Brush 'Products' Prior to the First World War, tramcars and electrical engineering were the mainstays of production. The works employed about 2,000 men around 1910. Wartime production was mainly concerned with munitions although vehicle bodies and even aircraft were constructed. ► 2.4 Generators Figure 4: 5000kW Brush-Ljungstrom Turbogenerator
  13. 13. INTRODUCTION TO BRUSH ELECTRICAL MACHINES LTD. Training Module: 01.01.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 8 of 12 01.01.01 (A) Introduction To BEM.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 Electrical equipment sales remained steady during the period after World War 1. Turbine production experienced a great boom after 1918 when some 20 complete turbines with the attendant equipment were delivered each year. The size of these machines was in the 1,500 kW, 3,000 kW and 5,000 kW ranges, and they were well suited to the small municipal and company electricity works then in vogue. ► 2.5 Diversification Employment in the works fell from a peak in 1925 when about 2,500 were employed to 1,500 some ten years later. The area of the works altered little, from 33 acres in 1924 to 35 acres in 1935 when the workshops covered about five acres. The first heavy oil engine made its appearance in 1935 and three years later in an attempt to diversify the range of products and to cater for an increasingly important line of business, the firm of Petters Ltd was taken over. Petters had been established in Yeovil, Somerset since the mid-19th century and had developed their first internal combustion engine in 1895. All the production was transferred to Falcon Works and remained there until 1948 when the former Lagonda Works at Staines, Middlesex were bought. After World War II the demand for heavy electrical equipment, dormant for many years, returned to the company making good the damage of wartime losses, and also encouraging renewal of large-scale capital investment in power generation. The new companies in the Brush Group were now more competitive in modern conditions and the two branches, ABOE (Associated British Oil Engines) and Brush, were complimentary in engine building and electrical equipment. Four-wheeled battery electric vehicles first appeared in 1947 and in the same year the Company returned to railway work after a lapse of many years, when diesel and diesel-electric locomotives were built in conjunction with W.G Bagnall Ltd of Stafford. Further companies joined the Group in 1950 when the National Gas & Oil Engine Company Ltd, Hopkinson Electric Company Ltd and the Vivian Diesels & Munitions Company Ltd of Canada were taken over. The title was changed to the "Brush - ABOE Group of Companies". This was a period of great expansion with a large export drive and increasing capital investment in the industry. The £40 million of orders in 1951 were more than twice those of 1950. ► 2.6 Development In April 1957 an offer of £22 million from the Hawker Siddeley Group was adopted and amalgamation took place. The Brush Group of companies was incorporated into the Hawker Siddeley Group under the name of Brush Electrical Engineering Co., Ltd. and had offices in Dukes Court, Duke Street, St James's, London S.W.1. In November 1991, the Hawker Siddeley Group was taken over by BTR plc in a £1.5 billion bid. In the subsequent re-organisation Brush Electrical Machines Ltd became a major company within the BTR Electric Power Group, and the company's Traction Division became a separate company, Brush Traction Ltd. In November 1996, the FKI Group of Companies acquired the Hawker Siddeley Electric Power Group from BTR, Brush Electrical Machines and the other Brush companies joining the Group's Engineering Division. Following this, Brush Traction Ltd reverted to being a division of Brush Electrical Machines Ltd, and the Company's Industrial Controls Division became part of FKI's LSE Division. Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. is now one of FKI Energy Technology's Rotating Machines companies and is designated as the Centre of Excellence for the design and manufacture manufacture of power management systems and air cooled 2-pole turbogenerators up to 150MVA. Brush BEM joined with sister companies Brush HMA and Brush SEM to found the Brush Turbogenerators organisation. ►
  14. 14. INTRODUCTION TO BRUSH ELECTRICAL MACHINES LTD. Training Module: 01.01.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 9 of 12 01.01.01 (A) Introduction To BEM.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 2.7 Brush Loughborough Site Figure 5: Brush Works, Loughborough In October 1960 the Falcon Works employed about 4,300 workers in the 40 acres of workshops in a total site area of 59 acres. A majority of workers, 3,700, were employed on heavy electrical work whilst 500 were in the Traction Division and 100 on electric vehicle construction. The main production of the works still centred on electrical engineering with heavy transformers, generators, motors, switchgear etc. In 1970 Hawker Siddeley Power Engineering, a project engineering group, was formed as a separate company with an office at a nearby site in Burton-on-the-Wolds and another at Chelmsford in Essex. Twelve months or so later, in 1971, the product divisions of the Brush Electrical Engineering Company Ltd were formed into separate manufacturing companies. Initially these comprised Brush Electrical Machines Limited, Brush Switchgear Ltd and Brush Transformers Limited, with Brush Switchgear taking on the responsibility of the Fusegear Division until January 1973 when Brush Fusegear Ltd was formally constituted. By this time there were approximately 5,000 workers on the Loughborough site. ►
  15. 15. INTRODUCTION TO BRUSH ELECTRICAL MACHINES LTD. Training Module: 01.01.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 10 of 12 01.01.01 (A) Introduction To BEM.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 3 BRUSH ELECTRICAL MACHINES LTD. 3.1 Introduction Figure 6: Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. Logo Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. is now one of FKI Energy Technology's Rotating Machines companies and is designated as the Centre of Excellence for the design and manufacture manufacture of power management systems and air cooled 2-pole turbogenerators up to 150MVA. Brush BEM joined with sister companies Brush HMA and Brush SEM to found the Brush Turbogenerators organisation. Company turnover for the financial year 2001/2002 was approximately £90 million. Over 90% of production was exported. The company employs approximately 770 people, of whom 500 are in production. ► 3.2 Products Our product portfolio, including relevant FKI Energy Technology products, includes: Ø CONTROLS PRISMIC PMS power management systems for marine power and propulsion, offshore and onshore oil and gas applications, industrial and dockland installations. A range of automatic voltage regulators and excitation control equipment for generators and synchronous motors. Ø GENERATORS Air cooled 2-pole turbogenerators for gas and steam turbine drive up to 200MVA, 15kV. Hydrogen and combined cooled 2-pole turbogenerators up to 1100MVA, 25kV. Air cooled 4-pole turbogenerators up to 65MVA, 15kV. Multi-pole synchronous types for diesel engine drive up to 30MVA, 15kV. Ø MOTORS Multi-pole synchronous single, multiple and variable speed types up to 20MW, 15kV. 20-pole induction types up to 20MW, 15kV. LV cage induction types up to 1.5MW. DC types up to 120kW. Traction types up to 1000kW. Flameproof types. Ø SWITCHGEAR Withdrawable/fixed vacuum circuit breakers, rated up to 15kV, 3150A, 40kA. Withdrawable fused vacuum contactors, rated up to 7.2kV, 400A, 40kA. Ø TRANSFORMERS Distribution transformers 315kVA to 2500kVA. Power Transformers 2.5MA to 60MVA up to 145kV. System transformers up to 180MVA, 150kV. Ø VARIABLE SPEED DRIVES AC inverters up to 7MW, 1800V. AC synchroconverters up to 20MW. DC drive systems up to 3.5MW ►
  16. 16. INTRODUCTION TO BRUSH ELECTRICAL MACHINES LTD. Training Module: 01.01.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 11 of 12 01.01.01 (A) Introduction To BEM.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 3.3 Industries Served Brush provides a complete electrical service to all sectors of the power industry. From a product portfolio encompassing generators, including control systems, for base load or intermittent duty, synchronous motors, power management systems and fully co-ordinated packages of electrical equipment. Brush can provide equipment and services to meet the most demanding specifications. Brush is renowned for the kind of robust yet versatile designs of generators and motors well suited to the harsh operating environments encountered at oil and gas installations both onshore and offshore. This has led to Brush gaining an excellent reputation as a world class supplier to this demanding market. Brush also provides a complete electrical service to the marine industry. From generators and control systems, to complete electrical propulsion and auxiliary power system packages for naval, merchant and special purpose vessels. In addition, Brush can select and configure systems built from components sourced from throughout FKI Energy Technology group and elsewhere, including generators, motors, control systems, variable speed drives, switchgear and transformers, etc. ► 3.4 Quality Figure 7: QA Registration Since 1991, the Company has been registered to ISO 9001 standard, which governs the quality of design, manufacture and service. Maintaining this registration has become a cornerstone of management policy. All equipment complies with relevant European, American and International standard specifications. ► 3.5 After-Sales Service & Training A comprehensive service is offered by the Service Department, located at Loughborough, dealing with the commissioning, service, repair and maintenance requirements on a world- wide basis. In addition, service centres in the USA, Malaysia, The Netherlands and Canada, along with local service partners in many other countries, can offer on-the-spot assistance. Comprehensive operator training courses for all products and systems are available either at the factory or at site. ►
  17. 17. INTRODUCTION TO BRUSH ELECTRICAL MACHINES LTD. Training Module: 01.01.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 12 of 12 01.01.01 (A) Introduction To BEM.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 BLANK PAGE
  18. 18. SAFETY Training Module: 01.02.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 1 of 6 01.02.01 (A) Safety.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 SAFETY
  19. 19. SAFETY Training Module: 01.02.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 2 of 6 01.02.01 (A) Safety.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 CONTENTS 1 WARNING SYMBOLS ............................................................................................................................... 3 2 HEALTH & SAFETY AT WORK ACT (1974)............................................................................................ 3 3 CONTROL OF SUBSTANCES HAZARDOUS TO HEALTH (COSHH REGULATIONS 1999)............... 4 3.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................................... 4 3.2 COSHH Data For Standard Components ........................................................................................... 5 4 OPERATION & MAINTENANCE............................................................................................................... 6 5 PROTECTION AND MONITORING DEVICES.......................................................................................... 6
  20. 20. SAFETY Training Module: 01.02.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 3 of 6 01.02.01 (A) Safety.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 1 WARNING SYMBOLS Warning symbols used in manuals are as follows: Mandatory Notice - Instruction to be followed. Danger, General - Caution to be exercised. Appropriate safety measures to be taken. Danger, Electricity - Caution to be exercised. Appropriate safety measures to be taken. Danger, Harmful or Irritating Substance - Caution to be exercised. Appropriate safety measures to be taken. ► 2 HEALTH & SAFETY AT WORK ACT (1974) The information hereunder is supplied in accordance with Section 6 of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 with respect to the duties of manufacturers, designers and installers in providing health and safety information to Customers. The information advises of reasonably foreseeable risks involved with the safe installation, commissioning, operation, maintenance, dismantling, cleaning or repair of products supplied by Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. Every precaution should be taken to minimise risk. When acted upon, the following precautions should considerably minimise the possibility of hazardous incidents. Delivery Checks: Check for damage sustained during transport. Damage to packing cases must be investigated in the presence of an Insurance Surveyor. Handling: Sling packing cases where indicated. Equipment not in a packing case, or removed from a packing case must only be lifted by the lifting points provided. Do not lift complete machines by lugs on heat exchangers or air silencers etc. Storage: Unless the equipment has been designed for outside use or specifically packed for outside storage, store inside in a dry building, in line with the manufacturer's recommendations. Installation: Where installation is made by engineers other than Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. personnel, the equipment should be erected by suitably qualified personnel in accordance with relevant legislation, regulations and accepted rules of the industry. In particular, the recommendations contained in the regulations with regard to the earthing must be rigorously followed. Electrical Installation: IMPROPER USE OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IS HAZARDOUS. It is important to be aware that control unit terminals and components may be live to line and supply voltages. Before working on a unit, switch off and isolate it and all other equipment within the confines of the same control cubicle. Check that all earth connections are sound. WARNING: Suitable signs should be prominently displayed, particularly on switches and isolators, and the necessary precautions taken to ensure that power is not inadvertently switched on to the equipment whist work is in progress, or is not yet completed.
  21. 21. SAFETY Training Module: 01.02.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 4 of 6 01.02.01 (A) Safety.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 Adjustment and fault finding on live equipment must be by qualified and authorised personnel only, and should be in accordance with the following rules: Ø Read the Instruction Manual. Ø Use insulated meter probes. Ø Use an insulated screwdriver for potentiometer adjustment where a knob is not provided. Ø Wear non-conducting footwear. Ø Do not attempt to modify wiring. Ø Replace all protective covers, guards, etc. on completion. Operation & Maintenance: Engineers responsible for operation and maintenance of equipment should familiarise themselves with the information contained in the Operation & Maintenance Manual and with the recommendations given by manufacturers of associated equipment. They should be familiar also with the relevant regulations in force. Ø It is essential that all covers are in place and that all guards and/or safety fences to protect any exposed surfaces and/or pits are fitted before the machine is started. Ø All adjustments to the machine must be carried out whilst the machine is stationary and isolated from all electrical supplies. Replace all covers and/or safety fences before restarting the machine. Ø When maintenance is being carried out, suitable WARNING signs should be prominently displayed and the necessary precautions taken to ensure power is not inadvertently switched on to the equipment whilst work is in progress, or is not yet complete. Ø When power is restored to the equipment, personnel should not be allowed to work on auxiliary circuits, eg. Heaters, temperature detectors, current transformers etc. Lifting Procedures: Ensure that the recommendations given in the manual are adhered to at all times. ► 3 CONTROL OF SUBSTANCES HAZARDOUS TO HEALTH (COSHH REGULATIONS 1999) 3.1 Introduction The data provided hereafter satisfies the responsibilities detailed in the COSHH Regulations 1999, and includes details of substances commonly used on standard components supplied by Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. This data is not contract specific, and therefore may include substances not used Contract specific information can be obtained from our Service Department. ALWAYS USE SUBSTANCES IN ACCORDANCE WITH MANUFACTURERS' INSTRUCTIONS. IF AFTER APPLYING THE SUGGESTED FIRST AID PROCEDURES, SYMPTOMS PERSIST, SEEK IMMEDIATE ADVICE FROM QUALIFIED MEDICAL STAFF. NEVER INDUCE VOMITTING, OR GIVE ANYTHING BY MOUTH TO AN UNCONSCIOUS PERSON. ►
  22. 22. SAFETY Training Module: 01.02.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 5 of 6 01.02.01 (A) Safety.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 3.2 COSHH Data For Standard Components COSHH data for substances used in standard components supplied by Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. are summarised: PERSONAL PROTECTION/FIRST AIDSUBSTANCE TYPE SUBSTANCE USAGE HEALTH HAZARD DATA EYE CONTACT SKIN CONTACT INHILATION INGESTION DEGREASANT/ CLEANER (Oil Based) Low toxane (highly refined paraffin) or Orange Oil Degreasant/ Cleaner removal of preservative Flash Point > 55 o C. Use good ventilation General care. RINSE WITH FRESH WATER Wear PVC gloves/ barrier creams. RINSE WITH FRESH WATER General care. REMOVE TO FRESH AIR Avoid. DRINK MILK/ WATER. DO NOT VOMIT. CALL DOCTOR DEGREASANT/ CLEANER (Spirit Based) Industrial Meths AEROSOL FORM ONLY Brake disc cleaning only. USE SMALL QUANTITIES EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE Use good ventilation General care. RINSE WITH FRESH WATER Wear PVC gloves/ barrier creams. RINSE WITH FRESH WATER General care. REMOVE TO FRESH AIR Avoid. DRINK MILK/ WATER. DO NOT VOMIT. CALL DOCTOR DO NOT USE: PETROL/GASOLINE, 111 TRICHLORETHANE (GENKLENE) OR CARBON TETRACHLORIDE ADHESIVE/ SEALANT Loctite 542 Loctite 572 Fine thread sealant Pipe sealant (Maintenance Do not inhale vapours. Use adequate ventilation General care. FLUSH WITH WATER FOR 15 MINUTES - CALL DOCTOR General care. WASH WITH SOAP AND WATER General care. REMOVE TO FRESH AIR Avoid. DRINK MILK/ WATER. DO NOT VOMIT DO NOT USE LOCTITE PRODUCTS WITH EXPOSED BROKEN SKIN JOINTING COMPOUND Hylomar PL32 (Medium) Sealant for bearings and other joints Avoid bad ventilation Wear goggles. FLUSH WITH WATER FOR 15 MINUTES Wear PVC gloves. WASH WITH SOAP AND WATER General care. REMOVE TO FRESH AIR - DO NOT EXERCISE Avoid. DRINK MILK/ WATER. DO NOT VOMIT JOINTING COMPOUND Biccon X13 PT Diode mounting paste None Wear goggles. FLUSH WITH WATER Wear PVC gloves. WASH WITH SOAP AND WATER None None JOINTING COMPOUND Unial Electrical joints Avoid open cuts or sores. Wipe with white spirit soaked rag. Rinse with soap and water Wear goggles if contact likely. FLUSH WITH WATER Wear PVC gloves/ barrier creams. RINSE WITH SOAP AND WATER General care. REMOVE TO FRESH AIR Avoid. DRINK WATER. DO NOT VOMIT GREASES Lithium based Mobilplex 48 Castrol Helv.O Silicone based Molybdenum disulphide Diode fixing Use adequate ventilation Wear goggles if contact likely. FLUSH WITH WATER Good hygiene. WASH WITH SOAP AND WATER General care. REMOVE TO FRESH AIR Avoid. DRINK WATER. DO NOT VOMIT MINERAL OILS Mobil DTE oils (All grades - ISO VG Class) Bearing lubrication oil Exposure limit 5.0 mg/m 3 for oil mist None. FLUSH WITH WATER Good hygiene. WASH WITH SOAP AND WATER None with good ventilation. NONE Avoid. IF IN DISCOMFORT CALL DOCTOR INSULATION MATERIALS Epoxy Novolac Corona Paint Glass Cord Synthetic Resin Shellac/Nomex Micanite Insulation materials may be exposed during maintenance/ repair All materials are inert. Physical sanding/ abrasion MAY CREATE HARMFUL DUST Wear goggles. FLUSH WITH WATER Good hygiene. WASH WITH SOAP AND WATER Wear disposable dust respirators 3M type 8709. REMOVE TO FRESH AIR General care. DRINK WATER. DO NOT VOMIT FILLER Epoxy resin putty Armature coil gap fill repair only Dry sanding of epoxy paints and fillers containing chromates. WILL CREATE HARMFUL DUST Wear goggles. FLUSH WITH WATER Wear vinyl gloves/ barrier creams - good hygiene. WASH WITH SOAP AND WATER No risks with good ventilation. Is sanding wear Racal Breathe Easy unit with toxic dist cartridge REMOVE TO FRESH AIR Avoid. DRINK WATER DO NOT VOMIT PAINT MATERIALS Dry paint finishes Surface finish/ protection may be exposed during repair Dry sanding of epoxy paints and fillers containing chromates. WILL CREATE HARMFUL DUST Wear goggles. FLUSH WITH WATER Good hygiene. WASH WITH SOAP AND WATER Wear Racal Breathe Easy unit with toxic dist cartridge REMOVE TO FRESH AIR General care. DRINK WATER. DO NOT VOMIT AIR CONTAMINANT Airborne dust particles Cooling air circuit filters (Maintenance) During maintenance a dust hazard may exist Wear goggles. FLUSH WITH WATER Good hygiene. WASH WITH SOAP AND WATER Wear disposable dust respirators 3M type 8709. REMOVE TO FRESH AIR General care. DRINK WATER. DO NOT VOMIT ►
  23. 23. SAFETY Training Module: 01.02.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 6 of 6 01.02.01 (A) Safety.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 4 OPERATION & MAINTENANCE When working on this equipment it is important that a safe environment is achieved i.e. Ø Isolate all electrical supplies including heaters. Ø Ensure adequate ventilation and lighting. Ø Use proper support for heavy items. Ø Maintain access ways. Ø Wear suitable protective clothing. Safety guards and covers must be fitted, unless the equipment has been made safe behind the guard or cover. On-site safety procedures are to be followed as appropriate, in particular 'Permit To Work' type systems are be followed rigorously. Attention should be given to the advice given in Clause 2 (Health & Safety At Work Act (1974)) and Clause 3 (Control Of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH Regulations 1999)) Details of substances used on equipment that are potentially hazardous to health are detailed in Clause 3.2 and the Suppliers Data that forms part of the Operation & Maintenance Manual. IMPROPER USE OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IS HAZARDOUS. ► 5 PROTECTION AND MONITORING DEVICES WARNING: It is essential that any protection or monitoring device for use with generators or ancillary equipment should be connected and operational at all times unless specifically stated otherwise. It should not be assumed that all necessary protection and monitoring devices are supplied as part of Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. scope of supply. Unless otherwise agreed, it is the responsibility of others to verify the correct operation of all protection and monitoring equipment, whether supplied by Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. or not. It is necessary to provide a secure environment that ensures operator safety and limits potential damage to the generator and ancillary equipment. If requested, Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. would be pleased to provide advice on any specific protection application issues or concerns. ►
  24. 24. SAFETY Training Module: 01.02.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 1 of 6 01.02.01 (A) Safety.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 SAFETY
  25. 25. SAFETY Training Module: 01.02.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 2 of 6 01.02.01 (A) Safety.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 CONTENTS 1 WARNING SYMBOLS ............................................................................................................................... 3 2 HEALTH & SAFETY AT WORK ACT (1974)............................................................................................ 3 3 CONTROL OF SUBSTANCES HAZARDOUS TO HEALTH (COSHH REGULATIONS 1999)............... 4 3.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................................... 4 3.2 COSHH Data For Standard Components ........................................................................................... 5 4 OPERATION & MAINTENANCE............................................................................................................... 6 5 PROTECTION AND MONITORING DEVICES.......................................................................................... 6
  26. 26. SAFETY Training Module: 01.02.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 3 of 6 01.02.01 (A) Safety.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 1 WARNING SYMBOLS Warning symbols used in manuals are as follows: Mandatory Notice - Instruction to be followed. Danger, General - Caution to be exercised. Appropriate safety measures to be taken. Danger, Electricity - Caution to be exercised. Appropriate safety measures to be taken. Danger, Harmful or Irritating Substance - Caution to be exercised. Appropriate safety measures to be taken. ► 2 HEALTH & SAFETY AT WORK ACT (1974) The information hereunder is supplied in accordance with Section 6 of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 with respect to the duties of manufacturers, designers and installers in providing health and safety information to Customers. The information advises of reasonably foreseeable risks involved with the safe installation, commissioning, operation, maintenance, dismantling, cleaning or repair of products supplied by Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. Every precaution should be taken to minimise risk. When acted upon, the following precautions should considerably minimise the possibility of hazardous incidents. Delivery Checks: Check for damage sustained during transport. Damage to packing cases must be investigated in the presence of an Insurance Surveyor. Handling: Sling packing cases where indicated. Equipment not in a packing case, or removed from a packing case must only be lifted by the lifting points provided. Do not lift complete machines by lugs on heat exchangers or air silencers etc. Storage: Unless the equipment has been designed for outside use or specifically packed for outside storage, store inside in a dry building, in line with the manufacturer's recommendations. Installation: Where installation is made by engineers other than Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. personnel, the equipment should be erected by suitably qualified personnel in accordance with relevant legislation, regulations and accepted rules of the industry. In particular, the recommendations contained in the regulations with regard to the earthing must be rigorously followed. Electrical Installation: IMPROPER USE OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IS HAZARDOUS. It is important to be aware that control unit terminals and components may be live to line and supply voltages. Before working on a unit, switch off and isolate it and all other equipment within the confines of the same control cubicle. Check that all earth connections are sound. WARNING: Suitable signs should be prominently displayed, particularly on switches and isolators, and the necessary precautions taken to ensure that power is not inadvertently switched on to the equipment whist work is in progress, or is not yet completed.
  27. 27. SAFETY Training Module: 01.02.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 4 of 6 01.02.01 (A) Safety.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 Adjustment and fault finding on live equipment must be by qualified and authorised personnel only, and should be in accordance with the following rules: Ø Read the Instruction Manual. Ø Use insulated meter probes. Ø Use an insulated screwdriver for potentiometer adjustment where a knob is not provided. Ø Wear non-conducting footwear. Ø Do not attempt to modify wiring. Ø Replace all protective covers, guards, etc. on completion. Operation & Maintenance: Engineers responsible for operation and maintenance of equipment should familiarise themselves with the information contained in the Operation & Maintenance Manual and with the recommendations given by manufacturers of associated equipment. They should be familiar also with the relevant regulations in force. Ø It is essential that all covers are in place and that all guards and/or safety fences to protect any exposed surfaces and/or pits are fitted before the machine is started. Ø All adjustments to the machine must be carried out whilst the machine is stationary and isolated from all electrical supplies. Replace all covers and/or safety fences before restarting the machine. Ø When maintenance is being carried out, suitable WARNING signs should be prominently displayed and the necessary precautions taken to ensure power is not inadvertently switched on to the equipment whilst work is in progress, or is not yet complete. Ø When power is restored to the equipment, personnel should not be allowed to work on auxiliary circuits, eg. Heaters, temperature detectors, current transformers etc. Lifting Procedures: Ensure that the recommendations given in the manual are adhered to at all times. ► 3 CONTROL OF SUBSTANCES HAZARDOUS TO HEALTH (COSHH REGULATIONS 1999) 3.1 Introduction The data provided hereafter satisfies the responsibilities detailed in the COSHH Regulations 1999, and includes details of substances commonly used on standard components supplied by Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. This data is not contract specific, and therefore may include substances not used Contract specific information can be obtained from our Service Department. ALWAYS USE SUBSTANCES IN ACCORDANCE WITH MANUFACTURERS' INSTRUCTIONS. IF AFTER APPLYING THE SUGGESTED FIRST AID PROCEDURES, SYMPTOMS PERSIST, SEEK IMMEDIATE ADVICE FROM QUALIFIED MEDICAL STAFF. NEVER INDUCE VOMITTING, OR GIVE ANYTHING BY MOUTH TO AN UNCONSCIOUS PERSON. ►
  28. 28. SAFETY Training Module: 01.02.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 5 of 6 01.02.01 (A) Safety.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 3.2 COSHH Data For Standard Components COSHH data for substances used in standard components supplied by Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. are summarised: PERSONAL PROTECTION/FIRST AIDSUBSTANCE TYPE SUBSTANCE USAGE HEALTH HAZARD DATA EYE CONTACT SKIN CONTACT INHILATION INGESTION DEGREASANT/ CLEANER (Oil Based) Low toxane (highly refined paraffin) or Orange Oil Degreasant/ Cleaner removal of preservative Flash Point > 55 o C. Use good ventilation General care. RINSE WITH FRESH WATER Wear PVC gloves/ barrier creams. RINSE WITH FRESH WATER General care. REMOVE TO FRESH AIR Avoid. DRINK MILK/ WATER. DO NOT VOMIT. CALL DOCTOR DEGREASANT/ CLEANER (Spirit Based) Industrial Meths AEROSOL FORM ONLY Brake disc cleaning only. USE SMALL QUANTITIES EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE Use good ventilation General care. RINSE WITH FRESH WATER Wear PVC gloves/ barrier creams. RINSE WITH FRESH WATER General care. REMOVE TO FRESH AIR Avoid. DRINK MILK/ WATER. DO NOT VOMIT. CALL DOCTOR DO NOT USE: PETROL/GASOLINE, 111 TRICHLORETHANE (GENKLENE) OR CARBON TETRACHLORIDE ADHESIVE/ SEALANT Loctite 542 Loctite 572 Fine thread sealant Pipe sealant (Maintenance Do not inhale vapours. Use adequate ventilation General care. FLUSH WITH WATER FOR 15 MINUTES - CALL DOCTOR General care. WASH WITH SOAP AND WATER General care. REMOVE TO FRESH AIR Avoid. DRINK MILK/ WATER. DO NOT VOMIT DO NOT USE LOCTITE PRODUCTS WITH EXPOSED BROKEN SKIN JOINTING COMPOUND Hylomar PL32 (Medium) Sealant for bearings and other joints Avoid bad ventilation Wear goggles. FLUSH WITH WATER FOR 15 MINUTES Wear PVC gloves. WASH WITH SOAP AND WATER General care. REMOVE TO FRESH AIR - DO NOT EXERCISE Avoid. DRINK MILK/ WATER. DO NOT VOMIT JOINTING COMPOUND Biccon X13 PT Diode mounting paste None Wear goggles. FLUSH WITH WATER Wear PVC gloves. WASH WITH SOAP AND WATER None None JOINTING COMPOUND Unial Electrical joints Avoid open cuts or sores. Wipe with white spirit soaked rag. Rinse with soap and water Wear goggles if contact likely. FLUSH WITH WATER Wear PVC gloves/ barrier creams. RINSE WITH SOAP AND WATER General care. REMOVE TO FRESH AIR Avoid. DRINK WATER. DO NOT VOMIT GREASES Lithium based Mobilplex 48 Castrol Helv.O Silicone based Molybdenum disulphide Diode fixing Use adequate ventilation Wear goggles if contact likely. FLUSH WITH WATER Good hygiene. WASH WITH SOAP AND WATER General care. REMOVE TO FRESH AIR Avoid. DRINK WATER. DO NOT VOMIT MINERAL OILS Mobil DTE oils (All grades - ISO VG Class) Bearing lubrication oil Exposure limit 5.0 mg/m 3 for oil mist None. FLUSH WITH WATER Good hygiene. WASH WITH SOAP AND WATER None with good ventilation. NONE Avoid. IF IN DISCOMFORT CALL DOCTOR INSULATION MATERIALS Epoxy Novolac Corona Paint Glass Cord Synthetic Resin Shellac/Nomex Micanite Insulation materials may be exposed during maintenance/ repair All materials are inert. Physical sanding/ abrasion MAY CREATE HARMFUL DUST Wear goggles. FLUSH WITH WATER Good hygiene. WASH WITH SOAP AND WATER Wear disposable dust respirators 3M type 8709. REMOVE TO FRESH AIR General care. DRINK WATER. DO NOT VOMIT FILLER Epoxy resin putty Armature coil gap fill repair only Dry sanding of epoxy paints and fillers containing chromates. WILL CREATE HARMFUL DUST Wear goggles. FLUSH WITH WATER Wear vinyl gloves/ barrier creams - good hygiene. WASH WITH SOAP AND WATER No risks with good ventilation. Is sanding wear Racal Breathe Easy unit with toxic dist cartridge REMOVE TO FRESH AIR Avoid. DRINK WATER DO NOT VOMIT PAINT MATERIALS Dry paint finishes Surface finish/ protection may be exposed during repair Dry sanding of epoxy paints and fillers containing chromates. WILL CREATE HARMFUL DUST Wear goggles. FLUSH WITH WATER Good hygiene. WASH WITH SOAP AND WATER Wear Racal Breathe Easy unit with toxic dist cartridge REMOVE TO FRESH AIR General care. DRINK WATER. DO NOT VOMIT AIR CONTAMINANT Airborne dust particles Cooling air circuit filters (Maintenance) During maintenance a dust hazard may exist Wear goggles. FLUSH WITH WATER Good hygiene. WASH WITH SOAP AND WATER Wear disposable dust respirators 3M type 8709. REMOVE TO FRESH AIR General care. DRINK WATER. DO NOT VOMIT ►
  29. 29. SAFETY Training Module: 01.02.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 6 of 6 01.02.01 (A) Safety.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 4 OPERATION & MAINTENANCE When working on this equipment it is important that a safe environment is achieved i.e. Ø Isolate all electrical supplies including heaters. Ø Ensure adequate ventilation and lighting. Ø Use proper support for heavy items. Ø Maintain access ways. Ø Wear suitable protective clothing. Safety guards and covers must be fitted, unless the equipment has been made safe behind the guard or cover. On-site safety procedures are to be followed as appropriate, in particular 'Permit To Work' type systems are be followed rigorously. Attention should be given to the advice given in Clause 2 (Health & Safety At Work Act (1974)) and Clause 3 (Control Of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH Regulations 1999)) Details of substances used on equipment that are potentially hazardous to health are detailed in Clause 3.2 and the Suppliers Data that forms part of the Operation & Maintenance Manual. IMPROPER USE OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IS HAZARDOUS. ► 5 PROTECTION AND MONITORING DEVICES WARNING: It is essential that any protection or monitoring device for use with generators or ancillary equipment should be connected and operational at all times unless specifically stated otherwise. It should not be assumed that all necessary protection and monitoring devices are supplied as part of Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. scope of supply. Unless otherwise agreed, it is the responsibility of others to verify the correct operation of all protection and monitoring equipment, whether supplied by Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. or not. It is necessary to provide a secure environment that ensures operator safety and limits potential damage to the generator and ancillary equipment. If requested, Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. would be pleased to provide advice on any specific protection application issues or concerns. ►
  30. 30. GENERATOR MAINTENANCE PHILOSOPHIES Training Module: 01.03.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 1 of 4 01.03.01 (A) Generator Maintenance Philosophies.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 GENERATOR MAINTENANCE PHILOSOPHIES
  31. 31. GENERATOR MAINTENANCE PHILOSOPHIES Training Module: 01.03.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 2 of 4 01.03.01 (A) Generator Maintenance Philosophies.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 CONTENTS 1 MAINTENANCE......................................................................................................................................... 3 2 MACHINE DETERIORATION.................................................................................................................... 3 3 MAINTENANCE PHILOSOPHIES............................................................................................................. 3 3.1 Curative Maintenance ......................................................................................................................... 3 3.2 Preventive Maintenance...................................................................................................................... 4 3.2.1 Time-Based Maintenance............................................................................................................ 4 3.2.2 Condition-Based Maintenance..................................................................................................... 4 4 SENSORY PERCEPTION ......................................................................................................................... 4
  32. 32. GENERATOR MAINTENANCE PHILOSOPHIES Training Module: 01.03.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 3 of 4 01.03.01 (A) Generator Maintenance Philosophies.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 1 MAINTENANCE The term maintenance can be applied to a broad range of activities. In general, maintenance includes all activities necessary to enable the safe and efficient functioning of a machine or system, throughout its working life. Maintenance can be said to encompass the following activities: 1) Maintain Proper Condition Prevent the malfunction of the machine or system. 2) Judge The Current Condition Obtain information of the actual condition of the machine or system. 3) Recondition To The Original Condition Maintenance must be performed to repair a fault. Recommendations for the implementation of these activities are detailed in the Operating & Maintenance Manual, but the actual maintenance programme should be determined by the end user (or his representative) in order to reflect local site conditions e.g. operating regime, site location, operation & maintenance staff skills and availability, etc. ► 2 MACHINE DETERIORATION The factors that cause machine deterioration include: Ø When Running Ø Outgoing Load Ø Thermal Load Ø Internal Magnetic Load Ø Internal Mechanical Load, including imbalance or misalignment. Ø External Mechanical Factors, including forces exerted by the prime mover, and external vibrations. Ø Ambient Conditions, including dust, water, corrosive atmospheres Ø At Standstill Ø External Mechanical Factors, including external vibrations. Ø Ambient Conditions, including dust, water, corrosive atmospheres From the above it can be concluded that the machine is 'subject to wear and tear' during its entire life, irrespective of the number of hours run. Any machine will therefore need to undergo a maintenance inspection or check from time to time. The purpose of this inspection is to detect possible abnormalities that, sooner or later, may disrupt its operation, or in the case of a breakdown, determine the extent of the damage. ► 3 MAINTENANCE PHILOSOPHIES The availability of a machine has a direct influence on the wellbeing of a company. An unexpected breakdown can cause considerable inconvenience and financial loss. To keep a machine functioning efficiently throughout its working life can often cost more than the original cost of the machine itself, consequently the way in which maintenance is carried out is important. The objective is high reliability with minimum interruption of machine operation, with minimum outlay. There are two basic maintenance philosophies that can be adopted: ► 3.1 Curative Maintenance With curative maintenance (or run-to-breakdown maintenance) a major overhaul is only performed after a breakdown. Overhauls cannot be planned and interruptions in operation occur unexpectedly. This policy is thus only appropriate when the machine’s condition is likely to deteriorate abruptly, which is not usually the case with electrical machines. Certain components can, of course, always breakdown suddenly. ►
  33. 33. GENERATOR MAINTENANCE PHILOSOPHIES Training Module: 01.03.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 4 of 4 01.03.01 (A) Generator Maintenance Philosophies.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 3.2 Preventive Maintenance With preventive maintenance, overhauls are planned ahead and take place in time to prevent a breakdown. This means that the machine’s condition should only be expected to deteriorate in a steady and predictable manner. For instance, the longer the machine is in operation the more likely the chance of a breakdown. In practice, particularly for electrical machines, preventive maintenance is preferred because it is more likely to ensure dependable plant operation. Preventive maintenance can be divided into two sub-categories, but in practice a combination of the two philosophies is used: 3.2.1 Time-Based Maintenance With time-based maintenance the machine is overhauled on the basis of calendar time and/or hours of operation e.g. once a month, year, etc. or every so many hours. In most cases this is acceptable, however there is the disadvantage that some components will be replaced before the are completely worn out. For example, the bearing would still be functioning correctly. 3.2.2 Condition-Based Maintenance With condition-based maintenance, the time when preventive action must be undertaken is determined by the machine’s condition. The assessment of the machine’s condition must be carried out by means of monitoring equipment and skilled engineers who know how to interpret the measurements. ► 4 SENSORY PERCEPTION Sensory perception means: Ø Looking Ø Touching Ø Smelling Ø Listening Sensory perception plays an important part in maintenance, since it is often possible to detect abnormal behaviour or an abnormal situation at an early stage, without the use of any measuring equipment. ►
  34. 34. PRINCIPLES OF AC GENERATION Training Module: 01.04.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 1 of 10 01.04.01 (A) Principles Of AC Generation.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 PRINCIPLES OF AC GENERATION
  35. 35. PRINCIPLES OF AC GENERATION Training Module: 01.04.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 2 of 10 01.04.01 (A) Principles Of AC Generation.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 CONTENTS 1 FARADAY'S LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION..................................................................... 3 2 THREE PHASE GENERATION................................................................................................................. 7 3 GENERATOR EXCITATION CONTROL SYSTEMS ................................................................................ 8 3.1 Conventional Excitation System (DC Generator Commutator Exciter)............................................... 8 3.2 Static Excitation System...................................................................................................................... 8 3.3 Brushless Excitation System............................................................................................................... 9
  36. 36. PRINCIPLES OF AC GENERATION Training Module: 01.04.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 3 of 10 01.04.01 (A) Principles Of AC Generation.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 1 FARADAY'S LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION Figure 1: Electromagnetic Induction Faraday's Law Of Electromagnetic Induction, illustrated in Figure 1, states that, if a conductor is moved in a magnetic field, then an electromotive force (emf) - or simply, a voltage - is induced in that conductor. It follows that, if the ends of the conductor are connected to an external load, then an electric current, driven by that voltage, will flow from the conductor, through the load and back again. Faraday showed that if a wire moves in a magnetic field, an artificial charge, or voltage, will be created in that wire. Faraday also showed that the magnitude of the voltage induced in the moving conductor depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the speed of movement, and on nothing else. These two laws form the whole basis of electrical power generation, both AC and DC. ► Fleming's Right Hand Rule for generators determines how this is achieved. Figure 2 illustrates the relationship between the magnetic field (North to South), direction of motion and direction of emf (voltage) induced in the conductor. Figure 2: Fleming's Right Hand Rule ►
  37. 37. PRINCIPLES OF AC GENERATION Training Module: 01.04.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 4 of 10 01.04.01 (A) Principles Of AC Generation.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 Figure 3 shows a loop of stiff wire on a shaft which can be turned. Suppose each end of the wire is connected to a slipring, insulated from the shaft, upon which there are brushes that are connected to a load. Figure 3: AC Generation - Fixed Field As the shaft is turned, one bar passes the N-pole as the other passes the S-pole. Voltage is induced one way in one bar and the opposite way in the other. ► Figure 4 illustrates how an alternating current waveform (sine wave) is induced in the rotating coil as it passes the fixed magnetic field. Figure 4: Alternating Current ►
  38. 38. PRINCIPLES OF AC GENERATION Training Module: 01.04.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 5 of 10 01.04.01 (A) Principles Of AC Generation.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 Faraday's theory required only that the conductor should be moving through a magnetic field i.e. that there should be relative motion between conductor and field. It would work just as well if the magnetic field moved past the conductor. In the arrangement shown in Figure 5 this is just what's happening. Figure 5: Rotating Field (Permanent Magnet) In the above diagram, the stiff wire loop is fixed, and the permanent magnet is rotated past it and inside it. As a pole passes a fixed conductor a maximum voltage is induced in it, opposite voltages on opposite sides, and they add up to give double voltage at the terminals or at the voltmeter.. In this arrangement no sliprings or brushes are needed which would be advantageous for a number of reasons, not least the reduced maintenance requirement. ►
  39. 39. PRINCIPLES OF AC GENERATION Training Module: 01.04.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 6 of 10 01.04.01 (A) Principles Of AC Generation.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 So far only permanent magnets have been considered for producing the magnetic field. Far better results can be achieved by using an electromagnet, which can produce much stronger fields and therefore much higher induced voltages (See Figure 6). Figure 6: Rotating Field (Electromagnet) In this case however DC power must be provided to the coil which magnetises it. This can come from a battery or other DC source, but a pair of sliprings and brushes must be used to bring the battery current to the moving magnetising coil - called the 'field coil'. This coil is said to 'excite' the field and the whole process is called 'excitation'. Because the field magnet is not permanent but is an electromagnet, it is possible to vary the coil current by a resistance and so vary the strength of the magnetic field itself. This in turn will vary the amount of the induced voltage. ► Using this principle, it is possible for an Operator to control the machine's voltage (remotely) by varying the excitation. This is illustrated in the following diagram. Figure 7: Voltage Control ►
  40. 40. PRINCIPLES OF AC GENERATION Training Module: 01.04.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 7 of 10 01.04.01 (A) Principles Of AC Generation.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 2 THREE PHASE GENERATION Figure 8: Three Phase Generation - Windings ► The above diagram illustrates how the basic AC generator principles are applied to produce the three phase generation waveforms shown in Figure 9. Figure 9: Three Phase Generation - Waveforms ►
  41. 41. PRINCIPLES OF AC GENERATION Training Module: 01.04.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 8 of 10 01.04.01 (A) Principles Of AC Generation.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 3 GENERATOR EXCITATION CONTROL SYSTEMS Figure 7 showed how it would be possible (for an Operator) to control the main machine's voltage by adjustment of the resistance which in turn varies the excitation i.e. If the Operator knows the voltage he wants to see on a voltmeter connected to the generator output, he can adjust the resistance until the required value is achieved. This is called 'excitation control'. To make the process automatic, an electronic device called an Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) or Excitation Controller is used to sense the output voltage and compare it with a datum which has previously been set by hand. The AVR decides whether the output voltage is correct, too high or too low. There commonly used types of excitation control systems for ac generators output control are: 3.1 Conventional Excitation System (DC Generator Commutator Exciter) GENERATOR DC Exciter AVR Sensing Only Figure 10: Excitation System - Conventional In this system, a dc control signal is fed from the excitation control to the stationary field of the dc exciter. The rotating element of the exciter then supplies a direct current to the field winding of the main ac generator. The rotating armature of the dc exciter is either driven from the same shaft as the rotating main field of the generator, or can be on a separate motor driven shaft. In both cases, a dc commutator is required on the exciter, and brushes and sliprings (collector rings) are required on the rotating generator field to carry the main generator field current. This system is sometimes used on smaller or older machines. ► 3.2 Static Excitation System GENERATOR AVR Sensing And Power Static Exciter Figure 11: Static Excitation System
  42. 42. PRINCIPLES OF AC GENERATION Training Module: 01.04.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 9 of 10 01.04.01 (A) Principles Of AC Generation.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 Static excitation systems obtain power from the electrical output of the generator or from the connected system to feed rectifiers in the regulating system, which in turn supply direct current to the main field winding of the generator through brushes and sliprings. ► 3.3 Brushless Excitation System Brush generators are now almost exclusively fitted with 'brushless' excitation systems in which the exciter shares a common shaft thus doing away with the need for sliprings and brushes. Since a DC generator used as an exciter would require the brushgear to rotate, the main exciter is another, but smaller, AC generator with stationary field and rotating armature. The AC output from this armature is taken converted to DC through 'rectifiers' rotating with the shaft, and then fed to the rotating field winding of the main generator. AVR Main AC Exciter Rotating Rectifier Generator Sensing And Power Figure 12: Brushless Excitation System In this system the ac armature of the exciter, the rotating three phase diode bridge rectifier, and the main field of the ac generator are all mounted on the same rotating shaft system. All electrical connections are made along or through the centre of the shaft. ► It is common to add a small second, or 'pilot' exciter (or permanent magnet generator - PMG) to excite the main exciter. AVR Main AC Exciter Rotating Rectifier Generator Voltage Sensing OnlyPilot Exciter Power Figure 13: Brushless Excitation System With Pilot Exciter ►
  43. 43. PRINCIPLES OF AC GENERATION Training Module: 01.04.01 Issue: A Date: September 2002 Page: 10 of 10 01.04.01 (A) Principles Of AC Generation.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2002 AVR Main AC Exciter Rotating Rectifier Generator Power And Voltage Sensing Short-Circuit Current Transformers Figure 14: Brushless Excitation System (Without Pilot Exciter) Some Customers prefer a brushless excitation system that does not use a pilot exciter. This arrangement is illustrated in the above diagram. ►
  44. 44. POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS Training Module: 04.01.01 Issue: B Date: April 2003 Page: 1 of 14 04.01.01 (B) Power Generation Systems.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2003 POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS DCAC AVR SENSING VT CT ROTOR STATOR PMG EXCITER ROTATING RECTIFIER LOAD PRIME MOVER
  45. 45. POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS Training Module: 04.01.01 Issue: B Date: April 2003 Page: 2 of 14 04.01.01 (B) Power Generation Systems.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2003 CONTENTS 1 PRIME MOVER/GENERATOR.................................................................................................................. 3 1.1 Arrangement........................................................................................................................................ 3 1.2 Prime Mover & Governor .................................................................................................................... 3 1.3 Generator & AVR ................................................................................................................................ 4 2 GENERATOR OPERATION ...................................................................................................................... 5 2.1 General................................................................................................................................................ 5 2.2 Island Operation.................................................................................................................................. 5 2.3 Parallel Operation................................................................................................................................ 6 3 AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE CONTROL......................................................................................................... 7 4 PARALLEL OPERATION.......................................................................................................................... 8 4.1 Quadrature Current Compensation..................................................................................................... 8 4.2 Machines In Parallel.......................................................................................................................... 10 5 GOVERNOR DROOP .............................................................................................................................. 11 5.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................................ 11 5.2 Case 1 - Zero Droop (Isochronous) .................................................................................................. 12 5.3 Case 2 - With Droop.......................................................................................................................... 12 6 GENERATOR OUTPUT........................................................................................................................... 13
  46. 46. POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS Training Module: 04.01.01 Issue: B Date: April 2003 Page: 3 of 14 04.01.01 (B) Power Generation Systems.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2003 1 PRIME MOVER/GENERATOR 1.1 Arrangement Figure 1: Main Components Of A Generating Package 1.2 Prime Mover & Governor The prime mover is mechanically linked, or coupled, to the generator either directly or by a gearbox. It would typically be a turbine (gas, steam, water or wind) or a diesel engine. Its function is to rotate the generator. As the generator is usually a synchronous machine, the rotational speed is required to be kept fairly constant and this is the function of the governor. Modern governors are normally electronic, providing a fast, closed loop control but the output may take many forms to suit the prime mover being controlled. The governor output can be a fuel, water or gas valve; being opened to increase speed or closed to reduce it. Some form of speed signal is fed to the governor and compared with an adjustable reference. The difference, the error, is used to control the output. The speed to which the governor controls, the speed datum, is adjustable over a small range; the adjustment usually being made by means of a ‘speeder motor’ in the case of mechanical governors or by an up/down counter in electronic units. The raise/lower signals might come from a control switch, an automatic synchroniser or an automatic control system. ►
  47. 47. POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS Training Module: 04.01.01 Issue: B Date: April 2003 Page: 4 of 14 04.01.01 (B) Power Generation Systems.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2003 1.3 Generator & AVR The Generator converts rotational mechanical energy produced by the prime mover into electrical energy. Figure 2 illustrates how the various elements are connected to a brushless generator AVR system. DCAC AVR SENSING VT CT ROTOR STATOR PMG EXCITER ROTATING RECTIFIER LOAD PRIME MOVER Figure 2: Generator/AVR Block Diagram The purpose of the pilot exciter is to provide a source of excitation power whenever the machine is running. The pilot exciter is a single phase permanent magnet generator (PMG), with the magnets mounted on the shaft, and the AC output being generated in the stator. The main exciter is of the brushless type and comprises a fixed part called the main exciter stator, and a rotating part called the main exciter armature. The main exciter stator is comprises laminated steel field poles around which are the field coils. ► The three phase AC output from the main exciter armature is connected to the rotating rectifier assembly, which converts the AC output to the DC input required in the generator rotor winding (See Figure 3) . The rotating rectifier assembly is a three phase full wave bridge configuration, with fuses in series with each rectifier diode. On larger machines more than one fuse/rectifier diode may be fitted to each arm of the bridge. Electrical connections between the rectified output and the generator rotor winding are carried in the central bore through the machine shaft.
  48. 48. POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS Training Module: 04.01.01 Issue: B Date: April 2003 Page: 5 of 14 04.01.01 (B) Power Generation Systems.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2003 Exciter Field Winding Exciter Armature Winding Generator Stator Winding Negative Heat Sink Positive Heat Sink Silicon Diode Fuse GeneratorFieldWinding Rectifier Assembly Rotor Figure 3: Brushless Generator Schematic The voltage regulator allows the Operator to control the generator's voltage by variation of excitation. This is called 'excitation control'. To make the process automatic, an electronic device called an Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) or Excitation Controller is used to sense the output voltage and compare it with a preset datum. The AVR decides whether the output voltage is correct, too high or too low. The power output of the machine is produced in the generator stator windings. ► 2 GENERATOR OPERATION 2.1 General The power (MW, kW, W or Watts) supplied at the generator terminals is provided by the fuel supplied to the prime mover (turbine or engine), which is determined by the prime mover governor. When a generator is used to supply power, it can be operated isolated, sometimes referred to as island mode, or in parallel with a system or other machines. 2.2 Island Operation In island operation, the machine speed is determined by the load and fuel supply, and the generator voltage is determined by the excitation. Because the unit operates in isolation, the generator power factor is equal to the load power factor.
  49. 49. POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS Training Module: 04.01.01 Issue: B Date: April 2003 Page: 6 of 14 04.01.01 (B) Power Generation Systems.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2003 FUEL REGULATOR PRIME MOVER MECHANICAL POWER FUEL GENERATOR ELECTRICAL POWER GOVERNOR SPEED SIGNAL FIELD VOLTAGE SIGNAL LOAD VOLTAGE REGULATOR Figure 4: Island Mode Operation When operating in isolation, an increase in load will have two effects: 1) Speed will initially fall because the energy being supplied by the fuel is less than that required by the load. The speed reduction is detected by the governor, which opens the prime mover fuel valve by the required amount to maintain the required speed. 2) Voltage will initially fall because the generator excitation is too low to maintain nominal voltage at the increased load. The voltage reduction is detected by the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) which increases the excitation by an amount required to maintain output voltage. ► 2.3 Parallel Operation FUEL REGULATOR PRIME MOVER MECHANICAL POWER FUEL GENERATOR ELECTRICAL POWER GOVERNOR SPEED SIGNAL FIELD LARGE POWER SYSTEM VOLTAGE REGULATOR V I SENSING SIGNALS Figure 5: Parallel Operation When a machine operates in parallel with a power system, the voltage and frequency will be fixed mainly by the system. The fuel supply to the prime mover determines the power which is supplied by the generator and this is controlled by the governor. The generator excitation determines the internal emf of the machine and therefore affects the power factor when the terminal voltage is fixed by the power system. The governor and AVR are arranged to have characteristics which allow them to be stable when the generator is operating in parallel with a power system. (See Section 4 - Parallel Operation).
  50. 50. POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS Training Module: 04.01.01 Issue: B Date: April 2003 Page: 7 of 14 04.01.01 (B) Power Generation Systems.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2003 In single and parallel operation it is important to realise that power is determined by the fuel supply to the prime mover, and that excitation determines voltage when single running, and power factor when parallel running. ► 3 AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE CONTROL PILOT EXCITER BRUSHLESS GENERATOR VOLTAGE & CURRENT SENSING TRANSFORMERS EXCITER FIELD CONTROLLED RECTIFIER CONTROL SIGNAL AMPLIFIER ERROR SIGNAL ADJUSTABLE REFERENCE VOLTAGE SENSING SIGNAL STABILISING NETWORK Figure 6: Principal Components Of A Generator And AVR The above diagram shows the principal components of the generator and its AVR. The voltage transformer (VT) provides a signal proportional to line voltage to the AVR where it is compared to a stable reference voltage. The difference (error) signal is amplified and then used to control the output of a thyristor rectifier which supplies a portion of the PMG output to the exciter field. If the load on the generator suddenly increases the reduction in output voltage produces an error signal which, when amplified, causes an increase in exciter field current resulting in a corresponding increase in rotor current and generator output voltage. Conversely, load reduction will cause the generator voltage to suddenly increase, and in this case the amplified error signal will cause a reduction in exciter field current resulting in a corresponding reduction in rotor current and generator output voltage. Because of the high inductance of the generator field windings, it is difficult to make rapid changes in field current. This introduces a considerable 'lag' in the control system which makes it necessary to include a stabilising circuit in the AVR to prevent instability and optimise the generator voltage response to load changes. Without a stabilising circuit, the regulator would keep increasing and reducing excitation and the line voltage would continuously fluctuate above and below the required value. Modern voltage regulators are designed to maintain the generator line voltage within better than ±1% of nominal for wide variations of machine load. ►
  51. 51. POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS Training Module: 04.01.01 Issue: B Date: April 2003 Page: 8 of 14 04.01.01 (B) Power Generation Systems.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2003 4 PARALLEL OPERATION 4.1 Quadrature Current Compensation As mentioned earlier when a generator is connected in parallel with another power system it may be incapable of significantly influencing the system line voltage, with the level of excitation now determining the reactive power developed by the generator. If line voltage were less than that called for by the voltage regulator, it would supply maximum available excitation in an attempt to increase line voltage and excessive lagging reactive line current would flow. Similarly, if line voltage were high, excitation would be reduced to zero in an attempt to reduce line voltage, and excessive leading line current would flow. Under such circumstances the generator could pole slip (run asynchronously) if any significant power were flowing. A standard method of overcoming the above problem is to modify the voltage control system so that as lagging reactive load on the generator increases, the line voltage that the regulator demands is reduced as shown in Figure 7 in which it will be seen that as the system voltage falls from level A to level B the lagging reactive current increases. For a fixed line voltage,, generator reactive current may be varied by adjustment of the voltage setting potentiometer which adjusts the position of the AVR characteristic. AVR CHARACTERISTIC GENERATOR LINE VOLTAGE A & B REPRESENT TWO SYSTEM VOLTAGES A B LEADING LAGGING REACTIVE CURRENT 0 Figure 7: Voltage Control Characteristic For Parallel Operation A method of achieving the above AVR characteristic is known as Quadrature Current Compensation (QCC). A voltage proportional to one line current is added to the voltage across the other two lines and the amplitude of the vector sum is regulated by the AVR as illustrated in the following diagram. ►
  52. 52. POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS Training Module: 04.01.01 Issue: B Date: April 2003 Page: 9 of 14 04.01.01 (B) Power Generation Systems.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2003 AVR V I SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM V A B C 1 C VECTOR DIAGRAMS φ φ I I I A C B A C B V V VAB C 1 Figure 8: Quadrature Current Compensation It will be seen that the sensing voltage, V1, is the vector sum of line voltage and a voltage proportional to the line current signal, VC. If line voltage is much greater than VC, the following approximation way be made. V1 = VBA + VC sin φ where φ is the phase angle. Thus as lagging reactive load increases, so does the last term of the above expression which is proportional to reactive current, and therefore line voltage is reduced as the AVR acts to maintain V1 constant. For leading reactive currents, line voltage is increased. The reduction in line voltage for rated current at zero power factor lagging is typically 5%. Provided line voltage does not vary, reactive current will be controlled to a level determined by the voltage setting potentiometer of the AVR. If, however, line voltage varied appreciably, an Operator would have to continually adjust the potentiometer to prevent excessive lagging or leading currents. Under such circumstances it may be desirable to use an automatic reactive current or power factor control system. ►
  53. 53. POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS Training Module: 04.01.01 Issue: B Date: April 2003 Page: 10 of 14 04.01.01 (B) Power Generation Systems.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2003 4.2 Machines In Parallel Where a number of machines are operated in parallel, it is usual to adjust the regulators to give a similar amount of droop. This will ensure that the total VAR loading on the system remains reasonably balanced between generators. If droop settings are not equal, the machine with the least droop will tend to take more than its share of the load VARs. This means that the set with least droop will run at a lower lagging power factor than the others. LOAD A B C TOTAL VARS (SET BY LOAD) A & B HAVE EQUAL DROOP C HAS LESS DROOP THAN A& B VOLTAGE LEAD 0 LAG VARsVARs On A & B VARs On C A & B C SYSTEM VOLTAGE Figure 9: Three Machines In Parallel On Independent Load In the above diagram, machines A and B have identical droop and at a particular line voltage will supply equal VARs. Machine C has less droop and will therefore supply more VARs than A or B, at the same line voltage. When a machine operates in parallel with an infinite busbar as shown in the following diagram, the busbar behaves like a machine with zero droop, therefore if the busbar voltage remains constant, the generator will produce constant VARs. ►
  54. 54. POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS Training Module: 04.01.01 Issue: B Date: April 2003 Page: 11 of 14 04.01.01 (B) Power Generation Systems.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2003 A INFINITE BUSBAR GENERATOR VOLTAGE LEAD 0 LAG VARs Y SYSTEM VOLTAGE X X' Y' CHARACTERISTIC OF MACHINE A INCREASING AVR SET POINT Figure 10: Machine In Parallel With Infinite Busbar To adjust the VARs on the machine it is necessary to raise or lower the position of line X-Y by adjusting the AVR datum. This is the usual method of manually adjusting VARs or Power Factor. ► 5 GOVERNOR DROOP 5.1 Introduction When operating in parallel the prime mover fuel control system is also changed from a constant frequency control system to one which can operate when the frequency is determined by the grid system. A simple arrangement often used is known as governor droop where the governor speed datum is reduced as the load increases. SPEED (FREQUENCY) POWER Y SYSTEM FREQUENCY Y Y' Y' INCREASING GOVERNOR SET POINT 0 100% Figure 11: Governor Droop Characteristic In this simple arrangement the system frequency determines the point on the characteristic, and adjustment of the governor datum will raise or lower the line Y-Y and allow the load to be adjusted. As in generator controls, wide variations of system frequency would give rise to large power variation and in such cases it would be normal to include an automatic load control system in the governor. ►
  55. 55. POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS Training Module: 04.01.01 Issue: B Date: April 2003 Page: 12 of 14 04.01.01 (B) Power Generation Systems.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2003 5.2 Case 1 - Zero Droop (Isochronous) To explain the need for speed droop consider firstly the case of two generating packages without droop. These are required to run in parallel on an ‘Island’ system such as an isolated oil rig. Consider Package A, set to 50Hz, already on the bars and loaded to about half full load - no problem here. If the load should vary, the governor will adjust the fuel to bring the speed back to 50Hz. Now if Package B was needed, it would be synchronised to the bars usually by setting it a little faster, say 50.1Hz. Once the breaker is closed, the two sets are locked together and the troubles begin. The common speed of the two packages is likely to be somewhere between 50 and 50.1Hz. The governor on Package B will see this speed as too slow and increase the fuel supply. At the same time Package A’s governor will see the speed as too fast and reduce fuel. Neither of these actions change the situation and the governors continue to fight, Package B will take all the available load and Package A will trip on reverse power. ► 5.3 Case 2 - With Droop Now consider what happens when this is repeated but with the governor of Package B having droop. As before, Package B’s governor sees the speed as too low and increases fuel and again Package A’s fuel is reduced, but, as the power provided by B increases so its speed setting is reduced automatically by the droop mechanism and soon falls to 50Hz at which point both governors are happy. The governor of Package A with zero droop is said to be ‘isochronous’. Figure 12 shows the characteristics of two such packages, one with droop and one isochronous. Figure 12: Isochronous/Droop Characteristics If further sets are needed on the bars then they too must have speed droop. Just one set may be left in the isochronous mode and this set then effectively controls the frequency of the whole power system. Such an arrangement may seem ideal but, apart from the difficulty of ensuring that one, and only one of the sets is isochronous, there is another problem: any load change is thrown solely onto the isochronous set. It is more common to give all sets equal droop and in this way any load changes are shared equally between the running sets. The slight reduction in frequency as load is applied is a small penalty to pay for an inherently stable arrangement. In any case, a power management system such as PRISMIC will off-set this and keep the system frequency constant in the long term. ►
  56. 56. POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS Training Module: 04.01.01 Issue: B Date: April 2003 Page: 13 of 14 04.01.01 (B) Power Generation Systems.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2003 6 GENERATOR OUTPUT The generator is usually the only load driven by the prime mover and this produces a three phase output at a voltage to suit the distribution arrangement of the power system. Typical nominal voltages are 600V, 3300V, 6600V, 11,000V or 13,800V. The design of the generator determines the voltage it can produce, but merely spinning the machine will only generate about 5% nominal volts (produced by the residual magnetism of the rotor). To produce full voltage the generator has to be excited. In the case of a brushless generator this is done by applying a DC voltage to the exciter field. The control of the generator output voltage by this means is the job of the automatic voltage regulator (AVR). The task of any AVR is to maintain the generator voltage at a set level. A dip in voltage caused by an increased load on the machine will be compensated by increasing the voltage applied to the field. Modern AVRs employ semi-conductor devices to provide excitation and offer a fast response to maintain line voltage in the face of varying loads. Like the governor, the AVR has a droop characteristic but, in this case, it is the voltage that falls and with increasing reactive rather than real power (See Training Module 04.10.01). The voltage droop is can be set between 0 and 10%, a value of 4% being common. The droop allows the generator to share reactive power stably with other paralleled machines. The generator is selected to match the speed and power of the prime mover; the output frequency is given by the following formula: f= N x p where: f is the generator frequency N is generator speed in revs per second p is the number of pairs of poles on the generator Thus a four-pole generator running at 1500 rpm (25 revs/second) will give a frequency of 50Hz. ►
  57. 57. POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS Training Module: 04.01.01 Issue: B Date: April 2003 Page: 14 of 14 04.01.01 (B) Power Generation Systems.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2003 BLANK PAGE
  58. 58. SYNCHRONISING Training Module: 04.02.01 Issue: A Date: April 2003 Page: 1 of 10 04.02.01 (A) Synchronising.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2003 SYNCHRONISING
  59. 59. SYNCHRONISING Training Module: 04.02.01 Issue: A Date: April 2003 Page: 2 of 10 04.02.01 (A) Synchronising.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2003 CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................................ 3 2 DC GENERATORS.................................................................................................................................... 3 3 AC GENERATORS.................................................................................................................................... 4 4 SYNCHRONISING AC GENERATORS .................................................................................................... 5 5 LAMP SYNCHRONISING.......................................................................................................................... 6 5.1 The 2-Lamp Method............................................................................................................................ 6 5.2 The 3-Lamp Method............................................................................................................................ 7 6 SYNCHROSCOPE..................................................................................................................................... 8 7 SYNCHRONISING AT THE SWITCHBOARD/CONTROL PANEL .......................................................... 8 8 AUTOMATIC SYNCHRONISING .............................................................................................................. 9 9 CHECK SYNCHRONISING ....................................................................................................................... 9 10 CLOSING ONTO DEAD BUSBAR ...................................................................................................... 10
  60. 60. SYNCHRONISING Training Module: 04.02.01 Issue: A Date: April 2003 Page: 3 of 10 04.02.01 (A) Synchronising.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2003 1 INTRODUCTION The idea of synchronising is not new. Every time you change gear in a car you synchronise the engine to the road speed so that, when the clutch is let in, both shafts are running at the same speed and there is no jerk. Conversely, if you synchronise badly there is a jerk, stress on the engine and possibly a lot of noise. In electrical engineering, synchronising is to either electrically 'join' the output of an AC generator to a live busbar, or join live bus sections together. Generator synchronising is applicable to installations that have more than one generator and/or are connected to another (external) network or grid. When synchronising two electrical systems, the moment the circuit breaker closes the systems are mechanically locked through the busbars. Any synchronising displacement will cause the smaller of the systems to lock very quickly resulting in mechanical stresses in the both the prime mover and generator rotors and foundations. In turbines blades can be damaged. In generators windings and rotating diodes can be damaged due to the high transient currents that can occur during this 'fault' condition. ► 2 DC GENERATORS The simplest case of synchronising occurs with dc generators. Figure 1: DC Generators Figure 1 represents two dc generators, both on open circuit but about to be paralleled by a switch. Each is separately excited such that machine 'A' has an open-circuit voltage VA and machine 'B' VB. Machine 'A' is assumed to be the 'running' generator, and machine 'B' , is the 'incoming' generator which is to be paralleled to 'A'. Before closing the switch which puts the two generators in parallel it is necessary only to ensure that their voltages are the same -that is, that VB = VA ; then the switch may be closed, and no sudden current will flow - there will be no electrical 'jerks'. If the voltages were different, suppose that VA is greater than VB. On closing the switch there will be a closed loop with the emf's VA and VB opposing one another. Since VA is greater than VB there is a net clockwise emf in the loop, which will cause a clockwise current IC to flow round it (shown in red), limited only by the resistances of the two armatures. This current appears suddenly as the switch is closed, putting a sudden load onto generator 'A' so causing it to slow with a jerk, and causing generator 'B' to motor, making it accelerate with a jerk. This circulating current, which occurs on closing the switch whenever VA and VB are not equal, is also called the 'synchronising current'. To avoid it and its consequent jerking effect on the system, the incoming machine voltage must first be matched to the voltage of the running machine - normally done by trimming the field of the incoming generator. ►
  61. 61. SYNCHRONISING Training Module: 04.02.01 Issue: A Date: April 2003 Page: 4 of 10 04.02.01 (A) Synchronising.doc © Brush Electrical Machines Ltd. 2003 3 AC GENERATORS With ac generators the problem is more complicated. It can be seen in the dc case how a circulating current is caused by differing opposing voltages. In dc this is straightforward, but in ac a voltage difference can be caused either by differing voltage amplitudes or, for the same voltage amplitudes, by differing phase. Figure 2: Voltage And Phase Difference In Figure 2(a) the two voltages VA and VB are in phase with one another, but their amplitudes are different. At any instant such as time T, the instantaneous voltage of machine 'A' is TA and that of machine 'B' is TB. Therefore there is, at that instant, a voltage difference AB which will cause a circulating current to flow between the generators when the paralleling switch is closed. This is true at any instant other than a common voltage zero. In Figure 2(b) the two voltages have equal amplitudes but are displaced in phase, VB lagging on VA .At any instant such as time T the instantaneous voltage of machine 'A' is TA and that of machine 'B' is TB. Although the two voltages are equal in amplitude, there is still an instantaneous difference of voltage AB which will cause a circulating current to flow between the generators when the paralleling switch is closed. Therefore, even though the voltage levels (as read by voltmeters) are the same, a difference of phase will still cause a circulating, or 'synchronising', current to flow between the machines, causing one to accelerate and the other to decelerate and to jerk them into phase with each other as the switch is closed. Therefore, to prevent sudden circulating currents occurring and to achieve smooth paralleling, the voltages of both machines must first be equalised and the machines then brought into phase. This is described in the following section.

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