Leadership Perspectives “Authentic Leadership” Paul Healy Head of Group Learning & Development Irish Life & Permanent The Sales Institute 20th October 2010
Traditional Leadership Theory• Trait V Behavioral• Leadership “Styles”• Situational Leadership Theory• Managers V Leaders
What has Changed?• Customer ?• Market ?• People – Task of engaging employees has changed. – “Increasingly suspicious that we are been ‘worked’” (Goffee & Jones) – Employers have broken bond of trust – Vets, Baby Boomers, Gen X and Gen Y – Rise of the corporate prisoner.
Contemporary Perspectives• 3 Themes – Context – Conviction – Authentic Leadership• Emphasis Shift – From the Leader to the Followers
Order• Orientation to roles• Control of conflict• Maintain norms
Leadership• Leadership is an Activity• Not defined by personality traits, charisma, power, influence or position• With or Without Authority
LEADERSHIP• The capacity to mobilize people to address the tough problems – those they would rather avoid
Technical WorkAny work that doesnt require deepthinking or systemic change, but isstraight-forward in regards to theapplication of expertise to a particularproblem. The problem is clear and thesolution is clear.
Adaptive Work• The challenging work of shifting values, norms, belief systems and world views so that progress can be made on problems that don’t have easy answers and that people would rather avoid.
Kind of Problem Solution Focus of Work Definition Definition WorkTechnical Clear Clear Authority Technical Clear Requires Authority && Adaptive Learning StakeholdersAdaptive Requires Requires Learning Learning Stakeholders
Properties of an Adaptive Challenge• The challenge consists of a gap between aspirations and reality.• Requires responses outside the normal repertoire.• Narrowing the gap requires difficult learning.• The learning involves distinguishing what’s expendable from what’s essential, which involves LOSS.
Properties of an Adaptive Challenge• The losses often involve learning to refashion old loyalties and develop new competencies• Adaptive work is value-laden• The people with the problem are the problem and the solution – Problem solving responsibility shifts to the stakeholders
Properties of an Adaptive Challenge• Adaptive work requires a longer time frame than technical work• Adaptive work is experimental in nature.• Adaptive challenges generate disequilibrium and avoidance.
“The problems that we have created by the way that we have lived cannot be solved at the same level of thinking that produced them in the first place.” Albert Einstein
Managing Stress ResponsesLevel ofdisequilibrium Danger zone Learning zone Comfort zone Time 19Source: Based on Heifetz, Leadership without Easy Answers
Technical Work Adaptive Work • Authority identifies the• challenge, diagnoses the Authority provides problem condition, produces questions definition & solution about solution• Protects from external threat • Discloses external threat• Restates/ Orientates roles • Disorientates roles, resists pressure to orient people in• Restores Order new roles too quickly• Maintains norms • Exposes conflict or lets it emerge • Challenges norms, allow norms to be challenged
Work Avoidance• Make the problem Technical• Blame Authority• Kill the Messenger• Scapegoat/externalize the problem
The Tasks of Leadership• Get on the Balcony• Define the Adaptive Challenge• Infuse the Work with Meaning• Keep the level of stress (disequilibrium) productive• Focus on ripening the issue• Develop responsibility/give work back to the stakeholders• Think Politically
Level 5 Leadership Jim Collins“ You can accomplish anything in life, provided that you do not mind who gets the credit.” Harry Truman
Jim Collins• Wrote “Built to Last”• Wrote “Good to Great” – Study of 1435 Good Companies – Examined their performance over 40 years – Companies that outpaced the rest of the industry (exceeded the stock market av by 3x over 15 years)
Who is Darwin Smith?• In-house lawyer who was CEO of Kimberly-Clark for 20 years• During his time Kimberly-Clark generated stock returns 4.1 times the general market• He described his management style as “Eccentric”• His shyness was coupled with a fierce resolve toward life.
Level 5 LeadersLevel 5 leaders channel their ego needsaway from themselves and into the largergoal of building a great company. It’s not that Level 5 leaders have no ego or self- interest. Indeed, they are incredibly ambitious—but their ambition is first and foremost for the institution, not themselves.
Who is Colman Mockler• CEO of Gillette from 1975 to 1991• A gracious, patrician gentleman• Held off three hostile attacks in order to fight for the future greatness of Gillette• A placid persona that held an inner intensity to be the best
Who of these do you know?• George Cain • Lyle Everingham (Abbott Medical) (Nucor)• Alan Wurtzel • Joe Cullman (Circuit City) (Philip Morris)• Jim Herring • Fred Allan (Pitney Bowes) (Kroger) • Charles Walgreen• Carl Reichardt (Walgreen Pharm) (Wells Fargo)
Two Dimensions of Level 5• Professional Will - Sets the standard of building an enduring great – Creates superb company; will settle for results, a clear nothing less. catalyst in the transition from good to great - Looks in the mirror, not out the window, to – Demonstrates an apportion responsibility for unwavering resolve poor results. to do whatever must be done to produce the best long-term results, no matter how difficult.
The Second Side• Personal Humility – Demonstrates a – Channels ambition into compelling modesty, the company, not the shunning public self; sets up adulation; never successors for even boastful. greater success in the next generation. – Acts with quiet, calm determination; relies – Looks out the window, principally on not the mirror, to inspired standards, apportion credit for the not inspiring success of the charisma, to motivate company.
Level 5 Conundrum• The great irony is that the personal ambition that often drive people to positions of power stands at odds with the humility required for Level 5 leadership.• Combine that irony with the fact that boards of directors frequently operate under the false belief that they need to hire a larger-than-life egocentric leader.
Therefore:• You can see why Level 5 leaders seldom appear at the top of institutions.• The problem is not with the availability of Level 5 leaders. The problem is recognising that what they have is important.
Finally!• Can I become a Level 5 leader?• No prescription---sorry. Except to practice the other findings that lead a company from Good to Great. – Disciplined People – Disciplined Thought – Disciplined Action