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Die palästinensische Autonomiebehörde - Rechtsreform und Staatswerdung unter Besatzung

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Die Palästinensische Autonomiebehörde: Rechtsreform und Staatswerdung unter Besatzung
Seminar: Rechtsgeschichte und Rechtstatsachenforschung

Published in: Education, News & Politics
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Die palästinensische Autonomiebehörde - Rechtsreform und Staatswerdung unter Besatzung

  1. 1. <ul><li>Die Palästinensische Autonomiebehörde: Rechtsreform und Staatswerdung unter Besatzung </li></ul><ul><li>Jamil Salem </li></ul><ul><li>Institute of Law, Birtzeit University </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Friedensprozess: Entstehung der PA (1994-) </li></ul><ul><li>Reform und Staatswerdung </li></ul><ul><li>Rechtsreform </li></ul><ul><li>Das Grundgesetz </li></ul><ul><li>Frauenrechte </li></ul><ul><li>Das Justizwesen </li></ul><ul><li>Wirtschaftsverfassung </li></ul><ul><li>Herausforderungen </li></ul><ul><li>Chancen </li></ul><ul><li>Rechtsdatenbank (Al-Muqtafi) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>I. Friedensprozess: Entstehung der PA (1994 – ) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Osloer Verträge - Land für Frieden) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Beschränkte Territoriale, Personale und Funktionale Zuständigkeit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aufteilung des Westjordanlandes in 3 Zonen: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Die A-Zone umfaßt die wichtigsten Städte (ca. 3%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Unter Zuständigkeit der PA. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Die B-Zone umfaßt die Dörfer und Flüchtlingslager (ca. 24%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Geteilte Zuständigkeit (PA: Zivile Angelegenheiten, Israel: Sicherheitsfragen). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Die C-Zone umfaßt den Rest des Westjordanlandes (ca. 73%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Unter alleiniger israelischer Hoheit. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>d. Israelische Truppen ziehen aus dem GS ab (2005), seitdem wurde der GS zu einem „Freiluft-Gefängnis“. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Die Interimsperiode hätte im Jahr 1999 enden sollen. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wiederholt neue Zeitpläne für die Beendigung des Konflikts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>44 Jahre vergangen seit der israelischen Besatzung! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>3 Phasen: </li></ul><ul><li>1: Entstehung der PA - Ausbruch der 2. Intifada. (1994-2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Erste Freie Legislativrats- und Präsidentschaftswahlen </li></ul><ul><li>Arafat “der starke Mann” mit Unterstützung der internationalen Gemeinschaft gegen die Stimmen der Zivilgesellschaft (Autoritäre Führung) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ausbruch der 2. Intifada - Tod Arafat (2000-2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Ende der Interimsphase, Sharon gewinnt die Wahlen in Israel, Arafat isoliert, Bau der Trennungsmauer. </li></ul><ul><li>Wichtige Gesetze erlassen (Das Grundgesetz, Judicial Authority Law , etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Machkampf zwischen Fatah und Hamas (2004- ?) </li></ul><ul><li>Präsidentschafts- und Legislativratswahlen (2005 und 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Internationaler Boykott gegen die Hamas Regierung. </li></ul><ul><li>Machtübernahme der Hamas im GS, Ausruf des Notstands im WB. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Rechtspluralismus </li></ul>Rechtspluralismus innerhalb des offiziellen “staatlichen” Rechts Rechtspluralismus im Sinne der Koexistenz nicht-staatlichen „Rechts“ mit staatlichem Recht <ul><li>Religionsgerichtsbarkeit vs. ordentliche Gerichtsbarkeit </li></ul><ul><li>Israelisches Recht – PA Recht </li></ul><ul><li>2 Rechtssysteme (GS – WB) </li></ul><ul><li>Inforemelle Streitbeilegungsmechanismen außerhalb der ordentlichen Gerichtsbarkeit (Mischung aus Gewohnheiten, Bräuche und „Adat“ (Sitten, Traditionen). </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Ziele der Rechtsreform </li></ul><ul><li>Vereinheitlichung, Harmonisierung und </li></ul><ul><li>Modernisierung der unterschiedlichen Rechtssysteme (WB&GS) </li></ul><ul><li>Bedeutende Errungenschaften </li></ul><ul><li>Wahlen </li></ul><ul><li>Ausarbeitung einer vorläufigen Verfassung (Das Grundgesetz) </li></ul><ul><li>Verfassungsorgane (Legislativrat, Regierung, Präsident) </li></ul><ul><li>Langsamer Wiederaufbau der Gerichtsbarkeit </li></ul><ul><li>Ca. 125 Gesetze erlassen. </li></ul><ul><li>Aber: </li></ul><ul><li>Noch keine Einigung über wichtige Gesetzesentwürfe (Zivil-, Straf- und Handelsgesetze und Verwaltungsverfahren) </li></ul><ul><li>Plan für die Gesetzgebung nicht vorhanden (Budgetäre Probleme) </li></ul><ul><li>Der Ursprung vieler Gesetze nicht erkennbar (versch. Akteure) </li></ul><ul><li> Das Rechtssystem ist aufgrund des Scheiterns der Friedensverhandlungen komplexer geworden. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><ul><ul><li>IV. Das Grundgesetz (Basic Law) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Das Volk ist die Quelle der Macht/Gewalt (“Power”) (Art. 2) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wahlrecht (allgemein, gleich, und geheim) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Das Prinzip der Gewaltentrennung (Art. 2) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herrschaft des Rechts (Rule of Law) (Art. 6) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kapitel 2 enthält einen Katalog von Grundrechten (Art. 9 - Art. 33) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gleichheitssatz (Art. 9) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aber: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Der Islam wird als offizielle Religion erhoben unter Respektierung anderer Religionen (Art. 4 Abs. 1) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Die „Prinzipien der Scharia“ bilden eine Quelle für die Gesetzgebung </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Widerspruch zu Art. 9 (Gleichheitssatz) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Gleichheitssatz (Art. 9 GG) </li></ul><ul><li>Arbeitsgesetz aus dem Jahr 2000 (Diskriminierungsverbot): </li></ul><ul><li>Art 2: Work is a right for each citizen who is capable thereof. The National Authority shall provide it on the basis of equal opportunities and without any kind of discrimination whatsoever. </li></ul><ul><li>Art 100: In pursuance of the provisions of this Law and the regulations issued forth in accordance with it, discrimination between men and women shall be prohibited. </li></ul><ul><li>Entwurf einer Frauenrechtscharta </li></ul><ul><li>Frauenministerium und seit 2008 Genderabteilung im Justizministerium </li></ul><ul><li>Frauenanzahl im Legislativrat (13%) </li></ul><ul><li>Gemeindeebene Anteil höher (bis zu 30%) </li></ul><ul><li>Ramallah (Jeanette Michael Bürgermeisterin seit Dez. 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Ungleichbehandlung: </li></ul><ul><li>Strafrecht (Ehrendelikte - Ehebruch) – Ursprung franz. Strafrechtskodex 1810 </li></ul><ul><li>Aufgrund der Zweiteilung des Rechtssystems (Familien und Erbrecht) </li></ul><ul><li>Beispiele im Obsorgerecht und Erbrecht </li></ul>
  9. 10. VI.1. Gerichtsbarkeit Dualismus Ordentliche Gerichtsbarkeit Religionsgerichte Zivil- und Strafgerichtsbarkeit Verwaltungsgerichtsbarkeit (Verwaltungsgerichte noch im Aufbau)
  10. 11. <ul><li>Gesetzliche Grundlage: (Grundgesetz, Gerichtsorganisationsgesetz und Zivilverfahrensgesetz ) </li></ul><ul><li>Oberstes Gericht (fungiert auch als Verfassungs- und Verwaltungsgericht) </li></ul><ul><li>2 Instanzgerichte (fungieren als Berufungsgericht gegenüber den Bezirksgerichten) </li></ul><ul><li>12 Bezirksgerichte (Erstinstanzgericht und Berufungsgericht für Magistratsgerichte) </li></ul><ul><li>20 Magistratsgerichte (zuständig für bestimmte zivilrechtliche Streitigkeiten, die einen bestimmten Wert nicht übersteigen und strafrechtliche Vergehen) </li></ul><ul><li>Religionsgerichte: </li></ul><ul><li>Zuständig für Familien- und Erbrecht (Zweiteilung des Gerichtssystems stammt aus der osmanischen Periode) </li></ul><ul><li>Es gilt das Recht der jeweiligen Religion (Scharia, kanonisches Recht, etc.) </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>VIII.3. Herausforderung für die Gerichtsbarkeit </li></ul><ul><li>Richter: (ca. 150), überlastet </li></ul><ul><li>Schwache Infrastruktur (viele Gerichte zerstört) </li></ul><ul><li>Schwache Ausbildungsprogramme für Richter (Mehrheit der Richter im Ausland studiert, juristische Fakultäten erst jüngst entstanden, Lehrmaterialien aus benachbarten Staaten, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Reformprozess noch nicht abgeschlossen, </li></ul><ul><li>Einmischung der Exekutive in die richterliche Gewalt, vor allem in „Sicherheitsfragen“ </li></ul><ul><li>Urteile können oft nicht vollzogen werden aufgrund der beschränkten Zuständigkeit der PA </li></ul><ul><li> Streitbeilegungsmechanismen außerhalb der Gerichte („Familientribunale“) </li></ul><ul><li>Jüngste Reformbemühungen: </li></ul><ul><li>Koalition der Zivilgesellschaft für die Unterstützung der Unabhängigkeit des Justizwesen (seit 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Ausführliches Reformdokument vorbereitet (behandelt Gerichtsbarkeit, Staatsanwaltschaft, Justizministerium, Anwaltskammer, Juristische Fakultäten und bestimmte NGOs). </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><ul><li>Illusion und Wirklichkeit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aus Gaza soll Singapur werden!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paris Protokoll (1994): Zollunion zw. PA und Israel, keine eigene Währung. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Das Wirtschaftssystem der PA basiert auf die freie Marktwirtschaft. (Art. 21 GG) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Das Gesetz zur Förderung von Investitionen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starke Abhängigkeit (israelische Wirtschaft und internationale Geberstaaten) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internationale Förderungen um PA zu erhalten, keine echte Entwicklungspolitik </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wirtschaftliche Lage verschlechtert sich. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><ul><ul><li>Israelische Besatzung, weiterer Siedlungsbau, Einschränkung der Bewegungsfreiheit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hälfte der Legislativratsabgeordnete im israelischen Gefängnis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interner Machtkampf zwischen Fatah und Hamas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unterschiedliche Visionen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Staatswerdung - Widerstand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Staat basierend auf Scharia - weltliche demokratische Grundlagen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rechtsunsicherheit </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Link: http://muqtafi2.birzeit.edu/en/ </li></ul><ul><li>Frei zugänglich (Registrierung erforderlich, kostenlos) </li></ul><ul><li>Enthält die meisten Gesetze seit der Osmanischen Herrschaft (ca. 20% in Englisch) </li></ul><ul><li>Vorbereitung einer konsolidierten Fassung der PA Gesetze </li></ul><ul><li>23000 Gerichtsentscheidungen (seit 1994) </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Vielen Dank für die Aufmerksamkeit </li></ul><ul><li>Jamil Salem </li></ul><ul><li>Institute of Law, Birzeit University </li></ul><ul><li>P.O. Box 14, Birzeit, West Bank </li></ul><ul><li>Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>

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