Presented by: Dr.S.M. Shazzadul karim
FCPS trainee , Department of Psychiatry,
They don’t call me sad
They don’t call me bad
They don’t call me mad
They don’t call me.
@ William Mcknight.
What is STIGMA?
The word stigma refers originally to a mark or brand
on Greek slaves , clearly separating them from
Dictionary definition, `a mark of disgrace or infamy’
Goff man(1963) `an attribute that is deeply
Jones et al(1984) `A mark that sets a person apart &
links the marked person to undesirable
Origin of STIGMA
Problem of knowledge=Ignorance
Problem of attitude=Prejudice
Problem of behavior=Discrimination
Types of STIGMA
Mental health stigma can be divided into two types-
1.Social stigma: characterized by prejudicial &
discriminating behavior directed towards individual
with mental illness.
2.Perceived stigma or self stigma: is the
internalizing by the mental health sufferer of their
perception of discrimination & perceived stigma can
significantly affect feelings of shame & lead to poorer
Why do people Stigmatize?
Keeping people down
-exploitation & domination.
Keeping people in
-enforcement of social norms.
Keeping people away
-avoidance of disease.
Cause feelings of
- low self esteem
Creates problem with employment.
Negatively impact housing.
cause physical violence.
Negatively impact community participation.
Cause a person to deny the illness.
Cause a person not to seek help due to fear of
rejection, discrimination ,ridicule.
Cause a person to refuse treatment.
Families are also affected by stigma, leading to a lack
of support. For mental health professionals stigma
means that they themselves are seen as abnormal,
corrupt or evil& psychiatric treatment are often viewed
with suspicion & horror.
ATTITUDE OF HEALTH PROFE
Medical students & doctors agree that psychiatric
patients are “not easy to like” but the more they
learn of the subject the less they stigmatize.
Overall the result suggest that medical practitioner
hold a range of attitude towards individuals with a
psychiatric diagnosis similar to those held by the
general public. Practitioners with the most
knowledge about mental illness are generally least
A 2006 Australian study found that:
-nearly one in four people felt depression was sign of
personal weakness& would not employ a person with
-around a third would not vote for politician with
-42%thought people with depression are
-One in five said that if they had depression
they would not tell anyone.
-Nearly 2 in 3 people surveyed thought people
with schizophrenia were unpredictable & a quarter felt
that they are dangerous.
Some groups are subjected to multiple types of stigma &
discrimination at the same time; such as people with
intellectual disability or those from a cultural or ethnic
To cope with stigma:
There are ways to cope with stigma related to mental
-Surround yourself with supportive people.
-Remember-you are NOT your illness.
-Remember you are not alone.
-Remember you & your loved one have choices.
-Make sure people know your expectation.
How can we challenge stigma?
Learn & share the facts about mental health & illness.
Get to know people with personal experiences of
Speak up in protest when friends,family,colleague or
media display false beliefs & negative stereo types.
Offer the same support to people when they are
physically or mentally unwell.
How can we challenge stigma…
Don’t label or judge people with a mental illness ; treat
them with respect & dignity as you would anyone else.
Don’t discriminate when it comes to participation
housing & employment.
Talk openly of your own experience of mental illness
The more hidden mental illness remains , the
more people continue to believe that it is shameful &
need to be concealed.
Last of all , we want to conclude after mentioning one
verse from Holy Quran which is related to stigma,
“O you who believe! Let not a group scoff at
another group, it may be that the latter are better than
the former; nor let (some) women scoff at other women,
it may be the latter is better than the former, nor defame
one another, nor insult one another by nicknames. How
bad is it, to insult one’s brother after having faith”