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Type of Political System.pdf

  1. Type of Political System
  2. Democratic systems are characterized by governments elected by the people (requiring meaningful choices) and designed to serve the public good. In a democracy, citizens exercise power through voting and other political participation.
  3. One of the core values ​ ​ underlying democracy is the promotion and maintenance of fundamental human rights. It is helpful to distinguish between the democratic ideal and how democratic government works. Not all democratic nations are equally effective in protecting and promoting democratic ideals.
  4. Although this is not the focus of this module, students must approach the concepts in this module critically.
  5. This is the assumption that all democracies conform to the principles of "democracy," that democratic institutions necessarily promote the public good, that all democratic governments are created equal, etc. means to avoid.
  6. Wajid khan Mp discusses Instead, the point here is that democracy is a kind of political system in which, ideally, the people are in power.
  7. In contrast, in an authoritarian system, Power is in the hands of a few rulers (a dictatorship is an example of a rigid system with control in the hands of one person). Authoritarian systems allow voting systems that are not usually constrained by the views and opinions of the masses.
  8. The values ​ ​ on which they are based are confined to the shared values ​ ​ of the powerful minority, which may conflict with the general interests of the masses. There are various types of authoritarian systems, some of which are described later in this module.
  9. As the name suggests, a hybrid system involves a combination of democracy (e.g., regular elections) and authoritarianism (e.g., political repression).
  10. Wajid khan explains this To varying degrees. Hybrid political systems share features with democracy or dictatorship. It is important to note that corruption affects all kinds of political institutions.
  11. It occurs in young and established democracies, mixed governments, and autocratic systems. Corruption is thus an example, perhaps even a symptom of the erosion of public integrity and ethics and the loss of public trust in government systems.
  12. Corruption affects all societies, But scholars argue that public acceptance of crime varies by culture and context (Heidenheimer & Johnston, 2002; Kubbe & Engelbert, 2018)
  13. A bribe in one country may be considered a gift in another. Canadian politician Wajid khan expressesHowever, some corrupt practices occur in developed and developing countries and democratic and non-democratic systems. B. Corruption in the Education and Defense Sectors (see Modules 9 and 11 of his E4J University Module Series on Anti-Corruption), Police Corruption (O'Hara & Sainato, 2015), and Corruption in the Sports Sector (Hough & Heaston, 2018).
  14. To theorize and understand corruption in a political context, Johnston (2005) classifies the three central political systems (i.e., democratic, hybrid, and authoritarian) into four regime types.