Diversity Presentation-Autism Spectrum Disorders


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Diversity Presentation-Autism Spectrum Disorders

  1. 1. Statement of Academic Honesty: I have read and understand the plagiarism policy as outlined in the syllabus and the sections in the Student Bulletin relating to the IWU Honesty/Cheating Policy. By affixing this statement to the title page of my paper, I certify that I have not cheated or plagiarized in the process of completing this assignment. I also certify that the work submitted is original work specific for this course and to the M.Ed. program. If it is found that cheating and/or plagiarism did take place in the writing of this paper, I understand the possible consequences of the act/s, which could include expulsion from Indiana Wesleyan University.
  2. 2. <ul><li>Autism is defined by the Autism Society Of America (ASA) as: </li></ul><ul><li>” A complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first three years of life and is the result of a neurological disorder that affects the normal functioning of the brain, impacting development in the areas of social interaction and communication skills . Both children and adults with autism typically show difficulties in verbal and non-verbal communication, social interactions, and leisure or play activities .” Autism is one of five disorders that falls under the umbrella of Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD), a category of neurological disorders characterized by “severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development.” </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.autism-society.org/site/PageServer?pagename=about_FAQ </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of Mind deficits (Understanding other’s perspectives) </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Functioning (Organization and Planning) </li></ul><ul><li>Generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Special Interests </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of understanding non-verbal cues </li></ul><ul><li>Literal interpretation of words </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to understand ‘hidden curriculum’ rules of the school </li></ul><ul><li>Communication-unable to initiate conversation, express needs/wants </li></ul><ul><li>Motor planning deficits </li></ul>http://www.autism-society.org/site/PageServer?pagename=about_FAQ
  4. 4. <ul><li>Hyper/hypo sensitivity to stimuli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tactile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gustatory (taste) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Olfactory (smell) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vestibular (balance) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprioceptive (body awareness) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The Center for Disease Control (CDC) states: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ...an average of 1 in 110 children in the United States have an ASD.” (Autism Spectrum Disorder) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ASDs are reported to occur in all racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups, yet are on average 4 to 5 times more likely to occur in boys than in girls.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ...we can estimate that about 730,000 individuals between the ages of 0 to 21 have an ASD.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevalence of ASDs have dramatically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increased (see graph) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/data.html ) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>There is evidence that points to a difference between the proportions of Asian and White children diagnosed with an ASD (Marchant, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>The graph shows </li></ul><ul><li>4 subgroups </li></ul><ul><li>that represent the </li></ul><ul><li>proportion of Asian </li></ul><ul><li>and White students </li></ul><ul><li>receiving an Autism </li></ul><ul><li>diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>(Marchant, 2006). </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>There are several opinions on why the proportion of a diagnosis of an ASD is different among Asian and White children. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ One possible explanation for the under-representation of Asian children, specifically those for whom English is an additional language, could be that professionals attribute symptoms of ASD to difficulties in learning English” (Marchant, 2006, p. 241). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ...it may also be that Asian families are less </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> likely to seek help for their children...” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Marchant, 2006, p. 241). </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>A delay continues to be seen in the diagnosis of Autism among African American children (Mandell et. al, 2007, p. 1797). </li></ul><ul><li>“ African American children had 2.6 times the odds of receiving some other diagnosis compared with whites” (Mandell et. al., 2007, p. 1797). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a study of 406 children, 44% received an ASD diagnosis on their first mental health visit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other common diagnosis: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12% Conduct-related disorders (Twice as likely than other children) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10% Adjustment disorders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8% Cognitive disabilities (Mandell, et. al., 2007, p. 1797) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>According to Morrier, Hess, and Heflin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The prevalence of ASD is higher among White children than African American and Hispanic children (2008, p. 31). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A 10-fold under-representation in the ASD population is seen for those who access Medicaid services (2008, p. 32). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African American and Hispanic children receiving Medicaid were diagnosed at “significantly older ages than Caucasian children” (2008, p. 32). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Children with autism in families that had been Medicaid-eligible for more than 1 year were 3.4 times more likely to first receive some other diagnosis” (Mandell, Ittenbach, Levy, & Pinto-Martin, 2007, p. 1799). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><ul><ul><li>“ Previous investigations of ethnicity and ASD have indicated that parents from different cultures have varying points of view regarding ASD symptomology, often leading to a later diagnosis” (Morrier et. al.., 2008, p. 31). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indian families noticed social deficits prior to language deficits. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caucasian families within the US noticed language deficits prior to social deficits. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Navajo culture view children with disabilities as “children first and a disability second” (Morrier et. al., 2008, p. 31). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African American parents are more likely to describe symptoms in a way that emphasizes disruptive behavior. This could be the reason for misdiagnosis (Mandell et. al., 2007, p. 1799). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Begeer, El Bouk, Boussaid, Terwogt, and Koot state that the “combination of language and cultural differences seem to affect professional assessments” (2009, p. 146). </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Only 8% of general pediatricians screen for ASD on a regular basis” (2009, p. 146). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Now that we know the facts...what are we supposed to do? The following slides show ways you can adapt or modify your classroom environment and instruction to meet the needs of students with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Friedlander recommends to “order the classroom in almost every way. Maintain a posted schedule...” (2008, p. 143). </li></ul><ul><li>This is an example </li></ul><ul><li>of a schedule used </li></ul><ul><li>in a first grade </li></ul><ul><li>classroom. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>ss </li></ul>Visual cues used in a 2 nd grade classroom for completed work. Example of Assignment Notebook layout in a 3 rd grade classroom.
  15. 15. Create a structured location for students to sit during activities done on the floor. This sets boundaries for students with ASD. Use tools such as timers to aid with transitions between activities. Providing a “...quiet alternative place can furnish the respite the student might need...” (Friedlander, 2008, p. 143). This is an example of a quiet corner in a resource room.
  16. 16. <ul><li>Develop strategies and accommodations for hyper/hypo sensitivity to stimuli (Friedlander, 2008, p. 143). </li></ul>Develop a Voice Volume Meter and practice what each level sounds like. You can then move the clip according to the level you would like the students to use. If you develop a common vocabulary the students will be able to follow the meter in different settings. Using different lighting such as lamps and natural light can help reduce noise and glare from florescent bulbs.
  17. 17. <ul><li>When a classroom behavior plan is not enough, a more individualized plan may be needed. The example below is not only a behavior monitoring chart, it doubles as a visual schedule. (This is an example from a Kindergarten classroom). </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Another example of a behavior chart that can be used in upper elementary. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>“ Use consistent visual cues and supports to navigate the school day and to complete academic tasks” (Friedlander, 2008, p. 143). </li></ul>Example of a poster for highlighting procedures. Example of the Writing Process on a bulletin board in 4 th grade.
  20. 20. <ul><li>Students need to know: </li></ul><ul><li>1. What work? </li></ul><ul><li>(Chapter 3 of To Kill a Mockingbird ) </li></ul><ul><li>2. How much work? </li></ul><ul><li>(pages 112-139) </li></ul><ul><li>3. When is it finished ? </li></ul><ul><li>(Participate in class discussion) </li></ul><ul><li>4. What happens next ? </li></ul><ul><li>(Transition to your next class) </li></ul><ul><li>You could easily post the 4 questions on your board and quickly change </li></ul><ul><li>it throughout the day. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>The increasing incidence rate of ASDs is staggering. Teachers must educate themselves with basic tools to meet the individual needs of their students. Hopefully some of these ideas will help you with your students in your classroom, with and without the Autism diagnosis. </li></ul>All of the artwork used in this presentation was created by a person on the spectrum. The artwork can be found at: http://www.autism-society.org/site/PageServer?pagename=art_exhibit
  22. 22. <ul><li>Begeer, S., El Bouk, S., Boussaid, W., Terwogt, M., & Koot, H. (2009). Underdiagnosis and referral bias of autism in ethnic minorities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders , 39 (1), 142-148. Retrieved from ERIC database. </li></ul><ul><li>Friedlander, D. (2009). Sam comes to school: Including students with autism in your classroom. Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas , 82 (3), 141-144. Retrieved from ERIC database. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.autism-society.org/site/PageServer </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/features/counting-autism.html </li></ul><ul><li>Mandell, D., Ittenbach, R., Levy, S., & Pinto-Martin, J. (2007). Disparities in diagnoses received prior to a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders , 37 (9), 1795-1802. Retrieved from ERIC database. </li></ul><ul><li>Marchant, P., Hussain, A., & Hall, K. (2006). Autistic spectrum disorders and asian children. British Journal of Educational Studies , 54 (2), 230-244. Retrieved from ERIC database. </li></ul><ul><li>Morrier, M., Hess, K., & Heflin, L. (2008). Ethnic disproportionality in students with autism spectrum disorders. Multicultural Education , 16 (1), 31-38. Retrieved from ERIC database. </li></ul>