The mediastinum is the central compartment of the chest. Its boundaries and compartments are well known.Although, it contains the most vital organs of the body; it is often a forgotten compartment. Involvement of mediastinal nodes has a dramatic prognostic and therapeutic impact in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Cervical mediastinoscopy remains the most important technique for staging of the mediastinum. The technique of extended mediastinoscopy and redo mediastinoscopy are described as well. Indications, technique and complications are discussed.